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# Solid Mechanics

## 1. Shear force and bending moment

diagrams
Internal Forces in solids

Sign conventions
1
• Shear forces are given a special symbol on Vy
and Vz
2
• The couple moment along the axis of the member is
given
M x = T = Torque
M y = M z = bending moment.
Solid Mechanics
We need to follow a systematic sign convention for
systematic development of equations and reproducibility of
the equations
The sign convention is like this.
If a face (i.e. formed by the cutting plane) is +ve if its outward
normal unit vector points towards any of the positive coordinate
directions otherwise it is –ve face
• A force component on a +ve face is +ve if it is directed
towards any of the +ve coordinate axis direction. A force
component on a –ve face is +ve if it is directed towards any of
the –ve coordinate axis direction. Otherwise it is –v.
Thus sign conventions depend on the choice of coordinate
axes.
Shear force and bending moment diagrams of beams
Beam is one of the most important structural components.
• Beams are usually long, straight, prismatic members and
always subjected forces perpendicular to the axis of the beam

Two observations:
(1) Forces are coplanar
Solid Mechanics
(2) All forces are applied at the axis of the beam.
Application of method of sections
What are the necessary internal forces to keep the segment of
the beam in equilibrium?
Fx = 0 P
Fy = 0 V
Fz = 0 M

## • The shear for a diagram (SFD) and bending moment

diagram(BMD) of a beam shows the variation of shear
Solid Mechanics
force and bending moment along the length of the
beam.
These diagrams are extremely useful while designing the
beams for various applications.
Supports and various types of beams
(a) Roller Support – resists vertical forces only

vertical forces

## (c) Fixed support or built-in end

Solid Mechanics
The distance between two supports is known as “span”.
Types of beams
Beams are classified based on the type of supports.
(1) Simply supported beam: A beam with two simple supports

(2) Cantilever beam: Beam fixed at one end and free at other

## (4) Continuous beam: More than two supports

Solid Mechanics
Differential equations of equilibrium

[Σ Fx = 0 → + ]
Σ Fy = 0 ↑ +
V + ∆V − V + P∆x = 0
∆V = − P∆x
∆V
= −P
∆x
∆V dV
lim ∆x = dx = − P
∆ x →0

P ∆x 2
[ Σ M A = 0 ] V ∆x − M + M + ∆ M − =0
2
P∆x 2
V ∆x + ∆ M − =0
2
∆M P∆x
+V − =0
∆x 2
Solid Mechanics
∆ M dM
lim ∆x = dx = −V
∆x →0
dV
From equation = − P we can write
dx
XD
VD − VC = − Pdx
XC

dM
From equation = −V
dx
MD − MC = − Vdx

Special cases:
Solid Mechanics
Solid Mechanics
Solid Mechanics
Solid Mechanics

0 ≤ x ≤ 2 − ( 1) − ( 1)
2 ≤ x ≤ 6 −(2 −(2)
6 ≤ x ≤ 8 − ( 3) − ( 3)
8 ≤ x ≤ 10 − ( 4 ) − ( 4 )

0 ≤ x ≤ 2 ( 1) − ( 1)

V −5=0
V =5
VA = 5 ; VB = 5
2 ≤ x ≤ 6 (2) − (2)
V − 5 + 30 − 7.5 ( x − 2 ) = 0
V = 5 − 30 + 7.5 ( x − 2 )
VB = −25 ; VC = 5
−25 + 7.5 ( x − 2 ) = 0
x = 5.33
6 ≤ x ≤ 8 ( 3) − ( 3)
V − 5 + 30 − 30 − 10 = 0
V = +15
VC = +15 ; VD = +15
8 ≤ x ≤ 10 ( 4 ) − ( 4 )
V − 5 + 30 − 30 − 10 + 20 = 0
V +5=0
V = −5
VD = −5 ; VE = −5
Solid Mechanics
0 ≤ x ≤ 2 − ( 1) − ( 1)
M − 10 + 5x = 0
M = −5x + 10
M A = +10 ; M B = 0

2 ≤ x ≤ 6 − (2) − (2)
7.5 ( x − 2 )2
M − 10 + 5x − 30 ( x − 2 ) + =0
2
7.5 ( x − 2 )2
M = 10 − 5x + 30 ( x − 2 ) −
2
ME x =5.33 = 41.66 +
MC x =6
= 40

6 ≤ x ≤ 8 − ( 3 ) − ( 3 ) [C − D]
M − 10 + 5x − 30 ( x − 2 ) + 30 ( x − 4 ) + 10 ( x − 6 ) + 20 = 0
MC x =6
= 20 +
MD x =8 = −10

8 ≤ x ≤ 10 [ D − E] ( 4 ) − ( 4 )
M − 10 + 5x − 30 ( x − 2 ) + 30 ( x − 4 ) + 10 ( x − 6 ) + 20 − 20 ( x − 8 ) = 0
M E x =8 = 0

## Problems to show that jumps because of concentrated force

and concentrated moment
Solid Mechanics

## We can also demonstrate internal forces at a given section

using above examples. This should be carried first before
drawing SFD and BMD.
0 ≤ x ≤ 2 [ A − B]
Solid Mechanics

V −5=0 M − 10 + 5x = 0
V =5 M = 10 − 5x
VA = 5 M A = 10 ; MB = 0
VB = 5
2 ≤ x ≤ 6 [B − C ]

( x − 2 )2
V − 5 + 30 − 7.5 ( x − 2 ) = 0 M − 10 + 5x − 30 ( x − 2 ) + 7.5 =0
2
V = 7.5 ( x − 2 ) + 5 − 30 x=6
VB = −25 ; VC = 5 MC = 40
−25 + 7.5 ( x − 2 ) = 0 ME x = 5.33 = 41.66
x = 5.33 x=2
MB = 0
6 ≤ x ≤ 8 [C − D]

V − 5 + 30 − 10 − 30 = 0
V = 15
VC = 15 , VD = 15
Solid Mechanics
8 ≤ x ≤ 10 [ D − E]

V − 5 + 30 − 10 − 30 + 20 = 0
V = −5
VD = −5 , VE = −5
Solid Mechanics
[ Fx → + = 0 ] R Ax = 0
Fy ↑ + = 0 R Ay + 60 − 90 = 0
RAy = 30 kN ↑
[ M∆ = 0] M + 60 − 90 × 4.5 = 0
M = 285 k − m

30 + V + 60 − 30 ( x − 3 ) = 0
V = 30 ( x − 3 ) − 90
= 30 × 3 − 90
= 90 − 90
=0
M B − M A = − ( −60 )
M B = 60 + M A = 60 − 285
= −225
Solid Mechanics
MC − M B = − ( −90 )
MC = MB + 90 = −225 + 90
= −135

MD − MC = − ( −135 )
MD = MC + 135 = −135 + 135 = 0

Fy ↑ + = 0
R Ay + RCy − 200 − 240 = 0
R Ay + RCy = 440 ( 1)

[ M A = 0]
− 200 × 3 − 240 × 4 + RCy × 8 = 0
RCy = 195 kN ↑
RAy = 245 kN ↑

V + 245 − 200 − 30 x = 0
V = 30 x − 45
V = 30 × 8 − 45 = 240 − 45
V = 195
Solid Mechanics

M − 245 × 3 + 90 × 1.5
M = 245 × 3 − 90 × 1.5
*
M = 600

RAy + RBy = 32
[ M A = 0 ] − 32 × 2 + 18 + 8 + 4 RBy = 0
−64 + 16 + 4 RBy = 0
RBy = 12 kN
RAy = 20 kN
Solid Mechanics

V + 20 − 8x = 0
V = 8x − 20
8x − 20 = 0
x = 20 / 8 = 2.5

MC − M A = − ( −50 )
MC = M A + 50 = −8 + 25 = 17

Problem:

[ Fx → + = 0 ]
RAx = 0
Fy = 0 ↑ + R Ay + RDy − 60 − 50 = 0 R Ay + RDy = 110 ( 1)

[ M A = 0 ] − 60 × 1.5 − 50 × 4 + RDy × 5 = 0
290
RDy = = 58 kN ↑
5
RAy = 52 kN ↑
Solid Mechanics

Fy = 0 ↑ + V + 52 − 20 x = 0
( B)
V = 20 x − 52 0 ≤ x ≤ 3m

[ M = 0]
20 x 2
M+ − 52 x = 0
2
20 x 2
M = 52 x − ( 0 ≤ x ≤ 3m )
2

Fy = 0 ↑ +
V + 52 − 60 = 0
B C
V = 8 kN ↑ 3 ≤ x ≤ 4m

[ M = 0] M − 52 x + 60 ( x − 1.5 ) = 0
B C
M = 52 x − 60 ( x − 1.5 ) 3 ≤ x ≤ 4m
Solid Mechanics

Fy = 0 ↑ +
V + 52 − 60 − 50 = 0
V = 58 kN ( 4 ≤ x ≤ 5)

[ M = 0] M − 52 x + 60 ( x − 1.5 ) + 50 ( x − 4 ) = 0
M = 52 x − 60 ( x − 1.5 ) − 50 ( x − 4 ) ( 4 ≤ x ≤ 5 )

dM
= −V
dx
dV
= −P
dx

20 × −52 = 0
x = 52 / 20 = 2.6 m

M B − ME = −1.6
M B = −1.6 + 67.6
Solid Mechanics

M B − M A = − Vdx
dM
= −V
dx
dV
= −P
dx

20 × −52 = 0
x = 52 / 20 = 2.6

MB − ME = −1.6
MB = −1.6 + ME = −1.6 + 67.6
= 66
MC − MB = −8
MC = −8 + MB
= −8 + 66 = 58

MD − MC = −58
MD = MC + 58
= 58 − 58 = 0
Solid Mechanics

2. Concept of stress
Traction vector or Stress vector
Now we define a quantity known as “stress vector” or
“traction” as

∆FR
Tn = lim ∆ A units Pa − N / m2
∆ A→0

∆MR
lim ∆ A → 0
∆ A →0

## (2) Tn represent intensity point distributed force at the point

"P" on a plane whose normal is n̂
(3) Tn acts in the same direction as ∆FR
Solid Mechanics
(4) There are two reasons are available for justification of the
∆MR
assumption that lim →0
∆ A →0 ∆ A

(a) experimental
(b) as ∆ A → 0, ∆FR becomes resultant of a parallel
force distribution. Therefore ∆ M R = 0 for force
system.
(5) Tn varies from point to point on a given plane

(8) In general

Components of Tn

## ∆FR = ∆Fnnˆ + ∆vtˆt + ∆vsˆs

Solid Mechanics
∆FR ∆Fn ∆vt ˆ ∆vs
Tn = lim ∆ A lim ∆ A lim ∆ A lim ∆ A ˆs
= ˆ
n + t +
∆ A→0 ∆ A→0 ∆ A→0 ∆ A→0

## Tn = σ nnnˆ + τ ntˆt + τ nsˆs

where
∆Fn dFn
σ nn = lim ∆ A = dA = Normal stresscomponent
∆ A→0
∆v dv
τ nt = lim t = t = Shear stresscomponent
∆ A→0 ∆ A dA
∆v dv
τ ns = lim s = s = Another shear componet
∆ A→0 ∆ A dA
σ − NormalStress
τ − Shear stress
dFn = σ nn dA dVt = τ nt dA

## Notation of stress components

The magnitude and direction of Tn clearly depends on the
plane m-m. Therefore, stress components magnitude &
direction depends on orientation of cut m-m.
(a) First subscript- plane on which σ is acting
(b) Second subscript- direction
Solid Mechanics
Rectangular components of stress
Cuts ⊥ to the coordinate planes will give more valuable
information than arbitrary cuts.

## ∆FR ∆Fx ˆ ∆vy ∆v

Tx = lim ∆ A lim ∆ A lim ∆ A ˆj + lim ∆ Az kˆ
= i +
∆ A→0 ∆ A→0 ∆ A→0 ∆ A→0

Tx = σ xxˆi + τ xy ˆj + τ xz kˆ

where
∆Fx
σ xx = lim ∆ A = Normal stress
∆ A→0
∆vy ∆v
τ xy = lim = Shear stress; τ xz = lim z = Shear stress
∆ A→0 ∆ A ∆ A→0 ∆ A
Solid Mechanics
dFx = σ xx dA dvy = τ xy dA dvz = τ xz dA

Similarly,
∆FR ∆ vx ˆ ∆Fy ∆ vz ˆ
Ty = lim = lim i + lim ˆj +
∆ A ∆ A ∆ A
lim ∆ A k
∆ A→0 ∆ A→0 ∆ A→0 ∆ A→0

Ty = τ yxˆi + σ yy ˆj + τ yz kˆ

Tz = τ zxˆi + τ zy ˆj + σ zz kˆ

## σ xx and τ xy will act only on x-plane. We can see σ x and τ xy

only when we take section ⊥ to x-axis.
The stress tensor
Components a point “P” on the x-plane in x,y,z
directions

σ xx τ xy τ xz
σ jj = τ yx σ yy τ yz Rec tan gular stresscomponents
τ zx τ zy σ zz

## • This array of 9 components is called as stress tensor.

• It is a second rank of tensor because of two indices
Solid Mechanics
• These 9 rectangular stress components are obtained by
taking 3 mutually ⊥ planes passing through the point
“P ”
• ∴ Stress tensor is an array consisting of stress
components acting on three mutually perpendicular
planes.

Tn = τ nxˆi + τ ny ˆj + τ nz kˆ

∆FR
q = lim
∆ A→0 ∆ A

## q = σ yy can also be called.

No difference!
Except for their origin!
Solid Mechanics
Sign convention of stress components.
A positive components acts on a +ve face in a +ve coordinate
direction
or
A positive component acts on a negative face in a negative
coordinate direction.

## Say σ x = −20 ; Paτ xy = −10 Pa and τ xz = 30 Pa at a point P

means.
Solid Mechanics
State of stress at a point
The totality of all the stress vectors acting on every possible plane
passing through the point is defined to be state of stress at a point.

## • State of stress at a point is important for the designer in

determining the critical planes and the respective critical
stresses.
• If the stress vectors [and hence the component] acting
on any three mutually perpendicular planes passing
through the point are known, we can determine the
stress vector Tn acting on any plane “n” through that
point.
The stress tensor will specify the state stress at point.
σ x′x′ τ x′y′ τ x′z′
σ ij′ = τ y′x′ σ y′y′ τ y′z′
τ z′x′ τ z′y′ σ z′z′

## can also represent state of

stress at a point.
Solid Mechanics
The stress element
Is there any convenient way to visualize or represent the
state of stress at a point or stresses acting three mutually
perpendicular planes say x- plane , y-plane and z-plane.

+σ xx +τ xy +τ xz
σ ij = +τ yx +σ yy +τ yz
P
+τ zx +τ zy +σ zz

σ xx = σ xx ( x,y ,z )
Continuous functions of x,y ,z
σ yy = σ yy ( x ,y ,z )

component as
Solid Mechanics
−10 5 −30
σ ij = 5 50 −60
−30 −60 −100

## Equilibrium of stress element

y

dz
τ xy
σx
dy τ xz
x

dx
z

[ Fx = 0 → + ]
σ x dydz + τ yx dxdz + τ zx dydx − σ x dydz − τ yx dxdz − τ zx dxdy = 0

## Similarly, we can show that Fy = 0 and Fz = 0 is satisfied.

Solid Mechanics

M zP = 0
C.C.W + ve

(τ xy dydz ) dx − (τ yx dxdz ) dy = 0
τ xy − τ yx = 0
τ xy = τ yx

are equal.

## Cross-shears are equal- a very important result

Since τ xy = τ yx , if τ xy = − ve τ yx is also –ve
Solid Mechanics
∴The stress tensor

σ xx τ xy τ xz
σ ij = τ yx = τ xy σ xy τ yz is sec ond rank symmetric tensor
τ zx = τ xz τ zy = τ yz σ yz

## Differential equations of equilibrium

[ Fx → + = 0 ]

∂σ x ∂τ yx ∂τ
σx + ∆x ∆y∆z + τ yx + ∆y ∆x∆z + τ zx + zx ∆z ∆y∆x
∂x ∂y ∂z
−σ x ∆y∆z − τ xy ∆x∆z − τ zx ∆y∆x + Bx ∆x∆y∆z = 0
∂σ x ∂τ yx 2τ
∆x∆y∆z + ∆y∆x∆z + zx x∆y∆z + Bx ∆x∆y∆z = 0
∂x ∂y ∂z
Canceling ∆x∆y and ∆z terms and taking limit
∂σ x ∂τ yx ∂τ zx
lim + + + Bx = 0
∆x →0 ∂x ∂y ∂z
∆y →0
∆z→0

## Similarly we can easily show that

Solid Mechanics
∂σ x ∂τ yx ∂τ zx
+ + + Bx = 0 [ Fx = 0 ]
∂x ∂y ∂z
∂τ xy ∂σ yy ∂τ zy
+ + + By = 0 Fy = 0
∂x ∂y ∂z
∂τ xz ∂τ yz ∂σ zz
+ + + Bz = 0 [ Fz = 0 ]
∂x ∂y ∂z
• If a body is under equilibrium, then the stress
components must satisfy the above equations and must
vary as above.
For equilibrium, the moments of forces about x, y and z axis
at any point must vanish.

M zp = 0
∂τ xy x ∆x ∂τ yx ∆y
τ xy + ∆x ∆y∆z + τ xy ∆y∆z − τ yx + ∆y ∆x∆z
∂x 2 2 ∂y 2
∆y
−τ yx ∆x∆z =0
2
Solid Mechanics
2τ xy ∆y∆x∆z ∂τ xy ∆x 2 ∆y∆z 2τ yx ∆x∆y∆z ∂τ yx ∆x∆y 2 ∆z
+ − − =0
2 ∂x 2 2 ∂y 2
∂τ xy ∆x ∂τ yx ∆y
τ xy + − τ yx − =0
∂x 2 ∂y 2
Taking limit
∂τ xy ∆x ∂τ yx ∆y
lim τ xy + − τ yx − =0
∆x →0 ∂x 2 ∂y 2
∆y →0
∆z→0

τ xy − τ yx = 0 τ xy = τ yx
Relations between stress components and internal force
resultants
Solid Mechanics
Fx = σ xx dA ; Vy = τ xy dA ; Vz = τ xz dA
A A A
yτ xz dA − τ xy dAz = dMx

Mx = ( yτ xz − τ xy z ) dA
A

M y = σ xz dA ; M z = − σ xy dA
A A
Solid Mechanics

## 3. Plane stress and Plane strain

Plane stress- 2D State of stress
3D − State of stress
σx τ xy τ xz
σ ij = τ yx σ yy τ yz − 6 components
τ zx τ zy σ zz

2 D − State of stress
σ x τ xy 0
σx τ xy
σ ij = τ xy σy 0 =
τ yx =τ xy σy
0 0 0
Stresscomponents in plane xy

If
σ x ( x,y ) τ xy ( x,y )
σ ij = − plane stress-is a --- state of stress
τ xy ( x,y ) σ yy ( x,y )

## All stress components are in the plane x − y i.e all stress

components can be viewed in x − y plane.
Solid Mechanics
This type of stress-state (i.e plane stress) exists in bodies
whose z - direction dimension is very small w.r.t other
dimensions.

## Stress transformation laws for plane stress

The state of stress at a point P in 2D-plane stress problems
are represented by

σ x τ xy σ nn τ nt
σ ij = =
τ xy σy τ nt σ tt
Solid Mechanics
* We can determine the stress components on any plane “n”
by knowing the stress components on any two mutually
⊥ planes.

## In order to get useful information we take different cutting

planes passing through a point. In contrast to 3D problem,
all cutting planes in plane stress problems are parallel to x-
Solid Mechanics
axis. i.e we take different cutting plane by rotating about z-
axis.

