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A computer system for analysis and design: CANDICE

C. S. D E S A I
Department of'Civil Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg,
Virginia, USA

series, they are not combined like the so-called general

A computer system consisting of a series of codes for purpose systems. The combination is in a modular form,
analysis and design in (civil) engineering is described. and hence allows the user the flexibility of separating and
Salient details of the system are followed by lists of using the code(sj as individual program(s).
available codes and codes under development. The codes have been prepared and documented so as to
be suitable for actual design applications. For instance,
the user can obtain output and plots for design quantities
such as bearing capacities, wall friction and point loads,
distribution of normal and shear stresses: fluid velocities,
quantities of flow and hydraulic gradients in selected
CANDICE is a series of computer codes for analysis and locations; deflections, bending moments and shear forces;
design for a wide range of problems in (civil) engineering and timewise settlements and porewater pressures.
such as structures (frames, piles, retaining walls, under- Comprehensive user's manuals are prepared for each
ground tunnels), foundations, seepage and consolidation. code. Each manual contains: (a) brief theory, (b) detailed
It translates theory into practice, and in a unique way, user's guide, and (c) a number of sample problems, each
makes a number of codes relevant for both practice and involving situations of practical interest.
research. It covers a number of topics that the engineer In addition to the user orientation, the codes are also
encounters in day-to-day practice. suitable for research and academic purposes. In view of
Over the period of the last decade, a number of the modular form, the teacher, researcher and student can
computer codes (programs) have been developed by and utilize the individual codes for their specific needs.
under the direction of the author. A number of users have CANDICE is planned to be a dynamic series which will
acquired and applied one or more of these codes. Under be kept up-to-date, and new programs will be added as
CANDICE it is intended to put these codes together and they become available. It is proposed to form a User
make the series available to the user. The codes cover a G r o u p for this purpose. A list of codes to be included in
wide range of topics such as structures and foundations, the initial series is given in Table 1 together with brief
axially and laterally loaded structures, other soil- descriptions of the code and its relevance. A partial list of
structure interaction problems, steady and transient codes that may be added at later stages is given in Table 2.
seepage, consolidation and settlement analysis, bearing
capacities, heat flow and diffusion-convection. The for-
mulations are based on material and/or geometric non-
linear behaviour. In the past, one or more codes have been released to the
user as a service to the profession, at the cost of
reproduction, mailing and a small maintenance charge. It
is proposed to make the codes and the series available to
At this time each code has been or is being developed as a bonafide users now on the same basis. It may be noted
module. At a later stage, it is planned to combine these that the codes are not sold; they are made available to the
codes in a series. A master routine will allow calling and user for individual use. At this time, available codes can be
execution of one (or more) codes in a run. Although the released to the user. The cost depends upon the specific
codes under CANDICE will be combined together as a code; average cost is about US $450 per code.