## As in case of 3D, the state of stress at a point in a plane stress

domain is the totality of all the stress. If we know the stress
components on any two mutually ⊥ planes then stress
components on any arbitrary plane m-m can be determined.
Thus the stress tensor
σ x τ xy
σ ij = is sufficient to tell about the state of stress
τ xy σy
at a point in the plane stress problems.
dA = Area of AB
dACsθ = Area of BC
dASinθ = Area of AC

Fn +=0
σ nn dA − σ x dACosθ Cosθ − τ xy dACosθ Sinθ − τ xy dASinθ Cosθ −
σ yy dASinθ Sinθ = 0

Solid Mechanics

## σ nn = σ xCos 2θ + σ y Sin2θ + 2τ xy Sinθ Cosθ

σx +σy σx −σy
σ nn = + Cos 2θ + τ xy Sin2θ
2 2
Fn +=0
σ nt dA − σ x dACosθ Sinθ − τ xy dACosθ Cosθ + τ xy dASinθ Sinθ −
σ y dASinθ Cosθ = 0

(
τ nt = −σ xCosθ Sinθ + σ y Sinθ Cosθ + τ xy Cos 2θ − Sin2θ )
( ) (
τ nt = −Cosθ Sinθ σ x − σ y + τ xy Cos 2θ − Sin 2θ )
τ nt
( σx −σy )
Sin2θ + τ
=− xyCos 2θ
2

## We shall now show that if you know the stress components

on two mutually ⊥ planes then we can compute stresses on
any inclined plane. Let us assume that we know that state of
stress at a point P is given
σ x τ xy
σ ij =
τ xy σy

## This also means that

Solid Mechanics
Solid Mechanics
If θ = θ we can compute on AB
π
If θ = θ + we can compute on BC
2
If θ = θ + π we can compute on CD

If θ = θ + we can compute on DA
2
• σ nn and τ nt equations are known as transformation
laws for plane stress.
• They are not only useful in determination of stresses on
any plane but also useful in transforming stresses from
one coordinate system to another
• Transformation laws do not require an equilibrium state
and thus are also valid at all points of the body under
accelerations.
• These laws are true for any point P of a body.

## Invariants of stress tensor

• Any quantity for which its 2D scalar components
transform from one coordinate system to another
according to σ nn and τ nt is called a two dimensional
Solid Mechanics
symmetric tensor of rank 2. Here in particular the tensor
is a stress tensor.
• Moment of inertia if σ x = I xx ,σ y = I yy ;τ xy = − I xy
• By definition a tensor is a mathematical quantity that
transforms according to certain laws, such that certain
invariant properties are maintained for all coordinate
systems.
• Tensors, as governed by their transformation laws,
possess several properties. We now develop those
properties for 2D second vent symmetric tensor.

σx +σy σx −σy
σ nn = + Cos 2θ + τ xy Sin2θ
2 2

σx +σy σx −σ y
σt = + Cos 2θ − τ xy Sin2θ
2 2

σx −σ y
τ nt = − Sin2θ + τ xyCos 2θ
2
Solid Mechanics
σ n + σ t = σ x + σ y = σ x′ + σ y ′ = I 1

## I 1 = First invariant of stress in 2D

2 2
σ nσ t − τ nt = σ xσ y − τ xy = σ x′σ y′ − τ x′y′ = I 2

## I 2 = Second invariant of stress in 2D

• I 1 ,I 2 are invariants of 2D symmetric stress tensor at a
point.
• Invariants are extremely useful in checking the
correctness of transformation
• Of I 1 and I 2 , I 1 is the most important property : the
sum of normal stresses on any two mutually ⊥ planes
( ⊥ directions) is a constant at a given point.
• In 2D we have two stress invariants; in 3D we have
three invariants of stresses.
Solid Mechanics
Solid Mechanics
Problem:
A plane-stress condition exists at a point on the surface of a
loaded structure, where the stresses have the magnitudes
and directions shown on the stress element. (a) Determine
the stresses acting on a plane that is oriented at a −15 w.r.t.
the x-axis (b) Determine the stresses acting on an element
that is oriented at a clockwise angle of 15 w.r.t the original
element.
Solution:

σ x = −46
σ y = 12
τ xy = −19
Q = −15 it is in C.W.
Solid Mechanics
σx +σy −46 + 12 −34
= = = −17 MPas
2 2 2
σx −σy −46 − 12 −58
= = = −29 MPa
2 2 2

## σ n = −17 − 29 × 0.866 + 19 × 0.5

σx +σy σx −σy
σn = + Cos 2θ + τ xySin2θ
2 2

σ n1 = −32.6 MPas

## Substituting θ = −15 in τ nt equation

σx −σy
τ nt = − Sin2θ + τ xyCos2θ
2
τ n1t1 = −29 × 0.5 − 19 × 0.866

## τ n1t1 = −31 MPa

Solid Mechanics
σ t = σ n2 = τ nt θ =75

## ∴ σ t = −17 − 29 cos 150 − 19 sin 150

σ t = −1.4 MPa

τ tn = τ n2t2 = τ nt θ =75

= 31 MPa
Now θ = 145

= −32 MPa

τ nt = −31 MPa

As a check

## σ n + σ t = σ x + σ y = −32.6 − 1.4 = −34 MPa = −46 + 12s

Solid Mechanics

4. Principal Stresses
Principal Stresses
Now we are in position to compute the direction and
magnitude of the stress components on any inclined plane at
any point, provided if we know the state of stress (Plane
stress) at that point. We also know that any engineering
component fails when the internal forces or stresses reach a
particular value of all the stress components on all of the
infinite number of planes only stress components on some
particular planes are important for solving our basic
component will ail or not? Therefore our objective of this
class is to determine these plane and their corresponding
stresses.
σn +σ y σn −σ y
(1) σ n = σ n (θ ) = + Cos 2θ + τ xy Sin2θ
2 2

## (2) Of all the infinite number of normal stresses at a point,

what is the maximum normal stress value, what is the
minimum normal stress value and what are their
Solid Mechanics
corresponding planes i.e how the planes are oriented ? Thus
mathematically we are looking for maxima and minima of
σ ( Q ) function..
n

σn +σy σn −σ y
(3) σ n = + Cos 2θ + τ xy Sin2θ
2 2
For maxima or minima, we know that
dσ n

( )
= 0 = − σ x − σ y Sin2θ + 2τ xyCos 2θ

2τ xy
tan 2θ =
σx −σy

(4) The above equations has two roots, because tan repeats
itself after π . Let us call the first root as θ P1

2τ xy
tan 2θ P1 =
σx −σy
2τ xy
(
tan 2θ P2 = tan 2θ P1 + π = ) σx −σy
Solid Mechanics
π
θ P2 = θ P1 + s
2
(5) Let us verify now whether we have minima or minima at
θ P1 and θ P2

d 2σ n
dθ 2 ( )
= −2 σ x − σ y Cos 2θ − 4τ xy Sin2θ

d 2σ n

dθ 2 θ =θ
( )
= −2 σ x − σ y Cos 2θ P1 − 4τ xy Sin2θ P1
P1

## We can find Cos 2θ P1 s and Sin2θ P1 s as

σx −σy
Cos 2θ P1 =
2
σx −σy 2
2 + τ xy
2

2τ xy τ xy
Sin2θ P1 = =
2 2
σx −σy 2 σx −σy 2
2 + τ xy + τ xy
2 2

## Substituting Cos 2θ P1 and Sin2θ P1

Solid Mechanics

d 2σ n
=
(
−2 σ x − σ y σ x − σ y)( )− 4τ xyτ xy
dθ 2 θ =θ σx −σy 2
σx −σy 2
P1 2 2
2 + τ xy + τ xy
2 2

( )
2 2
− σx −σy 4τ xy
= −
2 2
σx −σy 2 σx −σy 2
+ τ xy + τ xy
2 2
2
−4 σx −σy 2
= + τ xy
σx −σy 2 2
2
+ τ xy
2

2
d 2σ n σx −σy 2
∴ = −4 + τ xy (-ve)
dθ 2 2

d2σn
dθ 2 θ =θ π
( ) (
= 2 σx −σ y Cos 2θP1 + π − 4τ xySin 2θP1 + π ) ( )
P2 =θP1 +
2

( )
= 2 σ x − σ y Cos2θP1 + 4τ xySin2θP1

## Substituting Cos 2θ P1 & Sin2θ P1 m we can show that

2
d 2σ n σx −σy 2
∴ = −4 + τ xy s (+ve)
dθ 2 θ =θ 2
P2
Solid Mechanics
Thus the angles θ P1 s and θ P2 s define planes of either
maximum normal stress or minimum normal stress.
(6) Now, we need to compute magnitudes of these stresses
We know that,
σx +σy σx −σy
σn = + Cos 2θ + τ xy Sin2θ
2 2

σx +σy σx −σy
σ n θ =θ = σ1 = + Cos 2θ P1 + τ xy Sin2θ P1
P1 2 2
Substituting Cos 2θ P1 s and Sin2θ P1

2
σx +σy σx −σy 2
σ1 = + + τ xy
2 2
Max.Normal stress because of + sign
Similarly,
σx +σy σx −σy
σ n θ =θ
P2 =θ P1 =
π = σ2 =
2
+
2
(
Cos 2θ P1 + π + )
2
τ xy Sin ( 2θ P1 + π )

σx +σy σx −σy
= − Cos 2θ P1 − τ xy Sin2θ P1
2 2
Substituting Cos 2θ P1 and Sin2θ P1
Solid Mechanics
2
σx +σy σx −σy 2
σ = − + τ xy
2 2
Min.normal sress because of − ve sign
We can write
2
σx +σy σx −σy 2
σ 1 or σ 2 = ± + τ xy
2 2

## (7) Let us se the properties of above stress.

π
(1) θ P2 = θ P1 + s - planes on which maximum normal stress
2
and minimum normal stress act are ⊥ to each other.
(2) Generally maximum normal stress is designated by σ 1
and minimum stress by σ 2 . Also θ P1 → σ 1 ;θ P2 → σ 2

## σ 1 > σ 2 alg ebraically i.e.,

0− σ1
−1000 − σ 2
Solid Mechanics
(4) maximum and minimum normal stresses are collectively
called as principal stresses.
(5) Planes on which maximum and minimum normal stress
act are known as principal planes.
(6) θ P1 and θ P2 that define the principal planes are known as
principal directions.
(8) Let us find the planes on which shearing stresses are zero.

( )
τ nt = 0 = − σ x − σ y Sin2θ + τ xyCos2θ

2τ xy
tan 2θ =
σx =σy
= directions of principal plans
Thus on the principal planes no shearing stresses act.
Conversely, the planes on which no shearing stress acts are
known as principal planes and the corresponding normal
stresses are principal stresses. For example the state of stress
at a point is as shown.
Then σx and σy are
principal stresses because
no shearing stresses are
acting on these planes.
Solid Mechanics
(9) Since, principal planes are ⊥ to each other at a point P,
this also means that if an element whose sides are parallel to
the principal planes is taken out at that point P, then it will
be subjected to principal stresses. Observe that no shearing
stresses are acting on the four faces, because shearing
stresses must be zero on principal planes.

## (10) Since σ 1 and σ 2 are in two ⊥ directions, we can easily

say that
σ x + σ y = σ 1 + σ 2 = σ x′ + σ y′ = I 1
Solid Mechanics

## 5. Maximum shear stress

Maximum and minimum shearing stresses
So far we have seen some specials planes on which the
shearing stresses are always zero and the corresponding
normal stresses are principal stresses. Now we wish to find
what are maximum shearing stress plane and minimum
shearing stress plane. We approach in the similar way of
maximum and minimum normal stresses
σx −σy
(1) τ nt = − Sin2θ + τ xyCos 2θ
2
dτ nt

( )
= − σ x − σ y Cos 2θ + τ xyCos 2θ

## For maximum or minimum

dτ nt

( )
= 0 = − σ x − σ y Cos 2θ − 2τ xy Sin2θ

tan 2θ =
(
− σx −σy )
2τ xy

## This has two roots

tan 2θS1 =−
( σx −σy )
2τ xy
s − stan ds for shear stress
p − stan ds for principal stresses.
Solid Mechanics

(
− σx −σy )
(
tan 2θS2 = tan 2θS1 + π = ) 2τ xy

π
∴ θS2 = θS1 +
2
Now we have to show that at these two angles we will have
maximum and minimum shear stresses at that point.
Similar to the principal stresses we must calculate

d 2τ nt
dθ 2 ( )
= 2 σ x − σ y Sin2θ − 4τ xyCos 2θ

d 2τ nt
dθ 2 θ =θ
( )
= 2 σ x − σ y Sin2θS1 − 4τ xyCos 2θS1
S1

2τ xy
Cos 2θS1 =
2
σx −σy 2
2 + τ xy
2

Sin2θS1 =
(
− σx −σy )
2
σx −σy 2
2 + τ xy
2

show that
Solid Mechanics

d 2τ nt
= - ve
dθ 2 θ =θ
S1

## Similarly we can show that

d 2τ nt
= + ve
dθ 2 θ =θ π
S2 =θS1 +
2

Thus the angles θS1 and θS2 define planes of either maximum
shear stress or minimum shear stress. Planes that define
maximum shear stress & minimum shear stress are again ⊥
to each other.. Now we wish to find out these values.

τ nt
( σx −σy )
Sin2θ + τ
=− xyCos 2θ
2

τ nt θ =θ =−
( σx −σy )
Sin2θ + τ xyCos 2θS1
S1
S1 2
Substituting Cos 2θS1 and Sin2θS1 s , we can show that

2
σx −σy 2
τ max = + + τ xy
2

( σx −σy )
Sin ( 2θS
τ nt θ =θ
S2 =θS1 +
π =−
2 1 ) (
+ π + τ xyCos 2θS1 + π )
2

## Substituting Cos 2θS1 and Sin2θS1

2
σx −σy 2
τ min = − + τ xy
2
Solid Mechanics
τ max is algebraically > τ min , however their absolute
magnitude is same. Thus we can write
2
σx −σy 2
τ max or τ min = ± + τ xy
2

Generally
τ max −θS1
τ min −θS2
Q. Why τ max and τ min are numerically same. Because θS1 &
θS2 are ⊥ planes.

## (2) Unlike the principal stresses, the planes on which

maximum and minimum shear stress act are not free from
normal stresses.
Solid Mechanics
σx +σ y σx −σy
σn = + Cos 2θ + τ xy Sin2θ s
2 2

σx +σy σx −σy
σ n θ =θ = + Cos 2θS1 + τ xy Sin2θS1
S1 2 2
Substituting Cos 2θS1 and Sin2θS1
σx +σy
σ = σ n θ =θ =
S1 2
σx +σy σx −σy
σ n θ =θ
S2 =θS1 +
π =
2
+
2
(
Cos 2θS1 + π )
2

(
+τ xy Sin 2θS1 + π )
Simplifying this equation gives
σx +σy
σ = σ n θ =θ =
S2 2
Therefore the normal stress on maximum and minimum
shear stress planes is same.
(3) Both the principal planes are ⊥ to each other and also the
planes of τ max and τ min are also ⊥ to each other. Now let us
see there exist any relation between them.
Solid Mechanics

6. Mohr’s circle
Mohr’s circle for plane stress
So far we have seen two methods to find stresses acting on
an inclined plane
(a) Wedge method
(b) Use of transformation laws.

## Another method which is purely graphical approaches is

known as the Mohr’s circle for plane stress.
A major advantage of Mohr’s circle is that, the state of the
stress at a point, i.e the stress components acting on all
infinite number of planes can be viewed graphically.
Equations of Mohr’s circle
σx +σ y σx −σy
We know that, σn = + Cos 2θ + τ xy Sin2θ
2 2
This equation can also be written as
σx +σy σx −σ y
σn − = Cos 2θ + τ xy Sin2θ
2 2
σx −σy
τ nt = − Sin2θ + τ xyCos 2θ
2
2 2
σx +σy 2 σx +σy 2
σn − + τ nt = + τ xy
2 2
↓ ↓ ↓
2
(x − a) + y2 = R2
Solid Mechanics
The above equation is
clearly an equation of
circle with center at ( a, 0 )
on τ −σ plane it
represents a circle with
σx +σy
center at , 0 and
2

σx −σ y 2
R= + τ xy
2

## This circle on σ − τ plane-

Mohr’s circle.
From the above deviation it
can be seen that any point P
on the Mohr’s circle
represents stress which are
acting on a plane passing
through the point.
In this way we can
completely visualize the
stresses acting on all
infinite planes.
Solid Mechanics
(3) Construction of Mohr’s circle
Let us assume that the state of stress at a point is given

## A typical problem using Mohr’s circle i.e given σ x′ ,σ y′ and

τ x′y′ on an inclined element. For the sake of clarity we
assume that, σ x′ ,σ y′s and τ x′y′ all are positive and σ x > σ y
Solid Mechanics
• Since any point on the circle represents the stress
components on a plane passing through the point.
Therefore we can locate the point A on the circle.

(
• The coordinates of the plane A = +σ x , +τ xy )

## Therefore we can locate the point A on the circle with

( )
coordinates +σ x , +τ xy s

## • Therefore the line AC represents the x-axis. Moreover,

the normal of the A-plane makes 0 w.r.t the x-axis.
• In a similar way we can locate the point B
corresponding to the plane B.
Solid Mechanics

( )
The coordinates of B = +σ y , −τ xy s

## Since we assumed that for the sake of similarity σ y < σ x s .

Therefore the point B diametrically opposite to point A.
• The line BC represents y- axis. The point A corresponds
to Q = 0 , and pt. B corresponds to Q = 90 (+ve) of the
stress element.
At this point of time we should be able to observe two
important points.
• The end points of a diameter represents stress
components on two ⊥ planes of the stress element.
• The angle between x- axis and the plane B is 90° (c.c.w)
in the stress element. The line CA in Mohr’s circle
represents x- axis and line CB represents y-axis or plane
B. It can be seen that, the angle between x-axis and y-
axis in the Mohr’s circle is 180° (c.c.w). Thus 2Q in
Mohr’s circle corresponds to Q in the stress element
diagram.
Stresses on an inclined element
• Point A corresponds to Q = 0 on the stress element.
Therefore the line CA i.e x-axis becomes reference line
from which we measure angles.
• Now we locate the point “D” on the Mohr’s circle such
that the line CD makes an angle of 2Q c.c.w from the x-
axis or line CA. we choose c.c.w because in the stress
element also Q is in c.c.w direction.
Solid Mechanics
• The coordinates or stresses corresponding to point D on
the Mohr’s circle represents the stresses on the x′ - face or
D on the stress element.
σ x′ = σ avg + RCosβ
τ x′y′ = RSinβ
σ y′ = σ avg − RCosβ
Since D& D′ are ⊥ planes inthe
stress element ,thenthey become
diametrically opposite point s on
thecircle, just likethe planes A& Bdid
Calculation of principal stress
The most important application of the Mohr’s circle is
determination of principal stresses.
The intersection of the Mohr’s circle --- with normal stress
axis gives two points P1 and P2 . Thus P1 and P2 represents
points corresponding to principal stresses. In the current
diagram the coordinates the of
P1 = σ 1 , 0s
P2 = σ 2 , 0
σ 1 = σ avg + R
σ 2 = σ avg − R

## The principal direction corresponding to σ 1 is now equal to

2θ p1 , in c.c.w direction from the x-axis.
Solid Mechanics
π
θ p2 = θ p1 ±
2
We can see that the points P1 and P2 are diametrically
opposite, this indicate that principal planes are ⊥ to each
other in the stress element. This fact can also be verified from
the Mohr’s circle.
In- plane maximum shear stress
What are points on the circle at which the shearing stress are
reaching maximum values numerically? Points S1 and S2 at
the top and bottom of the Mohr’s circle.

## • The points S1 and S2 are at angles 2θ = 90 from

points P1 P2 and, i.e the planes of maximum shear stress
are oriented at ±45 to the principal planes.
• Unlike the principal stresses, the planes of maximum
shear stress are not free from the normal stresses. For
example the coordinates of
S1 = +τ max ,σ avg s
S2 = −τ max ,σ avg

τ max = ± R
σ = σ avg

## Mohr’s circle can be plotted in two different ways. Both the

methods are mathematically correct.
Solid Mechanics

Finally
• Intersection of Mohr’s circle with the σ -axis gives
principal stresses.
• The top and bottom points of Mohr’s circle gives
maximum –ve shear stress and maximum +ve shear
stress.
• Do not forget that all these inclined planes are obtained
Solid Mechanics
Mohr’ circle problem

## Solution: σx +σy 15000 + 5000

= = 10000 MPa
2 2
A - (15000,4000)
B - (5000,-4000)
2
σx −σy 2 15000 − 5000 2
R= + τ xy = + 4000 2
2 2

= 5000 2 + 4000 2
R = 6403 MPa
σx −σy
= 5000
(a) 2
Solid Mechanics
Point D : σ x′ = 10000 + 6403Cos 41.34 = 14807 MPa
τ x′y′ = −6403Sin 41.34 = −4229 MPa

## τ nt = τ x′y′ = 6403Sin 41.34 = 4229

38.66
b) σ 1 = 16403 ; θ P1 = = 19.33
2
σ 2 = 3597 MPa

## c) τ max = 6403 MPa − θS1 = 25.67 = −25.67

Solid Mechanics

(2) θ = 45
Principal stresses and principal shear stresses.
Solution:

σx +σy −50 + 10
= = −20
2 2

2
σx −σy −50 − 10 2
R= 2
+ τ xy = + ( −40 )2 = 50 MPa
2 2

σx +σy
A → ( −50 , −40 ) p1 = σ 1 = + R = −20 + 50 = 30s
2
B → ( 10 , 40 ) σx +σy
p2 = σ 2 = − R = −20 − 50 = −70
2
Solid Mechanics

2Qp1 = 233.13
Qp1 = 116.6
Qp2 = 206.6

2Qs1 = 143.13
Qs1 = 71.6
Qs2 = 161.6
Solid Mechanics
Q. σ x = 31 MPa, σ y = −5 MPa and τ xy = 33 MPa

## Stresses on inclined element θ = 45

Principal stresses and maximum shear stress.
Solution: σx +σy 31 − 5
σ avg = = = 13 MPa
2 2
2
σx −σy 2
R= + τ xy = 37.6 MPa
2

A ( 31 , 33 )
B ( −5 , −33 )

σ x′ = RCosβ + σ avg s
= 37.6 Cos 28.64 + 13 = 46 MPa

## τ x′y′ = − RSinβ = −37.6 28.64 = −18.02

σ y′ = RCosβ − σ avg
= −20 MPa
Solid Mechanics

∴ σ 1 = 50.6 MPa
σ 2 = −24.6 MPa
θ p1 = 30.68

## τ max = 37.6 MPa − θ s1 = −14.32

τ min = −37.6 MPa
σ = σ avg = 13 MPa
Solid Mechanics

7. 3D-Stress Transformation
3D-stress components on an arbitrary plane

## Basically we have done so far for this type of coordinate

system

n x ′x n x ′y n x ′z − D i r . c o s i n e s o f x ′
ˆi ′ = n x ′ x ˆi + n x ′ y ˆj + n x ′ z kˆ

## ny′x ny′y ny′z

ˆj′ = ny′xˆi + ny′y ˆj + ny′z kˆ

## nz′x nz′y nz′z

kˆ ′ = nz′xˆi + nz′y ˆj + nz′z kˆ
Solid Mechanics
ˆ
Tn = Tx′xˆi + Tx′y ˆj + Tx′z ks
Tn = σ x′x′ˆi′ + τ x′y′ˆj′ + τ x′z′ kˆ ′
ABC − dA
PAB − dAnx′x
PAC − dAnx′x
PBC − dAnx′z
[ Fx → + = 0 ]
Tx′x da = σ x dAnx′x + τ yx dAnx′y + τ zx dAnx′z

## Tx′x = σ x nx′x + τ yx nx′y + τ zx nx′z σ x′ τ x′y′ τ y′z′

Tx′y = τ xy nx′x + σ y nx′y + τ zy nx′z τ x′y′ σ y′ τ y′z′
Tx′z = τ xznx′x + τ yznx′y + σ znx′z τ z′x′ τ y′z′ σ z′
σ x′ ,τ x′y′ ,τ x′z′

( )(
σ x′ = Tnˆi′ = Tx′xˆi + Tx′y ˆj + Tx′z kˆ . nx′xˆi + nx′y ˆj + nx′z kˆ ) (1)

## Ty′x = σ x ny′x + τ yx ny′y + τ zx ny′z

Ty′y = τ xy ny′y + σ y ny′y + τ zy ny′z
Ty′z = τ xzny′y + τ yzny′y + σ zny′z

( )(
σ y′ = Ty′xˆi + Ty′y ˆj + Ty′z kˆ ny′xˆi + ny′y ˆj + ny′z kˆ ) (4)

## σ z′ = (Tz′xˆi + Tz′y ˆj + Tz′z kˆ )( nz′xˆi + nz′y ˆj + nz′z kˆ ) (5)

Solid Mechanics

( )(
τ y′z′ = Ty′xˆi + Ty′y ˆj + Ty′z kˆ nz′xˆi + nz′y ˆj + nz′z kˆ ) (6)

## nx′x = Cosθ ny′x = −Sinθ nz′x = 0

nx′y = Sinθ ny′y = Cosθ nz′y = 0
nx′z = 0 ny′z = 0 nz′z = 1

σ z′ = 0 : τ x′z′ = 0 : τ y′z′ = 0
=σz

## σ y′ = σ xSin2θ + σ yCos 2θ − 2τ xy Sinθ Cosθ τ xy σy 0

0 0 0
( ) ( 2
τ x′y′ = − σ x − σ y Sinθ Cosθ + τ xy Cos θ − Sin θ 2
)

Principal stresses
nx ,ny ,nz

(
Tn = σ nˆ = σ nxˆi + ny ˆj + nz kˆ )
Tn = Tnxˆi + Tny ˆj + Tnz kˆ

Where
Tnx = σ x nx + τ yx ny + τ zx nz
Tny = τ xy nx + σ y ny + τ zy nz
Tnz = τ xznx + τ yzny + σ znz

## Tnx = σ nx Tny = σ ny Tnz = σ nz

Solid Mechanics
(σ x − σ ) nx + τ yx ny + τ zx nz = 0
( )
τ yx nx + σ y − σ ny + τ zy nz = 0 Syst.of linear hom og.eqns.
τ xznx + τ yzny + (σ z − σ ) nz = 0

## nx = ny = nz = 0 : nx2 + ny2 + nz2 = 1

σx −σ τ xy τ zx nx
τ xy σ y −σ τ zy ny = ( 0 )
τ zx τ yz σz −σ nz

## For non trivial solution must be zero.

( ) (
σ 3 − σ x + σ y + σ z σ 2 + σ xσ y + σ yσ z + σ zσ x − τ xy
2 2
− τ yz 2
− τ zx σ)
( 2
− σ xσ yσ z + 2τ xyτ yzτ zx − σ xτ yz 2
− σ yτ zx 2
− σ zτ xy =0)
This has 3- real roots σ 1 ,σ 2 ,σ 3
(σ x − σ 1 ) nx + τ yx ny + τ zx nz = 0
( )
τ yx nx + σ y − σ 1 ny + τ zy nz = 0
and nx2 + ny2 + nz2 = 1

nx ,ny ,nz → σ 1
σ1 > σ2 > σ3
Stress invariants

σ 3 − I 1σ 2 + I 2σ − I 3 = 0 (1)
Solid Mechanics

I1 = σ x + σ y + σ z
2 2 2
I 2 = σ xσ y + σ yσ z + σ xσ z − τ xy − τ yz − τ zx stress inv ar iants
2 2 2
I 3 = σ xσ yσ z + 2τ xyτ yzτ zx − σ xτ yz − σ yτ zx − σ zτ xy
σ 3 − I 1′ σ 2 + I 3′ = 0

## I 1′ = σ x′ + σ y′ + σ z′ I 2′ = σ x′σ y′ + σ x′σ z′ + σ y′z′ − τ x2′y′ − τ y2′z′ − τ x2′z′

I 1 = I 1′ ; I 2 = I ′2 ; I 3 = I ′3

3D 2D
I1 = σ 1 + σ 2 + σ 3 I1 = σ 1 + σ 2
I 2 = σ 1σ 2 + σ 2σ 3 + σ 3σ 1 I 2 = σ 1σ 2
I 3 = σ 1σ 2σ 3 I3 = 0

## Principal planes are orthogonal

Tnnˆ ′ = Tn′ .nˆ

n̂ = nxˆi + ny ˆj + nz kˆ
n̂′ = nx′ˆi + ny′ˆj + nz′ kˆ
Tn = Tnxˆi + Tny ˆj + Tnz kˆ
Tn′ = Tn′xˆi + Tn′y ˆj + Tn′z kˆ
Solid Mechanics
Tnnˆ ′ = Tn′nˆ
τ xy = τ yx

Tnnˆ ′ = Tn′nˆ
(σ 1nˆ ) nˆ ′ = (σ 2 nˆ ′ ) nˆ

( ) (
σ 1 nx nx′ + ny ny′ + nznz′ = σ 2 nx nx′ + ny ny′ + nznz′ )
σ1 ≠ σ2
nx nx′ + ny ny′ + nznz′ = 0

## nˆ ′.nˆ must be ⊥ to each other.

The state of stress in principal axis
σ1 0 0
0 σ2 0
0 0 σ3
Tnx = σ 1nx
Tny = σ 2 ny
Tnz = σ 3nz

## σ n = σ 1nx2 + σ 2 ny2 + σ 3nz2

2
Tn = Tn2x + Tn2y + Tn2z s

2
τ 2 = Tn − σ n2
Solid Mechanics

## 8. 3D Mohr’s circle and Octahedral stress

3-D Mohr’s circle & principal shear stresses
σ x τ xy 0
σ ij = τ xy σy 0
0 0 σz

## Once if you know σ 1 and σ 2

σ2 −σ3
τ1 = σ1 > σ2 > σ3
2
σ +σ3
στ 1 = 1
2
σ −σ3
τ2 = 1
2
σ +σ2
στ 2 = 1
2
σ −σ2 σ1 −σ2 σ2 −σ3 σ3 −σ1
τ3 = 1 τ max = max , ,
2 2 2 2
σ −σ2
στ 3 = 1
2
Solid Mechanics

1

## stress τ max and their corresponding planes govern the

failure of the engineering materials.
• It is evident now that in many two-dimensional cases
the maximum shear stress value will be missed by not
considering σ 3 = 0 and constructing the principal circle.
Solid Mechanics
Problem:
The state of stress at a point is given by
σ x = 100 MPa, σ y = −40 MPa, σ z = 80 MPa and
τ xy = τ yz = τ zx = 0

## Determine in plane max shear stresses and maximum shear

stress at that point.
Solution:

## σ 1 = 100 MPa, σ 2 = 80 MPa σ 3 = −40 MPas

σ1 −σ2 100 − 80
τ 12 = = = 10 MPa
2 2
σ1 −σ3 100 + 40
τ 13 = = = 70 MPa
2 2
σ2 −σ3 80 + 40
τ 23 = = = 60 MPa
2 2
σ1 +σ2
σ 12 = = 90
2
σ 13 = 30 MPa
σ 23 = 20 MPa
τ max = max τ 12 ,τ 13 ,τ 23
τ max = 70 MPa This occurs in the plane of 1-3
Solid Mechanics
τ 1 ,τ 2 ,τ 3 → Principal shear stress in 3D
τ max = max (τ 1 ,τ 2 ,τ 3 )
Solid Mechanics
Plane stress
σ1 > σ
σ3 = σz = 0

2
σx −σ y 2
τ =± + τ xy ---- in plane principal shear stresses.
2
σ1 −σ3 σ1
τ max = =
2 2
Solid Mechanics
Problem
At appoint in a component, the state of stress is as shown.
Determine maximum shear stress.

Solution:
100 0
σ ij = - plane stress problem
0 50

100 0 0
We can also write the matrix as aij = 0 50 0
0 0 0
σ 1 = 100
σ 2 = 50
σ 1 − σ 2 100 − 50
= = 25
2 2
τ max = 25 MPa
Solid Mechanics
Now with σ 1 = 100 , σ 2 = 50 , σ 3 = 0
σ1 −σ3
τ max = = 50 MPa
2
Occurs in the plane 1-3 instead of 1-2
Solid Mechanics
Some important states of stresses
(1) Uniaxial state of stress: Only one non-zero principal
stress.
σ1 0 0
σ1 0
0 0 0 = - plane stress.
0 0
0 0 0

## (2) Biaxial state of stress: two non-zero principal stresses.

σ1 0 0
σ1 0
0 σ1 0 = - plane stress
0 σ1
0 0 0

## (3) Triaxial state of stress: All three principal stresses are

non zero.
σ1 0 0
0 σ2 0 − 3D stress
0 0 σ3
(4) Spherical state of stress: σ 1 = σ 2 = σ 3 (either +ve or – ve)
σ 0 0
0 σ 0 − 3D stress-special case of triaxial stress.
0 0 σ
Solid Mechanics
(5) Hydrostatic state of stress

+P 0 0
0 +P 0 hydrostatic tension
0 0 +P

−P 0 0
0 −P 0 hydrostatic compression.
0 0 −P

## (6) The state of pure shear

σ x τ xy τ xz
σ ij = τ xy σ y τ yz
τ zx τ zy σz

0 τ x′y′ τ x′z′
σ ij = τ x′y′ 0 τ y′z′
τ z′x′ τ z′y′ 0

## Then we say that the point P is in state of pure shear.

I 1 = 0 is necessary and sufficient condition for state of pure
shear
Solid Mechanics
Octahedral planes and stresses
If nx = ny = nz w.r.t to the principal planes, then these planes
are known as octahedral planes. The corresponding stresses
are known as octahedral stresses.

Octahedron

## σ = σ 1nx2 + σ 2 ny2 + σ 3nz2

2
Tn = σ 12 nx2 + σ 22 ny2 + σ 32 nz2

## nx2 + ny2 + nz2 = 1

1
nx = ny = nz = ± = 54.730
3
2 2 2
1 1 1
σ oct = σ 1 +σ1 +σ1
3 3 3
σ1 +σ2 +σ3
=
3
Solid Mechanics
σ1 +σ2 +σ3 I1
= = meanstress
3 3
σ oct = canbe int erpreted − − meannormal stress at a pt.

τ oct = Tn 2 − σ oct
2

1
τ oct = (σ 1 − σ 2 ) 2 + (σ 2 − σ 3 ) 2 + (σ 3 − σ 1 ) 2
3

## Therefore, the state of stress at a point can be represented

with reference to
(i) stress components of x,y,z coordinate system
(ii) stress components of x’,y’z’ coordinate system
(iii) using principal stresses
(iv) using octahedral shear and normal stresses
We can prove that:
τ oct is smaller than τ max (exist only on 4 planes) but can exist on 8
planes at a point.
Solid Mechanics
Decomposition into hydrostatic and pure shear stress
σ x τ xy τ xz
σ ij = τ yx σ z τ yz
τ zx τ zy σz
σx +σy +σz I1
Mean stress P = =
3 3
σ x τ xy τ xz P 0 0 σx − P τ xy τ xz
τ yx τy τ yz = 0 P 0 + τ yx σy − P τ yz
τ zx τ zy σz 0 0 P τ zx τ zy σz − P
Hydrostatic State of pure shear
stat of stress Deviatoric state of stress
Dilitational stress Stress deviator

## Thus the state of the stress at a point can alos be represented

by sum of dilational stress and stress deviator
Solid Mechanics
σ1 +σ2 +σ3 I1
P= =
3 3
σ1 0 0 P 0 0 σ1 − P 0 0
0 σ2 0 = 0 P 0 + 0 σ2 − P 0
0 0 σ3 0 0 P 0 0 σ3 − P
σ 1 = mean stress + deviation from the mean
The deviatoric and octahedral shear stresses are the answer
for the yielding behavior of materials – which is a type of
failure of materials.
Solid Mechanics

## u = u ( x,y ,z ) ˆi + v ( x,y ,z ) ˆj + w ( x,y ,z ) kˆ

u = u ( x ,y ,z )
v = v ( x,y ,z ) ( x,y ,z) is the point in the undeformed geometry
w = w ( x,y ,z )

## Two types of deformation have been observed for an

infinitesimal element.
Deformation of the whole body = Sum of deformations of
Deformation is described by measuring two quantities.
(1)Elongation or contraction of a line segment
(2)Rotation of any two ⊥ lines.

## Measure of deformations of an infinitesimal

element is known as strain.
• The strain component that measures elongation or
construction – normal strain - ε
• The strain component that measures rotation of any two
⊥ lines is – shearing strain- γ
Solid Mechanics
Normal strain ε - Account for changes in length between two
points.

P* Q* − PQ ∆s* − ∆s
∈n ( P ) = lim = lim
∆s→0 PQ ∆s→0 ∆s
We can also define the same point ∈x ,∈y ,∈z

## (1) By definition ∈x is + if ∆s* > ∆s

lim as ∆s → 0
*
∈x is - if ∆s > ∆s ∆s* = ( 1+ ∈n ) ∆s
∆s* ( 1+ ∈n ) ∆s if ∆s → 0
s ∈n ∆s s =∈n ∆s

## (2) It is immaterial how P* Q* is oriented finally. However for

∈n we must consider PQ in the direction of n̂ in the
undeformed geometry
(3) In general ∈n =∈n ( x ,y ,z ) s Mm/mm,0.5%=0.005;
(4) No units. µ = 10 −6 , 1000 µ
(5) Meaning of ∈nn = 1000 × 10 −6 = 0.001 mm / mm
Shearing strain -
Accounts the change in angle
Yn+ ( P ) Change in angle between

## ⊥ lines in n̂& ˆt direction.

π
Ynt ( P ) lim − φnt = lim α + β
∆x →0 2 ∆x →0
∆y →0 ∆y →0
Solid Mechanics
(1)We must select two ⊥ lines in the undeformed geometry.
(3)By deflection Ynt = Ytn
(4)Two subscripts are required for
Y - to show directions of initial
infinitesimal line segments.
(5) Ynt is +ve if angle is decreased
Ynt is -ve if angle is more.
By taking two ⊥ lines
We can define ∈n ,∈t &Ynt
Rectangular strain components
∈x ,∈y andYxy − PQRS
∈z ,∈y andYyz − QABS
∈x ,∈z andYxz − RSCD

## ∈x Yxy Yxz - Rectangular strain components .

- We then say that we have strain
Eij = Yxy ∈y Yyz
computer associated with x ,y ,z
Yxz Yyz ∈z coordinate system.
They represent the state of strain at a point , since we can
determine strain along any direction n̂
Solid Mechanics
Strain displacement relations: Strains are due to
deformation as displacement so there must be some relation
between deformational displacements and strains. So let us
consider the side of the element PQRS . We shall demonstrate
that ‘w’ has no impact. So it can be neglected.
P → u,v
∂u ∂v
Q →u+ ∆x ; v + ∆x
∂x ∂x
PQ = ∆x
P* Q* = ∆x*

∆x* ( 1+ ∈x ) ∆x
lim ∆x* = ( 1+ ∈x ) ∆x
∆x →0

2 2 2
* ∂u ∂v ∂w
∆x = 1 + ∆x + ∆x + ∆x
∂x ∂x ∂x
2 2 2
∂u ∂u ∂v ∂w
= 1+ 2 + + + ∆x
∂x ∂x ∂x ∂x
Solid Mechanics

∆x* − ∆x
∈x = lim
∆x →0 ∆x
2 2 2
∂u ∂u ∂v ∂w
= lim 1+ 2 + + + −1
∆x →0 ∂x ∂x ∂x ∂x
2 2 2
∂u ∂u ∂v ∂w
∈x = 1 + 2 + + + −1
∂x ∂x ∂x ∂x
2 2 2
∂v ∂u ∂v ∂w
∈y = 1 + 2 + + + −1
∂y ∂y ∂y ∂y
2 2 2
∂w ∂u ∂v ∂w
∈z = 1 + 2 + + + −1
∂z ∂z ∂z ∂z
So far no assumption has been made except for size of
∆x, ∆y & ∆z

* ∂u ∆x ∂u ∆y
Cosφxy = 1+
∂x ∆x* ∂y ∆y*

∂v ∆x ∂v ∆y
+ 1+
∂x ∆x* ∂y ∆y*

∂w ∆x ∂w ∆y
+
∂x ∆x* ∂y ∆y*
π *
Yxy = lim − φxy
∆x →0 2
∆y →0
∆z→0
Solid Mechanics
*
SinYxy = lim Cosφxy
∆x →0
∆y →0
∆z→0

∂u ∂u ∂v ∂v ∂w ∂w ∆x∆y
SinYxy = lim 1+ + 1+ +
∆x →0 ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂x ∂x ∂y ∆x* ∆y*
∆y →0
∆z→0

∆x* = ( 1+ ∈x ) ∆x

(
∆y* = 1+ ∈y ∆y)
∂u ∂v ∂u ∂u ∂v ∂v ∂w ∂w
+ + + +
∂y ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y
SinYxy = lim
∆x →0 ( 1+ ∈x ) ( 1+ ∈y )
∆y →0
∆z→0

∂u ∂v ∂u ∂u ∂v ∂v ∂w ∂w
Sin −1 + + + +
∂y ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y
Yxy =
( 1+ ∈x ) ( 1+ ∈y )
∂u ∂v ∂u ∂u ∂v ∂v ∂w ∂w
+ + + +
∂y ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y
Yyz = sin −1
( 1+ ∈x ) ( 1+ ∈y )

∂w ∂u ∂w ∂w ∂u ∂u ∂v ∂v
+ + + +
Yxz = sin −1 ∂x ∂w ∂x ∂z ∂x ∂w ∂x ∂z
( 1+ ∈x )( 1+ ∈z )

## All bodies after the application of loads under go “small

deformations”
Solid Mechanics
Small deformations :
(1) The deformational displacements u = uiˆ + vjˆ + wk are
infinitesimally small.
(2) The strains are small
(a) Changes in length of a infinitesimal line segment are
infinitesimal.
(b) Rotations of line segment are also infinitesimal.
2
∂u ∂u ∂u ∂v ∂u ∂u ∂v
, , , 1 ∈x 1 ; ∈y ≤< 1 ; ∈z 1; ; are
∂x ∂u ∂w ∂x ∂x ∂x ∂y
∂u ∂v
negligible compare to , quantities.
∂x ∂x
∂u
∈x = 1 + 2 −1
∂x
2 ∂u
−1
= 1 + ∂x
2
∂u
∈x =
∂x
∂v
∈y =
∂y
∂w
∈z =
∂z
SinYxy ≈ Yxy
Solid Mechanics
∂u ∂v
+
∂y ∂x ∂v ∂u
Yxy = = +
( 1+ ∈x + ∈y ) ∂x ∂y

∂w ∂u
Yxz = +
∂x ∂z
∂v ∂w
Yyz = +
∂z ∂y
Another derivation : Let us take plane PQRS in xy plane.
Also assume that u = u ( x ,y ) & v = v ( x ,y ) only.
Small deformation
Displacements are small
Strains are small

P* Q* − PQ ∆x* − ∆x
∈x = lim =
∆x →0 PQ ∆x
′ ∂y
∆x* P* Q* = 1 + ∆x
∂x
∂y
1+ ∆x − ∆x
∂x ∂u
∈x = lim =
∆x →0 ∆x ∂x

∂v
1+ ∆y − ∆y Strains<0.001
∂y ∂v
∈y = lim =
∆y →0 ∆y ∂y Y < 0.06
∆s* = 0.2002
s = 2 × 10 −4 mm
Solid Mechanics
π *
Yxy = lim − φxy = lim α + β
∆x →0 2 ∆x →0
∆y →0 ∆y →0

∂v ∂v
∆x
tan α = ∂x = ∂x
∂y ∂y
1+ ∆x 1 +
∂x ∂x
tan α ≈ α

∂v ∂u ∂u ∂v ∂v
α= , , , 1
∂x ∂u ∂v ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂x
Yxy = + 2 2
∂u ∂y ∂x ∂u 2
∂u ∂v
β= , ,
∂y ∂x ∂y ∂yx

## We can define the state of strain at point by six components

of strains
∈x , ∈y , ∈z, Yxy , Yxz , Yyz
↓ ↓ ↓
Yyx Yzx Yzy

State of strain
∈x Yxy Yxz - Engineering strain matrix
Eij = Yxy ∈y Yyz - We can find ∈n in any
direction we can find Ynt for
Yxz Yyz ∈z
any two arbitrary directions.
Solid Mechanics
2D- strain transformation

## Plain strain: In which

∈x =∈x ( x,y )
∈x Yxy
∈y =∈y ( x,y )
Yxy ∈y
Yxy = Yxy ( x ,y )

implication of these
∈z = 0 equation is that a point in
Yyz = 0 a given plane does not
Yzx = 0 leave that plane all
deformations are in to
plane of the body.
Solid Mechanics
Given ∈x ,∈y & Yxy what are ∈n ,∈t & Ynt .