Advances in Engineering Software, 1979, Vol. 1, No. 2 87

Table 1. Atailable code,,
INTERACTION AND ('ONSTRUCTI()N SEQUENCES Uses finite difference approximation for non-linear BotlssincsqX
1. PLANE 2DFE*: I'wo-dime~tsiomH analysis ol plane bodie~ Capabilities: Similar to SEEP I DFE.
Uses quadrilateral isoparametric element and provides for linear 11. SEEP 2DEE: Two-dimensional seepage
material behaviour. Uses 4-node isoparametric quadrilateral.
Capabilities: Two-dimensional plane strain, stress, and axi- Capabilities: Steady and transient, confined and unconfined
symmetric idealizations: approximate analysis of beams and (free surface) seepage through earth banks, dams and cofferdams.
plates, dams, slopes, footings, piles, underground pipes, tunnels 12. SEEP 2DFD: Two-dimensiomd seepage
and cavities. Uses finite difference approximation for non-linear governing
2. SSTIN I DFE/pile: One-dimensional soil structure interaction equations.
analysis of single axially and laterally loaded structures (piles) Capabilities: Similar to SEEP 2DFE.
Uses line elements with cubic displacement approximation. Non- 13. SEEP 3DFE: Three-dimensional seepage
linear analysis for soil is performed by using the p y curve Uses 8-node hexahedron clement.
concept based on the Ramberg Osgood model. Capabilities: Steady confined and free surface seepage in dams,
Capabilities: Axially and laterally loaded (pile) structures. banks, and near junctions of abutments and dams and other
Loading can be arbitrary and in the two horizontal (x, y) and the discontinuities.
vertical (z) direction. Soil resistance can be input in the x, y and z
directions. C O N S O L I D A T I O N AND SETTLEMENT
3. S S T I N tDFE/wall: One-dimensional soil structure interaction 14. CONS tDFE: One-dimensional consolidation
anal)sis O! laterally loaded structures (retaining and anchored Uses line elements with linear approximation for pore water
walls) pressure with linear material behaviour.
Uses line elements with cubic approximation. Non-linear ana- Capabilities: Consolidation and settlement analysis of homo-
lysis for soil is done by using the p y curve concept based on the geneous and layered foundations and embankments idealized as
Ramberg Osgood model. one-dimensional.
Capabilities: Axially and laterally loaded retaining and an- 15. CONS 1DFD: One-dimensional consolidation
chored or tie-back walls. Approximate simulation of excavation Uses finite difference, explicit and/or implicit schemes lot the one-
and installation of anchors. Can provide a useful tool for dimensional consolidation equation.
(preliminary) designs at low cost, compared to a two-dimensional ('apahilitie,s: Same as in CONS I DFE.
analysis: 16. CONS IDFE/NL
4. S S T I N 2DFE: Two-dimensional soil structure interaction Same as CONS 1DFE with additional provision for non-linear
analysis material behaviour with time dependent loading history.
Uses a 4-node quadrilateral. Non-linear analysis is performed by 17. CONS 2DFE: Two-dimensional consolidation
assuming Piecewise linear behaviour. Uses triangular element with quadratic approximation for
Capabilities: Problems idealized as plane and axisymmetric. displacement and linear for porewater pressure.
Provision for interaction by using a special interface element. Capabilities: For problems idealized as plane or axisymmetric:
Can solve problems such as axially loaded piles and footings, foundations, embankments, drains. Homogeneous, layered and
plane footings, retaining walls, slopes and dams, underground anisotropic material properties. Time dependent loading history.
pipes and tunnels, and tank foundations. Non-linear analysis using a plasticity model based on the critical
5. CONSEQ 2DFE: Same as in 4 above. state concept is included in one version.
Capabilities: With provision for simulation of sequences of
construction: in situ conditions, dewatering, excavation, em- HEAT FLOW
bankment, installation of anchors, rockbolts, etc., for plane and 18. HEA T 2DFE: Stead), and transient heat flow
axisymmetric problems such as walls, piles, and tunnels. Uses a 4-node quadrilateral element.
6. SLOPE 2DFE: Slope stability analy,sis Capabilities: Plane and axisymmetric idealizations. Non-linear
Uses a quadrilateral element. Nonlinear analysis is perlormed by material properties can be included.
assuming piecewise linear behaviour.
* FE denotes finite element method.
Capabilities: Stresses, deformations and factor of safety in
t FD denotes finite difference method.
slopes and banks including provision for simulation of em-
bankment and excavation. Table 2. Codes under development
7. S T F N FE: Analysis o/structure and /bundation combinations
Uses cubic approximation for bending and linear for axial 1. S S T I N 2DEE: Same as before with additional provision for plas-
deformation with line elements for beam-columns, bitinear ticity (critical state) models for soil behaviour.
approximation (4-node quadrilateral) for membrane effects in 2. CONSEQ 2DFE: Same as before with additional provision for: (i)
plates, and spring elements for foundation. higher order elements for soil, structure and interfaces; elements of
Capabilities: Beams, beam-columns, plates (slabs) and foun- different order can be included in a given mesh, and (ii) plasticity
dation combinations: frame building and foundation, raft foun- model(s).
dations, and shear walls. Non-linear analysis is done by using a 3. S S T I N 3DFE: Three-dimensional soil structure interaction with
Ramberg Osgood model. interface element and non-linear behaviour.
4. S S T I N 3DFE/laroe: Three-dimensional soil structure interaction
FLOW T H R O U G H P O R O U S MEDIA with (i) large strains, (ii) cap, critical state and viscoplastic material
8. FIELD 2DFE: Two-dimensional analysis of problems gorerned models, and (iii) different orders of elements.
by common field equations 5. D I F C O N V 2DFE: Transient diffusion and convection of con-
Seepage, torsion, heat flow and potential flow. Uses 4-node centration (salt water) in aquifers.
isoparametric quadrilateral. 6. STA T A X FE: Static analysis of axially and laterally loaded struc-
Capabilities: For steady state seepage, heat and potential flow tures using separation of variables: linear and non-linear.
and torsion. 7. D Y N A X FE: Dynamic analysis of axially and laterally loaded
9. SEEP I DFE: One-dimensional seepa(4e structures using separation of variables.
Uses line elements with linear approximation. 8. C O M P O S I T E FE: Two- and three-dimensional analysis of com-
Capabilities: Problems idealized as one-dimensional such as posite media such as rail-track beds including non-linear behaviour
transient free surface seepage through vertical banks, towards and special interface elements.
sheet pile walls and cofferdams.

A d v a n c e s in E n g i n e e r i n g S o l t w a r e , 1979, Vol. 1, N o . 2