If ∈x ,∈y & Yxy

## As in case of stress we call these formulae as transformations

laws.
∈ dxSinθ
α1 = x
ds
dx
=∈x sinθ
ds
=∈x sinθ cosθ

dy
α 2 =∈y cosθ =∈y cosθ sinθ
ds

dy
α 3 = Yxy sinθ
ds
= Yxy sinθ sinθ
Solid Mechanics
dL =∈x dx cosθ + ∈y dy sinθ + Yxy dy cosθ
dL dx dy dy
=∈n =∈x cosθ + ∈y sinθ + Yxy cosθ
dS ds ds ds
=∈x cosθ cosθ + ∈y sin2 θ + Yxy sinθ cosθ
∈x + ∈y ∈x − ∈y Yxy
∈n = + cos 2θ + sin 2θ
2 2 2

## α = − ∈x sinθ cosθ + ∈y sinθ cosθ − Yxy sin2 θ

β = − ∈x cosθ ( − sinθ ) + ∈y cos θ ( − sinθ ) − Yxy cos 2 θ
=∈x cos θ sinθ − ∈y cos θ sinθ − Yxy cos 2 θ

Ynt
=−
(
∈x − ∈y
sin 2θ +
)
Yxy
cos 2θ
2 2 2

∈x Yxy
Yxy ∈y - state of strain at a point
σ x τ xy - stress tensor
Yxy
∈x τ xy σy
2 - strain tensor
Yxy Replace
∈y
2 σ x →∈x
∈x ∈xy Yxy σ y →∈y
∈xy =
∈xy ∈y 2 Yxy
τ xy →∈xy =
2
Solid Mechanics
Principal shears and maximum shear
In plane- principal strains

2 ∈xy → ϒ xy / 2
tan 2Qp =
∈x − ∈y

θ p1 − θ p2 − ⊥ to each other
∈1 ,∈2 ∈1 >∈2

tan 2θs =−
(∈x − ∈y )
2 ∈xy
θ s = θ p1 ± π / 4

## θ s1 − θs2 − ⊥ to each other

σ x + σ y = I1 ∈x − ∈y 2
∈max or ∈min = ± R = ± + ∈2xy
∈x + ∈y = J I 2
2
σ xσ y − τ xy = I2
Ymax
2
∈∈y − ∈xy = J2 =∈max −θ s1
2
2 Ymin
Yxy =∈min −θ s2
∈x∈y − = J2 2
2
Solid Mechanics
Mohr’s Circle for strain
∈x′ ,Yx′y′ ,∈y′

3D-strain transformation
Yxy
σ x →∈x ; σ y →∈y ;σ z →∈z ;τ xy =∈xy =
2
(∈x − ∈) ∈xy ∈xz

∈xz ∈yz (∈z − ∈)

## ∈1 ,∈2 ,∈3 - ∈1 >∈2 >∈3

∆s 2 = ∆x 2 + ∆y 2
*2 * * ′2 * * ′2
∆s =P Q +P R
2 2
∂u ∂v
= 1+ ∆x + 1+ ∆y − ∆x 2 + ∆y 2
∂x ∂x
Solid Mechanics
2
∆y
∈n = 1 + .∆x
∆x
2 2
∂u ∂v ∆y
= 1+ + 1+ ∆x 2 − ∆x 2 − ∆y 2
∂x ∂x ∆x

2 2
∂u ∂u ∂v ∂v
1+ +2 ∆x 2 + 1 + +2 ∆y 2 − ∆x 2 − ∆y 2
∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y
=
2
∆y
1+ ∆x
∆x
∂u ∂v
1+2 ∆x 2 + 1 + 2 ∆y 2 − ∆x 2 + ∆y 2
∂x ∂y
=
2
∆y
1+ ∆x
∆x

## Transformation σ x →∈x τ xy →∈xy

σ x′ = σ x nx2′x + σ y ny2′y + σ znz2′z + τ xy nx′x nx′y σ y →∈y τ yz →∈yz
+ τ yznx′y nx′z + τ zx nx′znx′x σ z →∈zx τ zx →∈zx

## ∈x′ =∈x nx2′x + ∈y nx2′y + ∈z nx2′z + ∈xy nx′x nx′y

+ ∈yz nx′y nx′z + ∈zx nx′znx′x
Yx′y′
τ x′y′ →∈x′y′ →
2
Solid Mechanics
Principal strains:
(∈x − ∈) nx + ∈xy ny + ∈xz nz = 0 System of linear
( )
∈xy nx + ∈y − ∈ ny + ∈yz nz = 0 homogeneous
equations
∈xz nx + ∈yz ny + (∈z − ∈) nz = 0

## ∈xy (∈y − ∈) ∈yz = 0

∈xz ∈yz (∈z − ∈)
∈3 − J 1 ∈12 + J 2 ∈ − J 3 = 0
J 1 =∈x + ∈y + ∈z

∈x ∈xy
2
J 2 =∈x∈y + ∈x∈z + ∈y ∈z − ∈xy − ∈2yz − ∈2zx +
∈xy ∈y
∈y ∈yz ∈x ∈xz
+
∈yz ∈z ∈xz ∈z

## J 3 =∈x∈y ∈z + ∈xy ∈yz∈zx − ∈x∈2yz − ∈y ∈xz

2

∈x ∈xy ∈xz
− ∈z∈2xy ∈yx ∈y ∈yz
∈zx ∈zy ∈z

∈1 >∈2 >∈3
Solid Mechanics
(∈x − ∈1 ) nx + ∈xy ny + ∈zx nz = 0
( )
∈xy nx + ∈y − ∈1 ny + ∈zy nz = 0

## nx ,ny & nz unique J 1 =∈1 + ∈2 + ∈3

J 2 =∈1∈2 + ∈2∈3 + ∈3∈1
J 3 =∈1∈2∈3

## Decomposition of a strain matrix into state of pure shear +

hydrostatic strain
∈x ∈xy ∈xz ∈x − ∈ ∈xy ∈xz ∈ 0 0
∈ij = ∈yx ∈y ∈yz = ∈yx ∈y − ∈ ∈yz + 0 ∈ 0
∈zx ∈zy ∈z ∈zx ∈zy ∈z − ∈ 0 0 ∈
State of pure shear Hydrostatic
∈x + ∈y + ∈z
where ∈=
3
Solid Mechanics
Plane strain as a special case of 3D

## ∈3 = 0 is also a principal strain

z→ is a principal direction
if ∈1 >∈2 ; ∈1 =∈2 +ve

if ∈1 +ve, ∈2 -ve.

if ∈1 +ve, ∈2 -ve

## P1′ & z′ will come closer

to the maximum extent,
so that the included angle
π
is − ∈max
2
Solid Mechanics
Transformation equations for plane-strain
Given state of strain at a point P.
∈xx Yxy
Eij = This also means that
Yxy ∈yy

deformation

## Now what are the strains associated with x′ ,y′ i.e

∈x′x′ Yx′y′
Ei′j′ = This also means that
Yx′y′ ∈y′y′
Solid Mechanics

## Applying the law of cosines to triangular P * Q* R *

( P * R * )2 = ( P * R * )2 + ( Q * R * )2 − 2 ( P * R * )(Q * R * )
π
cos + Yxy
2

( )
2 2 2
∆x′ ( 1+ ∈x′ ) = ∆x ( 1+ ∈x ) + ∆y 1+ ∈y − 2 ∆x ( 1+ ∈x )
π
(
∆y 1+ ∈y ) cos
2
+ Yxy
∆x = ∆x′ cos θ and ∆y = ∆x′ sinθ

( )
cos π2 + Yxy = − sinYxy ≈ −Yxy

( )
2 2 2
∆x′2 ( 1+ ∈x′ ) = ∆x′2 cos 2 θ ( 1+ ∈x ) + ∆x′2 sin2 θ 1+ ∈y

(
− 2 ∆x′2 sinθ cosθ ( 1+ ∈x ) 1+ ∈y −Yxy )( )
Solid Mechanics

2

## − 2 sinθ cos θ ( 1+ ∈x ) 1+ ∈y ( )( −Yxy )

( )
1+ ∈x2′ +2 ∈x = cos 2 θ 1+ ∈x2 +2 ∈x + sin 2 θ 1+ ∈2y +2 ∈y ( )
(
+ sin 2θ Yxy 1+ ∈x + ∈y + ∈x∈y )
1 + 2 ∈x = cos 2 θ ( 1 + 2 ∈x ) + sin2 θ 1 + 2 ∈y ( )
(
+ Yxy sin 2θ 1+ ∈x + ∈y )
= cos 2 θ ( 1 + 2 ∈x ) + sin 2 θ ( 1 + 2 ∈y )
+ Yxy sin 2θ

## 1 + 2 ∈x′ = 1 + 2 ∈x cos 2 θ + 2 ∈y sin2 θ + Yxy sin 2θ

2 2 Yxy
∈x′ =∈x cos θ + ∈y sin θ + sin 2θ
2
∈x + ∈y ∈x − ∈y Yxy
∈x′ = + cos 2θ + sin 2θ
2 2 2
π
If θ =Q+ ∈y′
2
∈x + ∈y ∈x − ∈y Yxy
∈x′ = + cos 2θ + sin 2θ
2 2 2
∈x + ∈y ∈x − ∈y Yxy
∈y′ = + cos 2θ − sin 2θ
2 2 2
∈x′ + ∈y′ =∈x + ∈y = J 1 = first invariant of strain.
Solid Mechanics

∈x + ∈y Yxy
∈x′ Q=π =∈OB = +
4 2 2
2 ∈OB =∈x + ∈y +Yxy

Yxy = 2 ∈OB − ∈x + ∈y ( )

## 2 ∈OB′ =∈x′ + ∈y′ +Yx′y′

(
Yx′y = 2 ∈OB′ − ∈x′ + ∈y′ )
(
= 2 ∈OB′ − ∈x + ∈y ) ( 3)

∈x + ∈y ∈x − ∈y Yxy
∈x′ Q=Q+ π =∈OB′ = − sin 2θ + cos 2θ - (4)
4 2 2 2
Substituting (4) in (3)

( ) ( )
Yx′y′ = ∈x + ∈y − ∈x − ∈y sin 2θ + Yxy cos 2θ − ∈x + ∈y ( )
Yx′y′ = − (∈x − ∈y ) sin 2θ + Yxy cos 2θ (5)

=∈xx ,∈yy ,∈z

## Engineering shear strain Yxy

tensorial shear strain ∈xy( ) =
2 2
Solid Mechanics
Yxz
∈xx ∈xy ∈xz =
2 Components.
∈ij = ∈xy ∈yy ∈yz - Strain tensors
∈zx ∈zy (∈zz =∈zz )

∈x + ∈y ∈x − ∈y
∈x′ = + cos 2θ + ∈xy sin 2θ
2 2
∈x + ∈y ∈x − ∈y
∈y′ = − cos 2θ − ∈xy sin 2θ
2 2

∈x′y′ =−
(∈x − ∈y )
sin 2θ + ∈ cos 2θ
xy
2
Solid Mechanics
Problem:
An element of material in plane strain undergoes the
following strains

## Show them on sketches of properly oriented elements.

Solution: ∈x = 340 × 10 −6

## ∈x′ = −340 × 10 −6 ; ∈y′ = 110 × 10 −6 ; Yx′y′ = 180 × 10 −6

Solid Mechanics
Problem:
During a test of an airplane wing, the strain gage readings
from a 45 rosette are as follows gage A, 520 × 10 −6 ; gage B
360 × 10 −6 and gage C −80 × 10 −6
Determine the principal strains and maximum shear strains
and show them on sketches of properly oriented elements.
Solution:
∈x = 520 × 10 −6
∈OB = 360 × 10 −6
∈y = −80 × 10 −6

(
Yxy = 2 ∈OB − ∈x + ∈y )
(
= 2 × 360 × 10 −6 − 520 × 10 −6 − 80 × 10 −6 )
= 280 × 10 −6 rad

(1) ∈x + ∈y 520 × 10 −6 − 80 × 10 −6
= = 220 × 10 −6
2 2
Solid Mechanics
∈x − ∈y 520 × 10 −6 + 80 × 10 −6
= = 300 × 10 −6
2 2

2 ∈xy e × 140 × 10 −6
tan 2θ p = =
∈x − ∈y 300 × 10 −6
Yxy280 × 10 −6
∈xy = = = 140 × 10 −6
2 2

∴ 2θ p = 25.02
θ p = 12.51 θ p = 102.51

2
∈x + ∈y ∈x − ∈y 2
∈1 or ∈2 = ± + ∈xy
2 2

( ) ( )
2 2
= 220 × 10 −6 ± 300 × 10 −6 + 140 × 10 −6

= 220 × 10 −6 ± 331.06 × 10 −6

∴ ∈1 = 551.06 × 10 −6
∈2 = −111.06 × 10 −6

∈x′ θ =12.51
∈x + ∈y ∈x − ∈y
= + Cos 2θ + ∈xy Sin2θ
2 2
= 220 × 10 −6 + 300 × 10 −6 cos ( 2 × 12.51 ) + 140 × 10 −6 Sin ( 2 × 12.51 )
= 551.06 × 10 −6
Solid Mechanics
θ p1 = 12.51 and θ p2 = 102.51

## (b) In- plane maximum shear strains are

2
xy xy ∈x − ∈y 2
∈max or ∈min = ± + ∈xy
2
= ±331.06 × 10 −6

## (∈xy )max = 331.06 × 10−6

(∈xy )min = −331.06 × 10−6

tan 2Qs =−
(∈x − ∈y ) −300 × 10 −6
=
2. ∈xy 140 × 10 −6

2Qs = 64.98
Qs = −32.5 Qs = 57.5

∈x′y′ =−
(∈x − ∈y )
Sin2 ( 57.5 ) + ∈ Cos 2 ( 57.5 )
xy
Q = 57.5 2
= −271.89 × 10 −6 − 59.17 × 10 −6 = 331.06 × 10 −6
Solid Mechanics
θ s1 = −32.5 and θ s2 = −32.5
Ymin = −662.11 × 10 −6
Ymax = 662.11 × 10 −6

∈x + ∈y
∈= = 220 × 10 −6
2
Solid Mechanics

## 10. Stress strain diagrams

• Bar or rod – the longitudinal direction is considerably
greater than the other two, namely the dimensions of
cross section.
• For the design of the m/c components we need to
understand about “mechanical behavior” of the
materials.
• We need to conduct experiments in laboratory to
observe the mechanical behavior.
• The mathematical equations that describe the
mechanical behavior is known as “constitutive
equations or laws”
• Many tests to observe the mechanical behavior- tensile
test is the most important and fundamental test- as we
gain or get lot of information regarding mechanical
behavior of metals
• Tensile test Tensile test machine, tensile test specimen,
extensometer, gage length, static test-slowly varying
Stress -strain diagrams
After performing a tension or compression tests and
determining the stress and strain at various magnitudes of
load, we can plot a diagram of stress Vs strain.
Solid Mechanics
Such is a characteristic of the particular material being tested
and conveys important information regarding mechanical
behavior of that metal.
We develop some ideas and basic definitions using σ − ∈
curve of the mild steel.
Structural steel = mild steel = 0.2% carbon=low carbon steel

L f − Lo
∈=
Lo

Region O-A
(1) σ and ∈ linearly proportional.
(2) A- Proportional limit
σ p - proportionality is maintained.

## (3) Slope of AO = modulus of elasticity “E” – N/m2,Pa

(4) Strains are infinites ional.
Solid Mechanics
Region A-B
(1) Strain increases more rapidly than σ
(2) Elastic in this range
Proportionality is lost.

Region B-C
(1) The slope at point B is horizontal.
(2) At this point B, ∈ increases without increase in further
(3) This phenomenon is known as yielding
(4) The point B is said to be yield points, the corresponding
stress is yield stress σ ys of the steel.

## (5) In region B-C material becomes “perfectly plastic i.e

which means that it deforms without an increase in the
(6) Elongation of steel specimen or ∈ in the region BC is
typically 10 to 20 times the elongation that occurs in region
OA.
(7) ∈s below the point A are said to be small, and ∈s above A
are said to be large.
(8) ∈s <∈A are said to be elastic strains and ∈>∈A are said to
be plastic strains = large strains = deformations are
permanent.
Solid Mechanics

Region C-D
(1)The steel begins to “strain harden” at “C” . During strain
hardening the material under goes changes in its crystalline
structure, resulting in increased resistance to the
deformation.
(2)Elongation of specimen in this region requires additional
∴ σ − ∈ diagram has + ve slope C to D.
(3) The load reaches maximum value – ultimate stress.
(4)The yield stress and ultimate stress of any material is also
known as yield strength and the ultimate strength .
(5) σ u is the highest stress the component can take up.
Region-DE
Further stretching of the bar is needed less force than
ultimate force, and finally the component breaks into two
parts at E.
Solid Mechanics
Look of actual stress strain diagrams
∈C toE >∈BtoC >∈Oto A

## (1) Strains from O to A are

so small in comparison to the
strains from A to E that they
cannot be seen.
(2) The presence of well defined
yield point and subsequent large
plastic strains are characteristics of mild – steel.
(3) Metals such a structural steel that undergo large
permanent strains before failure are classified as ductile
metals.
Ex. Steel, aluminum, copper, nickel, brass, bronze,
Aluminum alloys – Offset method
(1) They do not have clear cut yield point.
(2) They have initial straight line portion with clear
proportional limit.
(3) All does not have obvious
yield point, but undergoes
large permanent strains after
proportional limit.
(4) Arbitrary yield stress is
Solid Mechanics
determined by off- set method.
(5) Off-set yield stress is not material property
Elasticity & Plasticity
(1) The property of a material by which it (doesn’t) returns to
elasticity and the material is said to be elastic (plastic).

## (2) For most of the metals proportional limit = elastic limit.

(3) For practical purpose proportional limit = elastic limit =
yield stress
(4 )All metals have some amount of straight line portion.
Solid Mechanics
Brittle material in tension

## (1) Materials that fail in tension at relatively low values of

strain are classified or brittle materials.
(2) Brittle materials fail with only little elongation (elastic)
after the proportional limit.
(3)Fracture stress = Ultimate stress for brittle materials
(4)Up to B, i.e fracture strains are elastic.
(5)No plastic deformation in case of brittle materials.
Ex. Concrete, stone, cast iron, glass, ceramics
Ductile metals under compression
Solid Mechanics
(1) σ − ∈ curves in compression differ from σ − ∈ in tension.
(2)For ductile materials, the proportional limit and the initial
portion of the σ − ∈ curve is same in tension and
compression.
(3)After yielding starts the behavior is different for tension
and compression.
(4)In tension after yielding – specimen elongates – necking
and fractures or rupture. In compression – specimen bulges
out- with increasing load the specimen is flattened out and
offers greatly increased resistance.
Brittle materials in compression

## (1)Curves are similar both in tension and compression

(2)The proportional limit and ultimate stress i.e fracture
stress are different.
(3)In case of compression both are greater than tension case
(4)Brittle material need not have linear portion always they
can be non-linear also.
Solid Mechanics

## (1) A material behaves elastically and also exhibits a linear

relationship between σ and ∈ is said to be linearly elastic.
(2) All most all engineering materials are linearly elastic up
to their corresponding proportional limit.
(3) This type of behavior is extremely important in
engineering – all structures designed to operate within this
region.
(4) Within this region, we know that either in tension or
compression
σ = E∈
Stress in particular direction = straininthat dir.X E

## E = Modulus of elasticity – Pa,N / m2

= Young’s modulus of elasticity.
(5) σ x = E ∈x or σ y = E ∈y

## (6) σ = E ∈ is known as Hooke’s law.

(7) Hooke’s law is valid up to the proportional limit or
within the linear elastic zone.
Solid Mechanics
Poisson’s ratio
When a prismatic bar is loaded in tension the axial
elongation is accompanied by lateral contraction.
Lateral contraction or lateral strain
d f − do
∈′ = this comes out to be –ve
do
lateral strain − ∈′
Poisson's ratio =ν ( nu ) = − =
axial strain ∈
∈′ is perpendicular to∈

## If a bar is under tension ∈ +ve, ∈′ -ve and ν = +

If a bar is under compression ∈ -ve, ∈′ +ve and ν = +
ν = always +ve = material constant
For most metals ν = 0.25 to 0.35s
Concrete ν = 0.1 to 0.2
Rubber ν = 0.5
ν is same for tension and compression
ν is constant within the linearly elastic range.
Solid Mechanics
Hooks law in shear τ
(1)To plot τ ,Y the test is twisting Yield point
of hollow circular tubes
Proportional limit

G
1

ϒ
(2)τ ,Y diagrams are (shape of them) similar in shape to
tension test diagrams (σ Vs ∈) for the same material,
although they differ in magnitude.
(3)From τ − Y diagrams also we can obtain material
properties proportional limit, modulus of elasticity, yield
stress and ultimate stress.
(4)Properties are usually ½ of the tension properties.
(5)For many materials, the initial part o the shear stress
diagram is a st. line through the origin just in case of tension.
τ = GY - Hooke’s law in shear
G = Shear modulus of elasticity or modulus of rigidity.

= Pa or N / m2 s
Proportional limit
Elastic limit
Material properties
Yield stress
Ultimate stress
Solid Mechanics
E,v, and G → material properties – elastic constants - elastic
properties.
Basic assumptions solid mechanics
Fundamental assumptions of linear theory of elasticity are:
(a) The deformable body is a continuum
(b) The body is homogeneous
(c) The body is linearly elastic
(d) The body is isotropic
(e) The body undergoes small deformations.
Continuum
Completely filling up the region of space with matter it
occupies with no empty space.
Because of this assumption quantities like
u = u ( x,y ,z )
σ = σ ( x ,y ,z )
∈=∈ ( x,y ,z )
Homogeneous
Elastic properties do not vary from point to point. For non-
homogenous body
E = E ( x ,y ,z )
v = v ( x,y ,z )
G = G ( x,y ,z )
Solid Mechanics
Linearly elastic
Material follows Hooke’s law
σ = E∈
τ = GY
v = Constant
Isotropic
Material properties are same in all directions at a point in the
body
E = C1 for allθ
ν = C2 for allθ
G = C3 for allθ
The meaning is that
σ x = E ∈x
σ y = E ∈y

## The material that is not isotropic is anisotropic

E = E (θ )
ν = ν (θ )
G = G (θ )
The meaning is that
σ x = E1 ∈x
σ y = E2 ∈y
E1 ≠ E2
Solid Mechanics
Small deformations
(a) The displacements must be small
(b) The strains must also be small
Generalized Hooke’s law for isotropic material
We know the following quantities from the tension and
shear testing.
σ = E∈
∈′ Tensiletest
v=−

τ = GY - Shear test or torsion test.

## What are the stress –strain relation for an element subjected

to 3D state of stress. i.e what is the generalized Hooke’s law.
Hooke’s law – when only one stress is acting
Generalized Hooke’s law – when more than one stress acting
We assume that
Material is linearly elastic, Homogeneous, Continuum,
undergoing small deformations and isotropic.
For an isotropic material the following are true
(1)Normal stress can only generate normal strains.
- Normal stresses for reference xyz cannot produce Y of this
reference
Solid Mechanics
(2)A shear stress say τ xy can only produce the corresponding
shear strain Yxy in the same coordinate system.

Principal of superposition:
This principle states that the effect of a given combined loading on
a structure can be obtained by determining separately the effects of
the various loads individually and combining the results obtained,
provided the following conditions are satisfied.
(1)Each effect is linearly related to the load that produces it.
(2)The deformations must be small.
Solid Mechanics

## Let us know consider only σ x is applied to the element.

From Hooke’s we can write
σx
∈x =
E
σx
∈y = − v
E
σx
∈z = − v
E
Solid Mechanics
Only σ y applied

σy
∈y =
E
σy
∈x = − v
E
σy
∈z = − v
E
Similarly, σ z alone is applied
σz
∈z =
E
σz
∈x = − v
E
σz
∈y = − v
E
Contribution to ∈x due to all three normal stresses is

σ x vσ y vσ 3
∈x = − −
E E E
Therefore

∈x =
1
E
(
σx − v σy +σz )
1
∈y = σ y − v (σ x + σ z )
E
1
(
∈x = σ z − v σ x + σ y
E
)
Normal strains are not affected by shear stresses
Solid Mechanics
Now let us apply only τ xy

τ xy
Yxy =
G

## Similarly because of τ yz and τ xz

τ yz
Yyz =
G
τ xz
Yxz =
G
Therefore, when all six components of stresses and strains
are acting on an infinitesimal element or at a point then the
relation between six components of stresses and strains is

∈x =
1
E
(
σx − v σy +σz )
1
∈y = σ y − v (σ x + σ z )
E
1
(
∈x = σ z − v σ x + σ y
E
)
τ xy
Yxy =
G
τ yz
Yyz =
G
τ xz
Yxz =
G
These six equations are known as generalized Hooke’s law for
isotropic materials.
Solid Mechanics
Matrix representation of generalized Hooke’s law for
isotropic materials is therefore,
1 −v −v
0 0 0
E E E
∈x −v 1 −v σx
0 0 0
E E E
∈y σy
−v −v 1
∈z 0 0 0 σz
E E E
=
Yxy 1 τ xy
0 0 0 0 0
Yyz G τ yz
1
Yxz 0 0 0 0 0 τ xz
G
1
0 0 0 0 0
G
Stress components in terms of strains

∈x + ∈y + ∈z =
1
E
(
σx +σy +σz −
2v
E
σx +σy +σz s ) ( )
1 − 2v
(
e = σx +σy +σz
E
)
∈x + ∈y + ∈z = e

∈x =
1
E
σ x − vσ x − v σ y + σ z ( )
=
1
E
(
σ x − v σ x + σ y + σ z + vσ x )
=
1
E
(
σ x (1 + v) − v σ x + σ y + σ z )
Solid Mechanics
1 veE
= σ x (1 + v) −
E (1 − 2v)
σ × (1 + v) ve
= −
E (1 − 2v)
ve E
∴ σ x = ∈x +
1 − 2v 1 + v
E Ev
= µ (mu) where λ=
1+ v ( 1 + v )( 1 − 2 v )
λ,µ are Lames constants
σ x = eλ + ∈x µ
σ y = eλ + ∈y µ
σ z = eλ + ∈z µ
τ xy = YxyG = 2 µYxy
τ xy = YyzG = 2 µYyz
τ xy = YzxG = 2 µYzx

## Lame’s constants have no physical meaning

Stress-strain relations for plane stress
Solid Mechanics
σ x = σ x ( x,y ) ∈x =
1
E
(
σ x − vσ y )
σ y =∈y ( x,y )
τ xy = τ xy ( x,y )
1
(
∈y = σ y − vσ x
E
)
σ z = τ yz = τ zx = 0 −v
v
(
∈z = − σ x + σ y =
E 1− v
)
∈x + ∈y ( )
τ xy
Yxy =
G
Yyz = Yxz = 0

## Stress- strain relations for plane strain

∈x =∈x ( x,y ) σ x = eλ + µ ∈x = σ x ( x ,y )
∈y =∈y ( x,y ) σ y = eλ + µ ∈y = σ y ( x,y )
Yxy = Yxy ( x ,y ) ( )
σ z = − v σ x + σ y = σ z ( x ,y )
∈3 = Yxz = Yyz = 0 = − v ( 2 eλ + µ e )
e =∈x + ∈y = − ve ( 2 λ + µ )
(
= − v ( 2 λ + µ ) ∈x + ∈y )
τ xy = GYxy
τ xz = τ yz = 0
Solid Mechanics
• Therefore, the stress transformation equations for plane
stress can also be used for the stresses in plane strain.
• The transformation laws for plane strain can also be
used for the strains in plane stress. ∈z does not effect
geometrical relationships used in derivation.
Example of Generalized Hooke’s law

1
∈x = σ x − vσ y
E
σ x = λ e + µ ∈x σ x = 2σ y
1
∈y = σ y − vσ x
E σ x = −σ y
σ y = λ e + µ ∈y
1 1
∈x = σ x − vλ e − vµ ∈y ∈x = σ x + vσ y
E E
1+ v
= σx
E

## Principal stress and strain directions of

isotropic materials
τ is zero along those planes,
therefore Y is also zero along these planes
i.e normal strains of the element are
principal strains. For isotropic materials -
the principal strains and
principal stresses occurs in the same direction.
Solid Mechanics

## 12. Volumetric strain and Bulk modulus

Relation between E,ν and G

1
σ 1 = τ xy ∈1 = (σ 1 − vσ 2 )
E
1
σ 2 = −τ xy ∈2 = (σ 2 − vσ 1 )
E
τ xy ( 1 + v )
∈1 =
1
E
(τ xy + vτ xy = ) E
−τ xy ( 1 + v )
∈2 =
E
Yxy τ xy
∈1 =∈xy = =
2 2G
−τ xy
∈2 =
2G
τ xy ( 1 + v ) τ xy
=
E 2G
E
G=
2 (1 + v)
Only two elastic constants are independent.
Solid Mechanics
Volumetric strain-dilatation
Consider a stress element size dx,dy ,dz
dv = dxdydz
After deformations

dx* = ( 1+ ∈x ) dx

(
dy* = 1+ ∈y dy)
dz* = ( 1+ ∈z ) dz
In addition to the changes of length of the sides, the element
also distorts so that right angles no longer remain sight
angles. For simplicity consider only Yxy .

## The volume dv* of the deformed element is then given by

( )
dv* = Area OA* B* C* × dz*

## ∴ dv* = dx* dy* dz* − Volumechange doesn't depend onY

( )
= ( 1+ ∈x ) 1+ ∈y ( 1+ ∈z ) dxdydz

## dropping all second order infinitesimal terms

Solid Mechanics

(
dv* = 1+ ∈x + ∈y + ∈z dxdydz )
Now, analogous to normal strain, we define the measure of
volumetric strain as

## final volume-initial volume

Volumetric strain =
initialvolume
dv* − dv
e=
dv
e =∈x + ∈y + ∈z

## • e = volumetric strain = dilatation. This expression is

valid only for infinitesimal strains and rotations
• e =∈x + ∈y + ∈z = J 1 = first in variance of strain.

## • Volumetric strain is scalar quantity and does not

depend on orientation of coordinate system.
• Dilatation is zero for state of pure shear.
Bulk modulus of elasticity
(1 − 2v)
∈x + ∈y + ∈z =
E
(σ x + σ y + σ z )
Mean stress = σ =
1
3
(σx +σy +σz )
3(1 − 2v)
e= σ
E
σ = Ke
Solid Mechanics
E
Where K = bulk modulus of elasticity.
3(1 − 2v)
• Bulk modulus is widely used in fluid mechanics.
• From physical reasoning E > 0 ,G > 0 ,K ≥ 0
Steel : E = 200 Gpa
v = 0.3
Al : E = 70 Gpa
v = 0.33
Copper: E = 100 Gpa
v = 0.35
E
G= SinG E and G > 0
2 (1 + v)
( 1 + v ) > 0 → v > −1
Similarly SinG E > 0 & K ≥ 0
E
K= → 1 − 2 v ≥ 0 → v ≤ 0.5
3(1 − 2v)
∴ Theoretical bounds on v are
−1 < v ≤ 0.5
as v → 0.5 K → α and C →0 material is incompressible.
Solid Mechanics

Solid Mechanics
Geometry, locating and material properties
• A prismatic bar is a st. structural member having
constant cross-section through out it length.
• Bar or rod → length of the member is cross sectional
dimensions.

## Axial force is a load directed along the axis of the member –

can create tension or compression in the member.
Typical cross sections of the members

- Solid Sections

- Hollow Sections
Solid Mechanics

- Other sections

## Material properties: The member is homogenous linearly

elastic and isotropic material.
Stresses, strains and deformations
Consider a prismatic bar of constant cross-sectional area A
and length L, with material properties A & v. Let the rod be
subjected to an axial force “p”, which acts along x-axis.

F=P
Mx = M y = M z = 0
Vy = Vz = 0

## The right of the section m-m exerts elementary forces or

stresses on to the left of the section to maintain the
equilibrium. Sum of all these elementary forces must be
equal to the resultant F.
Solid Mechanics
σ x dA = F
A
M y = σ x zdA = 0
M z = − σ x ydA = 0

## Above equation must be satisfied at every cross-section,

however, it does not tell how σ is distributed in the cross-
x

section.
The distribution cannot determine by the methods of static
or equations of equilibrium- statically indeterminate
To know about the distribution of σ x in any given section, it is
necessary to consider the deformations resulting from the
Since the body needs to develop only σ x component in order
to maintain equilibrium, therefore the state of stress at any
point of prismatic rod is

σx 0 0
σ ij = 0 0 0
0 0 0
Solid Mechanics
We make the following assumptions on deformation based
on experimental evidence
(1)The axis of the bar remains straight after Key
deformation kinematical
(2)All plane cross-sections remain plane and assumptions
perpendicular to the axis of the bar

## • As a result of the above kinematic assumptions all

points in a given y-z plane have the same displacements
in the x-direction.
• Any line segment AB undergoes same strain ∈ therefore
x

## ∈ cannot be a function of y or z, but at most is a function

x

of x- only.
In the present case situation is same at all cross-sections of
the prismatic bar, therefore
∈x = Constant
at all points of the body i.e ∈x is also no a function of x.
Solid Mechanics
Since we are studying a homogenous, linearly elastic and
isotropic prismatic bar
σx
∈x =
1
E
(
σx − v σy −σz → ) ∈x =
E
1 V
∈y = σ y − v (σ x − σ z ) → ∈y = − σ x
E E
1
(
∈z = σ z − v σ x − σ y →
E
) V
∈z = − σ x
E
In the present case, ∈x is independent of y and z coordinates,
therefore σ x is also independent of y and z coordinates i.e
σ x is uniformly distributed in a cross-section

## Moreover σ x = E ∈x = Constant throughout the bar.

We know that internal resultant force
F = σ x dA
A

## Since σ x is a independent of y & z

Solid Mechanics
F = σ da = σ A
A

F P
∴ σ= =
A A
M y = σ x .zdA = 0 zdA = 0
A A
(1)
M z = − σ x .ydA = 0 ydA = 0
A A

Eq. (1) indicates that moment are taken about the centroid of
the cross-section.
Elongation or Contraction

σx P
∈x = =
E AE
Total elongation of the rod
L L
P PL
u ( L ) − u ( 0 ) = δ = ∈x da = dx =
0 0
AE AE
Solid Mechanics
P
σx =
A
PL
δ=
AE
AE = Axial rigidity
If A,E and P are functions of x then
L
P (x)
δ= dx
0
A(x) E(x)

## Stiffness and flexibility

P = kS
S = fP
1
k=
f
AE L
k= f =
L AE
These are useful in computer analysis of structural members.
Solid Mechanics
Extension of results: Non-uniform bars (non-prismatic)
For a prismatic bar
P PL
σx = & δ=
A AE

## This is exact solution for prismatic bar.

P(x) F (x)
σx = =
A(x ) A(x)
L
P(x)
S= dx
0
A ( x ) E ( x )
Approximate exp ression
The above formula becomes a good approximation for
uniformly varying cross-sectional area A ( x ) member.
Above formula is quite satisfactory if the angle of taper is
small
Plane sections remain plane and perpendicular to the x- axis
is no longer valid for the case of non-prismatic rods.
Solid Mechanics

Σ Fx = 0 σ x ( b∆y ) − τ yx ( b∆x ) = 0
∆y
τ xy = τ yx = σ x ( x ) . s
∆x
∆y
Taking ∆x → 0 , we note that τ yx → 0 only if → 0 i.e at the
∆x
slope of the upper surface of the rod tends to zero.
Solid Mechanics
Case2

PL − ( PA + PB ) L2
δ BC = =
AE A2 E2
PL − PAL1
δ AB = =
AE A1E1

σ BC = −
( PA + PB )
A2
σ AB = − PA / A1
δCA = SBC + S AB
This method can be used when a bar consists of several
prismatic segments each having different material, each
having different axial forces, different dimensions and
different materials. The change in length may be obtained
from the equation
n
Pi Li Pi
δ= and σi =
i =1 Ai Ei Ai
Solid Mechanics
Statically indeterminate problems
Equilibrium
Σ Fy = 0
Fa1 + Fa 2 + Fs − P = 0

[Σ MC = 0]
bFa1 − bFa 2 = 0

Fa 1 = Fa 2

2 Fa + Fs = P (1)

## For statically indeterminate problems we

must consider the deformation of the
entire system to obtain “compatibility
equation”
The rigid plate must be horizontal
after deformation

## δs = δ A geometric compatibility equation

Fs Ls FAL A
δs = and δA =
As Es E A AA
Then using the geometry compatibility
FAL A Fs L As (2)
δs = δ A =
EA AA Es As
Solid Mechanics
By solving (1) & (2) we can obtain internal forces Fs & FA

## Uniaxial state stress is a special case of plane stress

σx 0
σ ij =
0 0
σ1 = σx
σ σ
τ max = 1 = x
2 2
Occurs at 45 to x − y or x − z planes.
Solid Mechanics

## A − Principal stress elements

B,C − maximum shear stress elements.

planes.

## Brittle materials weak in normal tensile stresses. They fail

along σ 1 planes.
Limitations of analysis
P PL
σx = & S=
A AE
(1)They are exact for long prismatic bars of any cross-section,
when axial force is applied at the centroid of the end cross-
sections.
Solid Mechanics
P
(2)They should not be employed (especiallyσ x =
) at
A
concentrated loads and in the regions of geometric
discontinuity.
(3)They provide good approximation if the taper is small.
(4)Above equations should not be applied for the case of
relatively short rods.
(5)They are exact for relatively short members under
Solid Mechanics
Stress concentrations
• High stresses are known as stress concentrations
• Sources of stress concentrations- stress raisers
• Stress concentrations are due to :
(2)Geometric discontinuities
Stress concentration due to concentrated loads

σ max
Stress concentration factor=K =
σ ave
P
σ nom =
bt
Solid Mechanics
Stress concentration due to hole
Discontinuities of cross section may result in high localized
or concentrated stresses.

σ max P
K= σ nom =
σ nom dt
K = Stressconcentration factor
Solid Mechanics
Stress Concentration due to fillet

σ max P
K= σ ave =
σ ave dt
Solid Mechanics

## 14. Torsion of circular bars

A prismatic bar of circular cross- section subjected to equal
and opposite torques acting at the ends.

## Whenever torques act on a member, then it will be twisted.

Torsion refers to the twisting of a straight bar when it is
Material: Homogeneous, linearly elastic, and isotropic
undergoing small deformations.
Presently theory is valid only for

## Stresses and strains in polar coordinates

Stresses, strains and displacements in polar coordinates.
Since we are dealing with a circular member it is preferable
to use polar coordinates
Solid Mechanics
σ r τ rθ τ rx
σ ij = τθ r σθ τθ x
τ xr τ xθ σ x
1
∈x = σ x − v (σ r + σ θ )
E
1
∈r = σ r − v (σ x + σ θ )
E
1
∈x = σθ − v (σ r + σ x )
E
τ rQ τ xθ τ rx
Yrθ = ; Yxθ = Yθ x = ; Yxr = Yrx =
G G G
Equilibrium and elementary forces

Fx = Vy = Vz = M y = M z = 0
Mx = T = T0

## Since every cross-section of the bar is identical and since every

cross-section is subjected to the same internal torque “T”, then the
bar is said to be under “pure torsion”
To keep the body under
equilibrium, elementary forces
dF = τ xθ dA are only forces that are
required to be exerted by the other
section, so that
Solid Mechanics

dT = dF × r = σ xθ rdA
T = τ xθ rdA (1)
A
T = T0

## Direction of τ zθ can be obtained from the direction of

internal torque T at that section.
The state of stress in pure torsion is therefore

0 0 0
0 0 τθ x
0 τ xθ 0
While the relation in (1) express an important condition that
must be satisfied by the shearing stresses τ xQ in any given
cross-section of the bar it does not tell how these stresses are
distributed in the cross-section.
The actual distribution of stresses under a given load is
statically indeterminate. So we must know about the
deformation of the bar.
Presence of τ xθ in polar coordinates means, presence of
τ xy = τ xQCosθ
τ xz = τ xQSinθ
Solid Mechanics
Therefore the state of stress in case pure torsion in terms of
rectangular stress components is then
0 τ xy τ xz
τ yx 0 0 - state of pure shear.
τ zx 0 0

Vy = τ xy dA = 0
Vz = τ xz dA = 0

## Following observations can be made from the deformation of

a circular bar subjected to equal and opposite end torques.
(1)The cross-sections of the bar do not change in shape i.e
they remain circular.
(2)A line parallel to the x- axis or longitudinal line become a
helical curve.
(3)All cross-sections remain plane.
(4)All cross-sections rotate about the axis of the bar as a solid
rigid slab.
Solid Mechanics
(5)However, various cross-sections along the bar rotate
through different amount.
(7)Neither the length of the bar nor the length of radius will
change.
These are especially of circular bars only. Not true for non-
circular bars.
Assumptions on deformation for pure torsion
(1)All cross –sections rotate with respect to the axis of the
circular bar i.e x-axis.
(2)All cross-sections remain plane and remain perpendicular
to the axis of the bar.
(3)Radial lines remain straight after the deformation.
(4)Neither the length of the bar nor its radius will change
during the deformation.
These assumptions are correct only if the circular bar
undergoes “small deformations” only.
Variation of shear strain ( Yxθ )
Because of T0 , the right
end will rotate through
an infinitesimal angle

φ - angle of twist.
Solid Mechanics
*φ - varies along the axis of the bar.

= − rate of twist angle of twist per unit length.
dx

## YxQ dx = Ydx = rdφ

Y =r
dx
Solid Mechanics
In case of pure torsion the shear strain Y varies linearly with
“r”
Maximum shear strain Y occurs at the outer surface of the
circular bar i.e., r = R

Ymax = R
dx
Shear strain is zero at the center of the bar.

The equation Y = r is strictly valid to circular bars having
dx
small deformations.
If the material is linearly elastic

τ = GY
Therefore, variation of shear stress τ xQ in pure torsion is
given by

τ = τ xQ = GYxQ = GY
dx

## Shear stress τ is only function of “r” and varies linearly with

radius r of the circular bar.

τ max = τ xQmax = RG
dx
Solid Mechanics
The torsion formula
Relation between internal torque T and shear stressτ
T = τ rdA
A

T = Gr rdA
dx

Since G & are independent of area A then
dx
dφ 2
T =G r dA
dx A

I P = r 2 dA
A
Polar moment of inertia of across − sec tion

π π
For solid circular bar, IP = D4 IP = R4
32 2

∴ T = GI P
dx
∴ dφ T
= =
dx GI P

But τ = Gr
dx
τ T
=
Gr GI P
Tr
τ=
IP
Torsion formula
Solid Mechanics
This is the relation between shear stresses τ xQ and torque T
existing at the section.
Torsion formula is independent of material property.

TR
τ max = τ xQmax =
IP

16T
τ max =
π D3
for solid circular bars

Angles of twist
We now determine the relative rotation of any two cross-
sections

dφ T
= =
dx GI P
xB
T
φB / A = φB − φ A = dx
xA
GI P
Solid Mechanics
In case of prismatic circular bar subjected to equal opposite
torques at the ends

TL
φB / A = φB − φA = n
GI P
if xB − x A = L
puretorsion

## Direction of φ at a section is same as that of T

TL T0L
φ= =
GI P GI P

dφ T
Since = = then, in case of pure torsion.
dx GI P
dφ φ
= = = constant
dx L

## Thus in case of pure torsion φ ( x ) varies linearly with x

In case of torsion
TL
φ=
GI P
displacement

GI P L
k= ; f =
L GI P

Solid Mechanics

τ xy = τ xQCosθ
τ xz = τ xQSinθ

## We should ensure that distribution of τ xQ should also gives

Vy = Vz = 0

Vy = τ xy dA = τ xθ Cosθ dA
A A
2π R
Tr
Vy = Cosθ drdθ
0
I
0 P
2π R
T
= rCosθ drdθ = 0
IP 0 0

∴ Vy = 0
2π R
T
Vz = rSinθ drdθ = 0
IP 0 0

∴ Vz = 0
Hollow circular bars: The deformation of hollow circular
bars and solid circular bars are same. The key kinematic
assumptions are valid for any circular bar, either solid or
hollow. Therefore all equations of solid circular bars can be
employed for hollow circular bars, instead of using
Solid Mechanics
π 4
IP = D − Soild
32
π
IP =
32
( )
Do 4 − Di4 − hollow

TRo
τ max =
IP
TR
τ min = i
IP

Hollow bars are move efficient than solid bars of same “A”.
• Most of the material in soild shaft is stressed below the
maximum stress and also have smaller moment arm “r”.
• In hollow tube most of the material is near the outer
boundary, where τ is maximum values and has large
moment arms “r”.

Tr
τ=
IP
π 4
IP = D − solid
32
π
=
32
( )
Do4 − Di4 − hollow
Solid Mechanics
TR TRo
τ max = ;
IP IP
TR
τ min = i
IP
τ
Y=
G
τ ,Y − f ( r )
dφ T
= =
dx GI P
TL
φ B / A = φB − φ A =
GI P
L = xB − x A
= constant
φ = linearly with x
(4) If weight reduction and savings of materials are
important, it is advisable to use a circular tube.
(5) Ex large drive shafts, propeller shafts, and generator
shafts usually have hollow circular cross sections.
Extension of results
Case-I Bar with continuously varying cross-sections and
continuously varying torque
• Pure torsion refers to torsion of prismatic bar subjected
to torques acting only at the ends.
Solid Mechanics
• All expressions are developed based on the key
kinematic assumptions, these are therefore, strictly valid
only for prismatic circular bars.

T (x)r
τ (x) =
IP (x )
dφ T (x)
(x) = =
dx GI P ( x )
xB
T (x)
φB − φ A = φB / A = dx
xA
GI P ( x )

## The above equations yield good approximations to the exact

solution, provide if R ( x ) doesn’t vary sharply with x.
Solid Mechanics
Some special cases

Tr T (x)r
τ (x) = τ (x) =
IP (x ) IP
T T (x)
(x) = (x) =
GI P ( x ) GI P
Case II

Ti ri
τi =
I Pi

n
Ti Li
φB / A =
i =1 Gi I Pi
Solid Mechanics
Statically indeterminate problems

[Σ Mx = 0] TA + TC + T = 0 (1)
We note that within AB, T = TA and
within BC T = TC

## • To solve the problem we must consider geometry of

deformation to formulate the compatibility equation.
• Clearly the rotation of section B with respect to A must
be same as that with respect to C i.e
φB / A = φB / C
Compatibility equation
TAL AB T L
φB / A = ; φB / C = C BC
G AB I PAB GBC I PBC
TAL AB T L (2)
= C BC
G AB I PAB GBC I PBC
Solid Mechanics
Stresses in pure torsion

## If a torsion bar is made up of brittle material, which is

generally weak in tension, failure will occur in tension along
a helix inclined at 45 to the axis.
Ductile materials generally fail in shear. When subjected to
torsion, a ductile circular bar breaks along a plane
perpendicular to its longitudinal axis or x – axis.
Solid Mechanics

P
σx =
A

## Torsion testing m/c

Solid Mechanics

Principal of
superposition

TR
τ max = P
IP σx =
A
Solid Mechanics
Stress concentrations in torsion

## Stress concentration effect is greatest at section B-B

τ max = Kτ avg = Kτ nom
16T
τ avg = τ nom = Kτ 1 = K
π D13
Solid Mechanics
Tr T TL dφ
τ= , = ;φ = ;Y = r
IP GI P GI P dx

## Limitations of torsion formulae

(1)The above solutions are exact for pure torsion of circular
members (solid or hollow section)
(2)Above equations can be applied to bars (solid or hollow)
with varying cross-sections only when changes in R ( x ) are
(3)Stresses determined from the torsion formula are valid in
regions of the bar away from stress concentrations, which are
high localized stresses that occur whenever diameter
changes abruptly and whenever concentrated torque are
applied.
(4)It is important to recognize that, the above equation
should not be used for bars of other shapes. Noncircular bars
under torsion are entirely different from circular bars.
Solid Mechanics

## 15. Symmetrical bending of beams

Some basics

having their vectors perpendicular to the axis of the bar.
• Classification of structural members.
• Axially loaded bars :- Supports forces having their
vectors directed along the axis of the bar.
• Bar in tension:- Supports torques having their moment
vectors directed along the axis.
• Beams :- Subjected to lateral loads.
• Beams undergo bending (flexure) because of lateral
Solid Mechanics
Roughly speaking, “bending” refers to a change in shape from
a straight configuration to a non straight configuration.
Bending moments i.e M z and M y are responsible for
bending of beams.
The loads acting on a beam cause the beam to bend or flex,
thereby deforming its axis into a curve-known as “
deflection curve” of the beam.

## If all points in x − y plane remain in the xy − plane after

deformation i.e after bending then xy − plane is known as
“plane of bending”.
If a beam bend in a particular plane, then the deflection
curve is a plane curve lying in the plane of bending.
Solid Mechanics
The y − direction displacement [i.e. v − component] of any
point along its axis is known as the “deflection of the
beam”.
Pure bending and non-uniform bending
If the internal bending moment is constant at all sections
then beam is said to be under “pure bending”.
dM
= −V
dx
Pure bending (i.e., M=constant) occurs only in regions of a beam
where the shear force is zero.

## If M = M ( x ) it is non- uniform bending

Solid Mechanics
Curvature of a beam
When loads are applied to the beam, if it bends in a plane
say xy − plane, then its longitudinal axis is deformed into a
curve.
O− Center of curvature

1
k= = Curvature
R

in general R = R ( x ) and k = k ( x ) .
RdQ = dS
1 dQ
k= = for any amount of R
R dS
The deflections of beams are very small under small
deformation condition. small deflections means that the
deflection curve is nearly flat.
1 dQ
under small deformations.
k= =
R dX
Solid Mechanics

## It is given that deflections at A and B should be zero.

Symmetrical bending of beams in a state of pure bending
A long prismatic member possess a plane of symmetry
subjected to equal and opposite couples M0 (or bending
moments) acting in the same plane of symmetry.
Solid Mechanics
Initially we choose origin of the coordinate system “ O ” is
not at the centroid of the cross-section.
The y − axis passing through the cross-section is an axis of
symmetry. The XY plane is the plane of symmetry.

## Material is homogeneous, linearly elastic and isotropic

undergoing small deformations.
Stresses in symmetric member in pure bending

Fx = Vy = Vz = 0
Mx = My = 0
M z = M = M0
Solid Mechanics

M = − yσ x dA

## Therefore, σ x dA are the only elementary forces that are

required to be developed by right of the section on to the left
of the section.
The distribution of σ X any section should satisfy

Fx = 0 σ x dA = 0
My = 0 zσ x dA = 0
Mz = M − yσ x dA = M

## Actual distribution of stresses - cannot by statics - statically

indeterminate - deformations should be considered.
Thus, the state of stress at any point within a prismatic beam
(cross-section having an axis of symmetry) subjected to pure
bending is a uniaxial state of stress.
σx 0 0
σ ij = 0 0 0
0 0 0
Solid Mechanics
Deformations in a symmetric member in pure bending
Since the member is subjected to bending moments, it will
bend under the action of these couples.

## Since, the prismatic member possessing a plane of symmetry

(i.e xy- plane) and subjected to equal and opposite couples
M0 acting in the plane of symmetry, the member will bend
in the plane of symmetry (i.e xy plane).
The curvature k at a particular point on the axis of the beam
depends on the bending moment at that point. Therefore a
prismatic beam in pure bending will have constant
curvature.
The line AB, which was originally a straight line, will be
transformed in to a circle of center O and so the line A′B′ .
Solid Mechanics
Decrease in length of AB and increase in length of A′B′ in
positive bending.
Cross-sections which are plane and ⊥ to the axis of Kinematic
the undeformed beam, remain plane and remain ⊥ to assumption
the axis of the deformed beam i.e to the deflection
curve.
Variation of strain and M − κ relation
Elementary theory of bending or Euler-Bernoulli theory

## Under the action of M0 , the beam deflects in the xy – plane

(plane of symmetry) and any longitudinal fibers such as SS
bent into a circular curve. The beam is bent concave upward
(due to +ve bending) upon which is a +ve curvature.
Solid Mechanics
Cross-sections mn and pq remain plane and normal to the
longitudinal axis of the beam. Cross-sections mn and pq
rotate with respect to each other about z-axis.
Lower part of the beam is intension and upper part is in
compression.
The x- axis lies along the neutral surface of undeformed
beam
Variation of strain and M-k relations (contd.)

## Initial length of fiber ef = dx

Final length of ef = e* f * = ( R − y ) dQ
The distance dx between two planes is unchanged at the
neutral surface,

1 dQ
RdQ = dx k= =
R dx
Solid Mechanics
Therefore, the longitudinal strain i.e ∈x at a distance “y”
from the neutral axis is
e* f * − ef ( R − y ) dQ − dx − y
∈x = = =
ef dx R
y ∈x = − ky
∴ ∈x = −
R

## In case of pure bending ∈x ≠∈x ( x and z ) ,∈x =∈x ( y )

The preceding equation shows that the longitudinal strains
(∈x ) in the beam (in pure bending) are proportional to the
curvature and vary linearly with the distance y from the
neutral axis or neutral surface.

## ∈x = 0 at the neutral surface

− y1
Maximum compressive ∈x =
R
+ y2
Maximum tensile ∈x =
R
However, we still do not know the location of neutral axis or
neutral surface.
Solid Mechanics
Stresses in beams in pure bending :- For linearly elastic and
isotropic beam material
τ xy
∈x =
1
E
(
σx − v σy +σz ) Yxy =
G
1 τ yz
∈y = σ y − v (σ x + σ z ) Yyz =
E G
τ zx
∈z =
1
E
(
σz − v σx +σy ) Yxz =
G
The state of the stress at any point within a prismatic beam
in pure bending is
σx 0 0
σ ij = 0 0 0
0 0 0
−Ey
∴ σ x = E ∈x = = −Eky
R
V
∈y = − σ x = −V ∈x
E
V
∈z = − σ x = −V ∈x
E
From the above equation
σ x ≠ σ ( x ,z )
σ x = σ ( y ) ∈x =∈x ( y )
∈x = linear f ( y )
∴σ x = linear f ( y )
i.e.,var y linearly with the distance y from the neutral surface
Solid Mechanics

## σ x at y = 0 i.e on the neutral surface = 0

EC 1
Maximum compressive σ x = −
R
EC 2
Maximum tensile σx =
R
Maximum normal stress σ x occurs at the points farthest
from the neutral axis.
In order to compute the stresses and strain we must locate
the neutral axis of the cross-section.
Solid Mechanics
Location of neutral axis
We must satisfy the following equations at any given section
m-m
σ x dA = 0
− σ x ydA = M = M0 = M z
σ x zdA = M y = 0

Ey
σ x dA = − =0
A A
R

ydA = 0
A

## The above equation shows that the distance y between

neutral axis and centroid “C” of a cross-section is zero.

## In other words, the neutral axis i.e z-axis pass through

the centroid of the cross-section, provided if the
material follows Hooke’s law.
Solid Mechanics
The origin ‘O’ of coordinates is located at the centroid of the
cross-sectional area.
Thus, when a prismatic beam of linearly elastic material is
subjected to pure bending, the y and z (neutral axis) axes are
principal centroidal axes.
Moment – Curvature relationship

M = − σ x ydA
A
Ey
M=+ ydA
A
R

E
M= y 2 dA
RA
y 2 dA = I zz = Moment of inertia of
neutral axis
EI
∴ M=
R

1 M
k= =
R EI

1 M0
k= =
R EI Moment-Curvature relation
Solid Mechanics
Curvature k is directly proportional to M- internal bending
moment and inversely proportional to EI- flexural rigidity of
the beam.
Flexural rigidity is a measure of the resistance of a beam to
bending.

## Relation between σ x and M - Flexure formula

σ x = −Eky
M
and k =
EI
My
∴ σx = − - flexure formula.
I
Stresses evaluated from flexure formula are called bending
stresses or flexural stresses.
Solid Mechanics
The maximum tensile and compressive bending stresses
occur at points located farthest from the neutral axis.
The maximum normal stresses are

− MC1 M MC 2 M
σ1 = =− σ2 = =
I S1 I S2
I I
S1 = and S2 = -Section moduli
C1 C2

S = Section modulus

## z − axis – neutral axis

Solid Mechanics

bh 3 bh 2
I zz = S=
12 6

π π d3
I zz = d 4 S=
64 32

bh 3
I zz =
36
h = 3 b / 2 for eqilateral triangle

I zz = 0.1098r 4
Solid Mechanics
Distribution σ x on various cross-sections

M
σ max =
S
I
S=
ymax
M = σ alllowS

Ssquare
= 1.18
Scircle
Solid Mechanics
• This result shows that a beam of square cross-section is
more efficient in resisting bending then circular beam of
same area.
• A circle has a relatively larger amount of material
located near the neutral axis. This material is less highly
stresses.
• I - Section is more efficient then a rectangular cross-
section of the same area and height, because I - section
has most of the material in the flanges at the greatest
available distance from the neutral axis.
Extension of results
Long prismatic beam under pure bending, and symmetrical
bending.

M ≠ M (x)
M = Constant

My σx
σx (y) = − ∈x =
I E
I = I zz ∈y = − v ∈x
1 M ∈z = − v ∈z
k= =
R EI

## Elementary theory of bending

Solid Mechanics
Bending of beams due to applied lateral loads

dM
= −V
dx

## Consider now a beam subjected to typical arbitrary

transverse loads acting. In this case the interval bending
moment M = M ( x ) and V ( x ) ≠ 0, and thus we have non-
uniform bending.
Non-uniform bending is a result of presence of transverse shear
force V ( y ) . If V ( y ) = 0 then M = constant.
It can be shown that the above results can also be used for
non-uniform bending problems.

−M (x ) y σ x ( x,y )
σ x ( x,y ) = ∈x ( x,y ) =
I E
1 M (x) ∈y = −ν ∈x
k= =
R (x) EI ∈z = −ν ∈x
Solid Mechanics
The above results can also be used for non-uniform bending
problems provided if they satisfy the following conditions.

## • The cross-sections should have y-axis of symmetry

• All applied transverse or lateral loads should lie in the
x-y plane of symmetry and all applied couples act about
z-axis only.
• L h − − long slender beams
• Bending that conforms to conditions (i) and (ii) is called
symmetrical bending.
If these three conditions are satisfied then one can employ
the following expressions for non-uniform bending as-well
Solid Mechanics
M (x) y σx
σ x ( x,y ) = − ∈x ( x,y ) =
I E
I = I zz ∈y ( x ,y ) = − v ∈x
1 M (x) ∈z ( x,y ) = − v ∈z
k(x) = =
R(x) EI
Application of above equations to the non-uniform bending
problems is equivalent to the following two assumptions.
still remain plane after deformation and they remain ⊥ to
the deformed longitudinal axis or neutral surface.
Bending stresses in a non-prismatic beam
The above equation can also be applied to the case of non-
prismatic beam subjected to either pure or non-uniform
bending, provided cross-sectional properties do not vary
sharply.

M (x) y
σx = −
I (x)
1 M (x)
k (x) = =
R ( x ) EI ( x )
Solid Mechanics
Problem
Determine the maximum tensile and compressive stresses in
the beam due to the uniform load.

Solution
Centroid :-

A mm2 y yA mm3

1 20 × 90 = 1800 50 90 × 10 3
2 40 × 30 = 1200 20 24 × 10 3
3
A = Σ A = 3000 Σ yA = 114 × 10

Ay = Σ yA y 3000 = 114 × 10 3 y = 38 mm

(
I zz = I = Σ I + Ad 2 s )
bh 3
12
1 1
= 90 × 20 3 + 1800 × 12 2 + × 30 × 40 2 + 1200 × 182
12 12

## I zz = I = 868 × 10 3 mm4 = 868 × 10−9 m4

Solid Mechanics
C1 = 22 mm and C 2 = 38 mm
My
σx = −
I
M I
σ max = :S=
S ymax
At maximum +ve bending moment i.e at (D)

I 868 × 10 −9 −6
S1 = = = 39 .45 × 10
C1 22 × 10 −3
I 868 × 10 −9
S2 = = −3
= 22.84 × 10 −6
C 2 38 × 10

at D:
M 1.898
σt = =
max s2 22.84 × 10 −6

σt = 83.1 MPa
max
M 1.898
σC = =
max s1 39.45 × 10 −6
σC = 48.11 MPa
max

## At maximum -ve moment i.e at (B)

M 3.375
σt = = = 85.55 MPa
max s1 39.45 × 10 −6
M 3.375
σC = = −6
= 147.8 MPa
max s2 22.84 × 10
σ tmax = 85.55 and σ Cmax = 147.8 MPa
Solid Mechanics
Problem
a wooden member of length L = 3m having a rectangular
cross-section 3 cm × 6 cm is to be used as a cantilever with a
load P = 240 N acting at the free end. Can the member carry
this load if the allowable flexural stress both in tension and
in compression is σ allow = 50 Mpa ?

Solution
Mmax = 720 N-m

1 0.06 × 0.033
SA = = 9 × 10 −6 m 3
12 0.015
M PL
σ tmax = σ Cmax = =
SA SA
σ tmax = σ Cmax = σ allow
σ allow × S A
Palow = = 150 N
L
1 0.03 × 0.06 3
SB = = 1.8 × 10 −5 m3
12 0.03
σ ×S
Palow = allow B = 300 N
L

## ∴The beam can carry P = 240 N only when oriented as in (B)

Solid Mechanics
Limitations
(1)The flexure formula is exact for a prismatic beam in pure
bending.
(2)It provides very good approximation of σ x for long
slender beams (L >> h) under symmetrical bending.
(3)The flexure formula can be employed for any shape of the
cross-section, provided the cross-section has y-axis of
symmetry.
(4)It should not be employed in regions close to geometric
Solid Mechanics

## 16. Shear Stresses in Beams

Vy ( x ) = τ xy dA
A

## It is reasonable to assume that

(1)The shear stresses acting on the cross-section are parallel
to the shear force Vy ( x ) i.e ⊥ to the line PQ

## (2)It is also reasonable to assume that the shear stresses τ xy

are uniformly distributed across the width of the beam, so
that M x = T = 0 for symmetrical bending
∴ τ xy = τ xy ( x,y ) such thats
Vy ( x ) = τ xy ( x,y ) dA
A
Solid Mechanics

## • Thus, there are horizontal shear stresses (or longitudinal

shear stresses) acting between horizontal layers of the
beam as well as vertical shear stresses acting on the
cross-sections.
• At any point of the beam τ xy = τ yx

τ yx

## • Sinceτ xy = τ yx , it follows that the vertical shear stresses

h
τ xy must vanish at y = ± , if the beam is subjected only
2
Solid Mechanics
Derivation of shear stress formula
Beam under non-uniform bending i.e M = M ( x )

## t = width or thickness of the beam at y = y1

Solid Mechanics
We now wish to satisfy equilibrium in the x- direction.
Taking [ Σ Fx → + = 0 ] we have then

## − σ x ( x + ∆x,y ) dA + σ x ( x,y ) dA + τ yxt∆x = 0

A A

1
τ yxt = σ x ( x + ∆x,y ) dA − σ x ( x,y ) dA
∆x A A
−M (x ) y
σ x ( x ,y ) =
I

1 1 1
τ yxt = − M ( x + ∆x ) ydA + M ( x ) ydA
∆x I A IA

1
τ yxt = − M ( x + ∆x ) − M ( x ) ydA
∆xI A
−1 M ( x + ∆x ) − M ( x )
τ yx = ydA
It ∆x A

taking limit as ∆x → 0
−1 M ( x + ∆x ) − M ( x )
τ yx = lim ydA
It ∆x→0 ∆x A
−1 dM
τ yx = ydA
It dx A

dM
= −Vy ( x )
dx
Vy ( x )
∴ τ yx = ydA
It A
Solid Mechanics
The above integral is by definition the first moment of are A

## about the z-axis, we denote it by symbol Q.

Q = ydA
A
VyQ
∴ τ yx = τ xy = τ =
It (1)
shear formula
in the above equation I = I zz stands for the moment of
inertia of the entire cross sectional area around the neutral
axis.

From (1)
VyQ VQ
τ yxt = f = =
I I
The quantity “f” is known as the “shear flow”.
Shear flow is the horizontal shear force per unit distance
along the longitudinal axis of the beam.
Solid Mechanics
Distribution of shear stresses in a Rectangular beam
An example of application of equations
h h / 2−y
Q = udA = b −y y+ s
A
2 2

b h2
Q= − y2
2 4
1 3
I= bh
12
VQ V h 2
τ xy = τ yx = = − y2
It 2 I 4
h
at y = ± τ xy = τ yx = 0
2

## The shear stresses in a rectangular beam vary quadratically

with the distance y from the neutral axis.
Maximum value of shear stress occurs at the neutral axis
where Q is maximum.

Vh 2 3 V
τ xymax = τ yxmax = =
8I 2A
Solid Mechanics
Thus τ max in a beam of rectangular cross-section is 50%
V
larger than the average shear stress
A

## It is always possible to express the maximum shear stress τ xy

as
V
τ xymax = K
A
for most of the cross-sectional areas
3
K= Rec tan gular
2
4
K= Circular
3
3
K= Triangular
2
For most of the cross-section τ max occurs at the neutral axis.
This is not always true.
Solid Mechanics
Stress elements in non-uniform bending
Solid Mechanics
Problem
A wood beam AB is loaded as shown in the figure. It has a
rectangular cross –section (see figure). Determine the
maximum permissible value pmax of the loads if the
allowable stress is bending is σ allow = 11 MPa (for both tension
and compression) and allowable stress in horizontal shear is
τ allow = 1.2 MPa

Solution

## Vmax = P Mmax = 0.5 P = Pa

bh 2
S= A = bh
6
M 6 Pa
∴ σ max = max = 2
S bh
3 Vmax 3 P 3 P
τ xymax = τ yxmax = τ max = = =
2 A 2 A 2 bh
Therefore, the maximum permissible values of the load P in
dending and shear respectively are

σ allowbh 2 2τ allow bh
Pallow b = Pallow s =
6a 3
Solid Mechanics
Substituting numerical values into these formulas,
Pallow b = 8.25 kN

Pallow s = 8.25 kN

## Thus bending governs the design and the maximum

Pmax = 8.25 kN
Problem
An I –beam is loaded as in figure. If it has the cross-section as
shown in figure, determine the shearing stresses at the levels
indicated. Neglect the weight of the beam.

Solution

Solid Mechanics

## ( 150 )( 300 )3 ( 138 )( 276 )3

I zz = I = − = 95.7 × 106 mm 4s
12 12
V 250 × 10 3
The ratio = = 2.61 × 10 −3 N / mm 4s
I 95.7 × 106
Level A mm2 ( ) y Q = Ay t
τ xy =
VQ
MPa
mm ×10 3 mm3 mm It

## 1-1 0 150 0 150 0

2-2 12 × 150 144 259.2 150 4.5
= 1800 12 56.4
3-3 12 × 150 144 259.2
278.2
= 1800 132 19.0 12 60.5
12 × 12
= 144
4-4 12 × 150 144 259.2
373.5
= 1800 69 114.3 12 81.3
12 × 138
= 1656

## τ max = 81.3 MPa

Solid Mechanics
Warping of the cross sections due to shear stress

## Plane sections will not remain plane and perpendicular to

the axis of the beam in the deformed configuration due to
the presence of shear force.
The cross-sections are wrapped with highest distortion at the
axis.
It can be shown that if L >> h then distortion of cross-sections
due to shear negligible.
Use all formulae developed so far only when L >> h - such
beams are called slender beams.
Do not apply them if L << h -- short beams.
Solid Mechanics

## 17. Theories of failure or yield criteria

(1) Maximum shearing stress theory
For ductile materials
(2) Octahedral shearing stress theory
(3) Maximum normal stress theory – for brittle materials.
Maximum shearing stress theory or Tresca Criterion
This theory says that:
Yielding occurs when the maximum shear stress in the material
reaches the value of the shear stress at yielding in a uniaxial
tension (or compression) test.
Maximum shearing stress under general state of stress is
τ max = max (τ 1 ,τ 2 ,τ 3 )
σ2 −σ3 σ1 −σ3 σ1 −σ2
where τ 1 = ; τ2 = ; τ3 =
2 2 2
The maximum shearing stress in uniaxial tension test at the
moment of yielding is
σ ys
τt =
2
σ ys
Tresca criterion is τ max ≥
2
Octahedral shearing stress theory or Hencky-Von-Mises
failure criterion
This theory also known as “The maximum distortion strain-
energy theory”
Solid Mechanics
This theory states that
Yielding occurs when the octahedral shear stress in the material is
equal to the value of the octahedral shear stress at yielding in a
uniaxial tensile test.
1
τ oct = (σ 1 − σ 2 ) 2 + (σ 2 − σ 3 ) 2 + (σ 1 − σ 3 ) 2
3
Octahedral shear stress in the uniaxial tension test at the
moment of yielding i.e. σ y = σ ys = σ 1

1
( ) ( )
2 2
τt = σ ys − 0 + ( 0 − 0 )2 + σ ys − 0
3
2
τt = σ ys
3
2
Von Mises theory says that τ oct ≥ σ ys
3
3
σ von = τ oct
2
Von Mises theory says that τ von ≥ σ ys

## * Excellent experimental evidence is available for

supporting maximum shearing stress and Von Mises
criterion

## Maximum Normal stress criterion or Rankine Theory:

This theory is generally used for design of components made
up of brittle materials.
Solid Mechanics
According to this theory, a given structural component fails when
the maximum normal stress (tensile) in that component reaches the
ultimate strength or ultimate stress σ ult obtained from the tensile
test of a specimen of the same material.
Thus the structural component will fail when
σ 1 ≥ σ ult
Simple application of theories
Solid Mechanics

Torsion + Direct shear

Mr Tr
σA = τ1 =
I Ip
4V
τ2 =
3A
Solid Mechanics

− My
σx =
I
P
σx = P − M zz y
A σx = +
A I zz
Neutral surface is now shifted due to the application of axial
Solid Mechanics

## 19. Elastic strain energy

Consider an infinitesimal stress element at point in a linearly
elastic body, subjected to a normal stress σ x

## The work done by this force

1
dWint = dF × dS
2
1
= σ x dydz × ∈x dx
2
force distance

1
dWint = σ x ∈x dV
2
This internal work is stored in the volume of the element as
the internal elastic energy or the elastic strain energy.
1
∴ dU = σ x ∈x dV
2
dV = volume of the element.
The strain energy density U0 is defined as the internal elastic
energy stored in an elastic body per unit volume of the
material.
dU σ x ∈x
∴ Strain energy density = U0 = =
dV 2
Solid Mechanics
U0 can be interpreted as an area under the inclined line on
the stress-strain diagram. Similar expressions can developed
for σ y and σ z corresponding to strains ∈y and ∈z .

## Elastic strain energy for shearing stresses:

1
dUshear = τ xy dxdz × Yxy dy
2
distance
average force

1
dU shear = τ xy Yxy dv
2
Analogous expressions apply for the shearing stresses
τ xz ,τ zx with the corresponding shear strains Yyz and Yxz

## Strain energy for multiaxial states of stress

The strain energy expressions for a 3D state of stress follow
directly by addition of the energies of each stress component.
dU =
1 1 1 1 1 1
σ x ∈x + σ y ∈y + σ z ∈z + τ xyYxy + τ yzYyz + τ zxYzx dV
2 2 2 2 2 2
The strain energy density for the most general case is
Solid Mechanics
dU 1 1 1 1
U0 = = ∈x σ x + ∈y σ y + ∈z σ z + τ xyYxy
dv 2 2 2 2
1 1
+ τ yzYyz + τ zxYzx
2 2
Substituting the values of strain components from
generalized Hooke’s law, we can show that

U0 =
1
2E
( ) (
v
σ x2 + σ y2 + σ z2 − σ xσ y + σ yσ z + σ zσ x
E
)
+
1 2
2G
( 2
τ xy + τ yz 2
+ τ zx )
It is the expression for elastic strain energy per unit volume
for linearly plastic, homogeneous, isotropic materials.
In general, for a stressed body the total strain energy is
obtained by integration of U over its volume.
0

V

## Internal strain energy in axially loaded bars

σ x = σ z = τ xy = τ xz = τ yz = 0
1 1 σ 1 2
∴ U 0 = σ x ∈x = σ x x = σx
2 2 E 2E
1 2
∴ The total internal energy = U = U 0 dv = σ x dV
V V
2 E
Solid Mechanics

σ x2 P2 P2L
U= AL == 2
.AL =
2E 2 EA 2 EA
P 2L
U=
2 EA
Strain energy in torsion of circular shafts

1 1 τ 1 2
U0 = τ .Y = τ . = τ
2 2 G 2G
1 2 TY
U = U 0 dv = τ dv τ=
2G IP
v v
Tr π
τ= where I p = R4
Ip 2
R
1 T2 2
U= . 2 .r .2π r.dr.L
0
2 G Ip
T 2L
U=
2GI p

## Strain energy in bending

σ x2 M2 2 M2
∴ U= dv = 2
y dv = 2
y 2 dA.L
v
2E v
2 EI 2 EI
Solid Mechanics

M 2L
U=
2 EI

Conclusion
P2L
2 AE
T 2L
Torsion of shafts U=
2GI P

M 2L
Bending (pure) of beams U=
2 EI
We can use the following equations in case of non-uniform
cases
L L L
P2 T2 M2
U= dx ; U = dx ; U = dx
0
2 AE 0
2 GI P 0
2 EI
Solid Mechanics
Problem:
P ( x ) = Y.A ( L − x )
L
P2
U= dx
0
2 AE
L
Y 2 A2 ( L − x ) 2
= dx
0
2 AE
L
Y 2 A2 2 2 Y2A 2 L3
= L + x − 2 Lx.dx = L L + − L3
2 AE 0 2E 3

Y 2 A2 3 L3 3 Y 2 AL3
= L + −L =
2 AE 3 6E

P2L
U=
2 AE
P ( x ) = Y.A ( L − x ) + P
L
Y 2 A2 ( L − x )2 + P 2 + 2YA ( L − x ) .P
U= dx
0
2 AE

Y 2 AL3 P 2 L2 2YAP 2 L2
U= + + L −
6E 2 AE 2 AE 2
Y 2 AL3 P 2 L2 YP 2
= + +
6E 2 AE 2 E
Since U ∞ P 2 or U∞δ 2 principle of superposition should
not be used.
Solid Mechanics

## 20. Deflection of beams

When a beam with a straight longitudinal axis is loaded by
lateral loads, the axis is deformed into a curve, called the
“deflection curve” or “elastic-curve”

## Deflections: means u ,v displacement of any particle. In case

of beams deflection means v displacement of particles
located on the axis of the beam.
Deflection calculation is an important part of component
design
Deflections -- useful in vibration, analysis of various
Undesirable vibrations are due to excessive deflections.
Solid Mechanics
Approximate sketches of deflection curves
Approximate sketches of the deflection curve can be drawn
We know that +BM means

- BM means

Examples
(1)
Solid Mechanics
The objective is to find the shape of the elastic curve or
deflection curve for given loads i.e., what is the function v(x).
There are two approaches
(1) Differential equations of the deflection curve
(2) Moment-area method
Differential equations of the deflection curve
Consider a cantilever beam: The axis of the beam deforms
into a curve as shown due to load P.

## Here we assume only symmetrical bending case. The xy

plane is the plane of bending.
↓ − v deflection of the beam.
↑ v + ve and. ↓ − v
To obtain deflection curve we must express v as a function
of x.
Solid Mechanics
When the beam is bent, there is not only a deflection at each
point along the axis but also a rotation.
The angle of rotation θ of the axis of the beam is the angle
between x – axis and the tangent to the deflection curve at a
point.
For given x-y coordinate system
θ → + ve → anticlockwise
O′ = Center of curvature
From geometry ρ dθ = ds
1 dθ
k= =
ρ ds
curvature of the deflectioncurve
k - curvature - +ve when angle of rotation increases as we
move along the beam in the +ve x – direction.
dv
Slope of the deflectioncurve = = tanθ
dx
dv
Slope is positive when the tangent to the curve slopes
dx
upward to the right.
The deflection curves of most beams have very small angles
of rotations, very small deflection and very small curvatures.
That is they undergo small deformations.
When the angle of rotation θ is extremely small, the
deflection curve is nearly horizontal
Solid Mechanics
ds ≈ dx
This follows from the fact that
2
ds = dx 2 + dv 2 = 1 + ( v′ ) dx
2
for small θ ( v′ ) can be neglected compared to 1

∴ ds ≈ dx
Therefore, in small deflection theory no difference in length
is said to exist between the initial length of the axis and the
arc of the elastic curve.
1 dθ
k= =
ρ dx
Since θ is small tanθ ≈ θ
dv
∴ =θ
dx

1dθ d 2 v
∴k = = = 2
ρ dx dx

d 2ν
k = 2 = ν ′′
dx only insmall deformationtheory
du
θ= = u′
dx
If the material of the beam is linearly elastic and follows
Hooke’s law, the curvature is
1 M
k= =
ρ EI
Solid Mechanics
+ M → leads to +K and so on

d2v M
∴ 2= or
dx EI
d2 v
EI 2 = M
dx
The basic differential equations of the deflection curve.
Sign conventions used in the above equation:
dv
(a) The (b) and θ are
dx
(c) k is + (d) M is +ve if beam bends
Another useful equations can be obtained by noting that

dM
= −V
dx
dV
= −p
dx

Non-prismatic beams
d2v
EI ( x ) 2 = M ( x )
dx
( EI ( x ) v′′ )′ = − v ( x )
( EI ( x ) v′′ )′′ = + P ( x )
Solid Mechanics
For prismatic beams.

## EIv′′ = M ( x ) BM equation( 2 nd order )

EIv′′′ = −V ( x ) Shear force equation( 3rd order )
EIv′′′′ = + P ( x ) Load equation( 4th order )
Integrating the equations and then evaluating constants of
integration from boundary conditions of the beam.
Assumptions involved in the above equations
(a) Material obeys Hooke’s law
(b) Slope of deflection curve small – small deformations
(c) Deformations due to bending only – shear neglected
When sketching deflection curve we greatly exaggerate the
deflection for clarity. Otherwise they actually are very small
quantities.
Solid Mechanics
Approximate sketching
(3) (4)

(5) (6)
Solid Mechanics
Boundary conditions
(1)Boundary conditions
(2)Continuity conditions
(3)Symmetry conditions
Boundary conditions
Pertain to the deflections and slopes at the supports of a
beam:
(i)Fixed support or clamped support

v ( a) = 0
θ ( a ) = v′ ( a ) = 0

(ii)

v ( a) = 0
M ( a ) = EIv′′ ( a ) = 0 v′′ ( a ) = 0
M ( a ) = EIv′′ ( a ) = 0
(iii)
V ( a ) = −EIv′′ ( a ) = 0
Solid Mechanics
Continuity conditions
All deflection curves are physically
continuous. Therefore
v ( c ) from side AC = v ( c ) from side BC
Similarly at “C”
v′ ( c ) from side AC = v′ ( c ) from side BC

Symmetry conditions
L
2
and beam. This we should load
The method for finding deflection using differential
equations is known as “ method of successive integration”.
Application of principle of superposition: Numerous
readily available. Therefore in practice the deflection of beam
solved using principle of superposition.

+ +
Solid Mechanics
Problem 1
Determine the equation of the deflection curve for a simple
beam AB supporting a uniform load of intensity of acting
through out the span of the beam. Also determine maximum
deflection δ max at the mid point of the beam and the angles
of rotation Q A and QB at the supports. Beam has constant EI.
Solution

qL
V+ − qx = 0
2
qL
V = qx − (1)
2
qL qx 2
M− x+ =0
2 2
qLx qx 2
M= − (2)
2 2
Differential equation of deflection curve.
EIv′′ = M ( x )
qLx qx 2
EIv′′ = −
2 2
Slope of the beam
Solid Mechanics
qLx 2 qx 3
EIv′ = − + C1
4 6
BC → Symmetry conditions
L
v′ x = =0
2
qLL2 qL3
0= − + C1
16 48
qL3 qL3
0= − + C1
16 48
qL3
C1 = −
24
Slope equation is
qLx 2 qx 3 qL3
EIv′ = − − s
4 6 24
−q
v′ =
24EI
(
L3 − 6L2 + x 3)
Deflection of the beam

qLx 3 qx 4 qL3
EIv = − − x + C2
12 24 24
B.C.
v(x = 0) = 0
0 = 0 − 0 − 0 + C2 C2 = 0

qLx 3 qx 4 qL3
EIv = − − x
12 24 24
Solid Mechanics
−q
∴v =
24EI
(
L3 x − 2 Lx 3 + x 4 )
−q
v=
24EI
(
x 4 + L3 x − 2 Lx 3 )
you can check v = 0 at x = 0 and L = 0
(b) From symmetry maximum deflection occurs at the
L
midpoint x =
2
L −5qL4
v x= =
2 384EI
-ve sign means that deflection is downward as expected.

L 5qL4
δ max = v x= = s
2 384EI

−qL3
Q A = v′ ( 0 ) =
24EI

## qL3 qL3 qL3

QB = v′ ( x = L ) = − −
4EI 6EI 24EI
qL3
v′ ( L ) = + ve sign means anticlockwise direction.
24EI
since the problem is symmetric, v′ ( 0 ) = v′ ( L )
Solid Mechanics
Problem: 2
Above problem using third order equation
EIv′′′ = −V ( x )
qL qL
EIv′′′ = − qx − = − qx
2 2
Moment equation

qLx qx 2
EIv′′ = − + C1
2 2
B.C.
M (x = 0) = 0 EIv′′ ( x = 0 ) = 0
C1 = 0
qLx qx 2
EIv′′ = −
2 2

Problem 3
Above problem using fourth order differential equation
P=q
EIv′′′′ = −q
Shear for a equation
EIv′′′ = −qx + C 1
From symmetry conditions
Solid Mechanics
L L
V x= =0 EIv′′′ x = =0
2 2
L qL
0 = −q + C 1 C1 = +
2 2
qL
∴ EIv′′′ = −qx +
2
Problem 4
Determine the equation of the deflection curve for a
cantilever beam AB subjected to a uniform load of intensify
q. Also determine the angle of rotation and deflection at the
free end. Beam has constant EI.

Solution:

V + qL − qx = 0
V = qx − qL

qL2 qx 2 qL2 qx 2
M+ − qLx + M = qLx − −
2 2 2 2
Differential equation of deflection curve
EIv′′ = M ( x )
qL2 qx 2
EIv′′ = − + qLx −
2 2
Solid Mechanics
qL2 x qLx 2 qx 3
Slope equation: EIv′ = − + − + C1
2 2 6
BC: v′ ( x = 0 ) =C01 = 0

qL2 x qLx 2 qx 3
EIv′ = − + −
2 2 6
Deflection equation
qL2 x 2 qLx 3 qx 4
EIv = − + − + C2
4 6 24
v (x = 0) = 0
0 = 0 + 0 − 0 + C2 C2 = 0

qL2 x 2 qLx 3 qx 4
∴ EIv = − + −
4 6 24
−q − +
v= 6L x + 4Lx 3
2 2
x4
24EI

v′ ( x = L )
−qL3 qL3 qL3 −qL3
EIv′ = + − =
2 2 6 6
qL3
∴ v′ = QB = −
6EI
v(x = L)
−q 4 4 4 −3qL4
v= 6 L − 4L + L =
24EI 24EI
−3qL4 qL4 -maximum deflection also.
v(x = L) = v=
24EI 8EI
Solid Mechanics
Problem 5
Above problem using third order equation
EIv′′ = −V ( x )
EIv′′′ = qL − qx
Moment equation

qx 2
EIv′′ = qLx − + C1
2
B.C. M ( x = L ) = 0 EIv′′ ( x = L ) = 0

## 2 qL2 qL2 qL2

0 = qL − = 4=−
2 2 2
qx 2 qL2
EI ′v′′ = qLx − +
2 2
qx 2 qL2
EIv′′ = qLx − +
2 2
Problem 6
Above problem with fourth order equation
EIv′′′′ = P ( x )

∴ EIv′′′′ = ⊕ q
Shear force equation
EIv′′′ = −qx + C 1
B.C V ( x = L ) = 0 EIv′′′ ( x = L ) = 0
0 = −qL + C 1 C1 = + qL
Solid Mechanics
∴ EIv′′′ = −qx + qL
Problem 7
A simple beam AB supports a concentrated
EI = load P acting at
distances a and b from the left-hand and right-hand supports
respectively. Determine the equations QofA the Q deflection
B
curve, the angles of rotation and
δL
δ max at the supports, the
maximum deflection and the deflection at the midpoint C of
the beam. Constant EI
Solution

Pb Pb
+x=P x=P−
L L
Pb
V+ =0
L
Pb
V =−
L
Pb Pbx
M− x=0 H=
L L

Pb
V+ −P=0
L
Pb
V =P−
L
Solid Mechanics
Pbx
M + P ( x − a) −
L
Pbx
M= − P ( x − a)
L
Pbx Pxa
M= − Px + Pa = − + Pa
L L
Differential equation of deflection curve
Pbx
EIv′′ = 0≤x≤a
L
Pxa
EIv′′ = − + Pa a≤x≤L
L
Slope equations:

Pbx 2
EIv′ = + C1 o ≤ x ≤ a
2L
− Px 2 a
EIv′ = + Pax + C 2 a ≤ x ≤ L
2L
B.C. v′ ( x = a ) AP = v′ ( x = a ) PB

P ( L − a ) a2 − Pa3
+ C1 = + Pa2 + C 2
2L 2L
/ 2 Pa
PLa / /3 / /3
Pa
− + C1 = − + Pa2 + C 2
2 L/ 2/ L/ 2/ L/
Pa2
C1 = + C2
2
Solid Mechanics
Deflection curve equations:

Pbx 3
EIv′ = + C 1x + C 3 0≤x≤a
6L
− Px 3 a Pax 2
EIv = + + C2x + C4 a ≤ x ≤ L
6L 2
B.C: v ( x = 0 ) = 0 and v ( x = L ) = 0
0 = 0 + 0 + C3 C3 = 0

PL3 a PaL2
0=− + + C2L + C 4
6L 2
PL2 a PaL2
0=− + + C2L + C 4
6 2
PaL2
= + C2L + C 4
3
PaL2
C4 = − − C2L
3

v ( x = a ) AP = v ( x = a ) PB
P ( L − a ) a3 − Pa 4 Pa 3
+ C1a = + + C2 a + C4
6L 6L 2
PLa 3 Pa
/ /4 / / 4 Pa 3
− Pa
+ + C1 a = + + C2 a + C 4
6L 6/ L/ 6L/ 2
Pa 3 Pa 3
+ C1a = + C2 a + C 4
6 2
Pa 3 PaL2
C1 a = + C2 a − − C2L
3 3
Solid Mechanics
Pa 3 Pa 3 PaL2
+ C/ 2 a = + C/ 2 a − − C2L
2 3 3
Pa 3 PaL2 PaL2 Pa 3
=− − C2L C2L = − −
6 3 3 6
PaL Pa 3
C2 = − −
3 6
Some important formulae to remember
(1)
qL4 qL3
δB = ,QB =
8EI 6EI

PL3 PL2
δB = , QB =
(2) 3EI 2 EI

M0 L2 M L
(3) δB = , QB = 0
2 EI EI

(4)
5qL4 qL3
δ c = δ max = ; Q A = QB =
384EI 24EI

## (5) PL3 PL2

δ c = δ max = ;Q A = QB =
48EI 16EI

Problem 8
A simple beam AB supports a concentrated load P acting at
the center as shown. Determine the equations of the
deflection curve, the angles of rotation Q A and QB at the
supports, the maximum deflection δ max of the beam.
Solid Mechanics
Solution

Px
M=
2
P
V =−
2
P
M− x=0
2
Px
M= Px
2 M=
2
P
V+ −P=0
2
V=P/2

Px L
M− +P x− =0
2 2
Px L Px PL PL Px
M= −P x− = − Px + = −
2 2 2 2 2 2

PL Px
M= −
2 2
Solid Mechanics
Differential equation deflection curve
Px
EIv′′ = 0≤x≤L/ 2
2
PL Px L
EIv′′ = − ≤x≤L
2 2 2
Slope equations
Px 2
EIv′ = + C1 0≤x≤L/ 2
4
PLx Px 2 L
EIv′ = − + C2 ≤x≤L
2 4 2
L L
v′ x = = v′ x =
2 AP 2 PB

## PL2 PL2 PL2

+ C1 = − + C2
16 4 16
PL2 PL2 PL2
C1 = C 2 + − = C2 +
4 8 8
PL2
C1 = C 2 +
8

Deflection equations:
Px 3
EIv = + C 1x + C 3 0≤x≤L/ 2
12
PLx 2 Px 3
EIv = − + C2x + C4 L / 2 ≤ x ≤ L
4 12
B.C: v ( x = 0 ) = 0 and v ( x = L ) = 0
Solid Mechanics
0 = 0 + 0 + C3 C3 = 0

PL3 PL3
0= − + C2L + C 4
4 12
PL3
= + C2L + C 4
6
PL3
C4 = − − C2L
6

L L
v′ x = = v′ x =
2 AP 2 PB
PL3 C1L PL3 PL3 L
+ = − + C2 + C 4
96 2 16 96 2
L PL3 PL3 L
C1 = − + C2 + C 4
2 16 48 2
L PL3 L
C1 = + C2 + C 4
2 24 2

## L/ PL3 PL3 L/ PL3

C/ 2 + = + C/ 2 − − C2L
2/ 16 24 2/ 6
PL3 PL3 PL3 ( 2 − 8 − 3 ) PL2
− − = C2L C2 =
24 6 16 48
9 PL2 −3PL2
C2 = − =
48 16

3 PL2
C2 = −
16
Solid Mechanics

## 3PL2 PL2 PL2

∴ C1 = − + =−
16 8 16
PL2
C1 = −
16

PL3 −3 PL2
∴ C4 = − −L
6 16
− PL3 3 PL3 ( −8 + 9 ) PL3
= + =
6 16 48
PL3
C4 = −
48

Deflection curves

Px 3 PL2 L
EIv = − x + C3 0≤x≤
12 16 2
PLx 2 Px 3 3 PL2 PL3 L
EIv = −+ − x+ ≤x≤L
4 12 16 48 2
PL3 PL3 − PL3
EIv x = L = − =
2 96 32 48

PL3
∴ v x= L =−
2 48EI

## PL3 PL3 3 PL3 PL3 ( 6 − 1 − 9 + 2 ) PL3

EIv x = L = − − + =
2 16 96 32 48 96
PL3
=−
48
Solid Mechanics

v = − PL3 / 48EI
Slope equations:

Px 2 PL2 L
EIv′ = − 0≤x≤
4 16 2
PLx Px 2 3PL2 L
EIv′ = − − ≤x≤L
2 4 16 2
PL2 PL2
EIv′ ( x = 0 ) = 0 − =−
16 16
PL2
∴ v′ ( x = 0 ) = QA = − ( − ) Clock wise
16EI
PL2 PL2 3 PL2 ( 8 − 4 − 3 ) PL2 PL2
EIv′ ( x = L ) = − − = =
2 4 16 16 16
PL2
∴ v′ ( x = L ) = QB = (+ ve, CCW from x-axis )
16EI
Problem 9
A cantilever beam AB supports load of intensity of acting
over part of the span and a concentrated load P acting at the
free end. Determine the deflections δ B and angle of rotation
QB at end B of the beam. Beam has constant EI. Use principle
of superposition.
Solution
qa 3 qL3
δ B1 = ( 4L − a ) , QB1 =
24EI 6EI
PL3 PL2
δ B2 = , QB2 =
3EI 2 EI
Solid Mechanics
qa3 PL3
δ B = δ B1 + δ B2 = ( 4L − a ) +
24EI 3EI
qa3 PL2
QB = QB1 + QB1 = +
6EI 2 EI
Solid Mechanics

## 21. Moment- Area Method

This method is based upon two theorems related to the area
of the bending moment diagram it is called moment-area
method.
First moment area theorem
Consider segment AB of the deflection curve of a beam in
region of + ve curvature.
The equation

d 2θ M
2
= can be written as
dx EI
d 2θ dθ M
2
= =
dx dx EI
M
dθ = dx
EI

M
The quantity dx corresponds to an infinitesimal area of
EI
M
the diagram. According to the above equation the area is
EI
equal to the arrange in angle between two adjacent point m1
and m2 . Integrating the above equation between any two
points A & B gives.
B B
M
dθ = θ B − θ A = ∆θ BA = dx
A A
EI
Solid Mechanics
This states that the arrange in angle measured in radius
between the two tangents at any two points A and B on the
M
elastic curve is equal to the area of diagram between A &
EI
B , If θ A is known then
θ B = θ A + ∆θ BA
In performing above integration, areas corresponding to the
+ M are taken + ve, area corresponding to the – ve M are
taken –ve
B
M
If dx is +ve- tangent B rotates c.c.w from A or θ B is
A
EI
algebraically larger than A.
If – ve – tangent B rotates c.w from A.
Second moment-area theorem
This is related to the deflection curve between A and B.
Solid Mechanics
We see that dt is a small contribution to tBA . Since the angles
between the tangents and x-axis are very small we can take
M
dt = x1dθ = x1 dx
EI

M
The expression x1 dx = first moment of infinitesimal area
EI
M
dx w.r.t. a vertical line through B.
EI
Integrating between the point A & B
B B′
M M
tBA = dt = x1 dx = First moment of the area of the
A A
EI EI
diagram between points A & B, evaluated w.r.t. B.

tBA = φ x1
t AB = φ x
B
M
where φ = dx
A
EI

if M is +ve φ = +ve
if M is -ve φ = -ve
x and x1 are always taken +ve quantities.
∴ Sign of tangential deviation depends on sign of M.
Solid Mechanics
A positive value of tangential deviation- point B is above A
and vice versa – ve value means point B is below the point A.
In applying the moment area method a carefully prepared
sketch of the elastic curve is always necessary.

Problem:1
Consider an aluminum cantilever beam 1600 mm long with a
10 –kN for a applied 400 mm from the free end for a distance
of 600 mm from the fixed end, the beam is of greater depth
than it is beyond, having I 1 = 50 × 106 mm4 . For the
remaining 1000 mm of the beam I 2 = 10 × 106 mm4 . Find the
deflection and angular rotation of the free end. Neglect
weight of the beam and E = 70GPa
Solution:

EI = 3.5 × 10 24
70 × 109 × 10 −6 N/mm2
= 70 × 10 3 N/mm2
Solid Mechanics

1 1 −0.12 36
A1 = bh = × 600 × =−
2 2 E E
129.6
A2 = bh = −
E
1 1 −0.48 115.2
A3 = bh = × 480 × =−
2 2 E E
1 1 −0.12 7. 2
A4 = bh = × 120 × =−
2 2 E E
B
M
∆QBA = QB − Q A = dx = A1 + A2 + A3 + A4
A
EI

## 36 129.6 115.2 7.2 288

QB = − − − − =−
E E E E E
Solid Mechanics
288 288 −3
QB = − =− 3
= −4. 14 × 10 rad
E 70 × 10
QB = 4.14 × 10 −3 rad from tangent at
A.
tBA = δ B
x2 = 1060mm; x1 = 1400 ; x3 = 840 mm; x4 = 480 mm
tBA = δ B = A1x1 + A2 x2 + A3 x3 + A4 x 4
−36 −129.6 −115.2 −7.2
= 1400 + 1060 + 840 + 480
E E E E
−288000
= = −4.11 mm
E
δ B = −4.11 mm below the tangent at point A.
Problem 2
Find the deflection due to the concentrated force P applied as
soon as figure, at the center of a simply supported beam EI
constant.
Solution:
Solid Mechanics

M
Since EI is constant
EI
diagram is same as M
diagram.

vc = c′′c′ − tCB
1
c′′c′ = t AB
2
1 1 3 Pa 3 Pa2
A1 = bh = × a × = s
2 2 4EI 8EI
1 1 3Pa 9 Pa2
A2 = bh = × 3 a × =
2 2 4EI 8EI
2
x1 = a ; x 2 = 2 a
3
3 Pa2 2 9 Pa2
t AB = A1x1 + A2 x2 = a+ 2a
8EI 3 8EI
Pa3 9 Pa3 10 Pa3 5 Pa3
= + = = ( + ve )
4EI 4EI 4EI 2 EI
Solid Mechanics

1 Pa 2a Pa 3
tCB = × 2 a × × = s
2 2 EI 3 3EI

5 Pa 3
c′′c′ = t AB / 2 =
4EI
5 Pa 3 Pa 3 ( 15 − 4 ) Pa 3 11Pa 3
∴ vc = − = =
4EI 3EI 4EI 12 EI
11Pa 3
vc =
12 EI

The +ve sign of t AB & tCA indicate points A & C above the
tangent through B.
(a) The slope of the elastic curve at C can be found from the
slope of one of the ends as:
∆QBC = QB − QC QC = QB − ∆QBC
B
M 1 Pa Pa2
∆QBC = QB − QC dx = × 2 a × = s
C
EI 2 2 EI 2 EI

5 Pa 3 1 Pa 2 5Pa 2 Pa 2
QB ≈ t AB /L= − = −
2 EI 4 a 2 EI 8EI 2 EI
Pa2
Qc =
8EI

## (b) If the deflection curve equations is wanted then by

selecting an ordinary point E at a distance x
vE = E′′E′ − EE′′
Solid Mechanics
L−x
vE = t AB − tEB
L
In this way one
can obtain equation
of the deflection curve.

## (c) To simplify the calculations some care in selecting the

tangent at a support must be considered.
In this approach to find
tCA we need to consider
unhatched region which
is more difficult.

t AC + tBC
vc =
2

## ∴C is at the center of the beam. However, this is also move

complicated approach compared to first, as to find tCA we
again need to consider unhatched region.
Solid Mechanics
Problem 3
Find the deflection of the end A of the beams shown in
figure caused by the applied forces. The EI is constant.
Solution
Solid Mechanics

1 1 − Pa Pa 2
A1 = bh = × a × =−
2 2 EI 2 EI
1 a Pa Pa 2
A2 = × × − =−
2 2 EI 4EI
Pa 2 Pa 2
A3 = and A4 =
4EI 2 EI
a 7a 2a a 11a
x1 = + 2 a = ; x 2 = + +a=
3 3 33 2 6
1a 2a
x3 = + a = 7 a / 6 ; x4 =
32 3
tCB = A2 x2 + A3 x3 + A4 x 4
Pa2 11a Pa 2 7 a Pa2 2 a
=− × + × + ×
4EI 6 4EI 6 2 EI 3
11Pa3 7 Pa 3 Pa3 ( −11 + 7 + 8 ) Pa3
=− + + =
24EI 24EI 3EI 24EI
4 Pa 3 Pa 3
tCB = =
24EI 6EI
The + sign of tCB indicates that the point C is above the
tangent through B. Hence corrected sketch of the elastic
Solid Mechanics

Pa 2 2 Pa 3
t AB = − × a=−
2 EI 3 3EI
∴ v A = t AB − A′′A′
Pa3 Pa3 Pa3
= − =
3EI 12 EI 4EI
Pa 3
vA =
4EI

## Note: Another method to find v A is shown. This may be

simpler method than the present one.