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diagrams

Internal Forces in solids

Sign conventions

1

• Shear forces are given a special symbol on Vy

and Vz

2

• The couple moment along the axis of the member is

given

M x = T = Torque

M y = M z = bending moment.

Solid Mechanics

We need to follow a systematic sign convention for

systematic development of equations and reproducibility of

the equations

The sign convention is like this.

If a face (i.e. formed by the cutting plane) is +ve if its outward

normal unit vector points towards any of the positive coordinate

directions otherwise it is –ve face

• A force component on a +ve face is +ve if it is directed

towards any of the +ve coordinate axis direction. A force

component on a –ve face is +ve if it is directed towards any of

the –ve coordinate axis direction. Otherwise it is –v.

Thus sign conventions depend on the choice of coordinate

axes.

Shear force and bending moment diagrams of beams

Beam is one of the most important structural components.

• Beams are usually long, straight, prismatic members and

always subjected forces perpendicular to the axis of the beam

Two observations:

(1) Forces are coplanar

Solid Mechanics

(2) All forces are applied at the axis of the beam.

Application of method of sections

What are the necessary internal forces to keep the segment of

the beam in equilibrium?

Fx = 0 P

Fy = 0 V

Fz = 0 M

diagram(BMD) of a beam shows the variation of shear

Solid Mechanics

force and bending moment along the length of the

beam.

These diagrams are extremely useful while designing the

beams for various applications.

Supports and various types of beams

(a) Roller Support – resists vertical forces only

vertical forces

Solid Mechanics

The distance between two supports is known as “span”.

Types of beams

Beams are classified based on the type of supports.

(1) Simply supported beam: A beam with two simple supports

(2) Cantilever beam: Beam fixed at one end and free at other

Solid Mechanics

Differential equations of equilibrium

[Σ Fx = 0 → + ]

Σ Fy = 0 ↑ +

V + ∆V − V + P∆x = 0

∆V = − P∆x

∆V

= −P

∆x

∆V dV

lim ∆x = dx = − P

∆ x →0

P ∆x 2

[ Σ M A = 0 ] V ∆x − M + M + ∆ M − =0

2

P∆x 2

V ∆x + ∆ M − =0

2

∆M P∆x

+V − =0

∆x 2

Solid Mechanics

∆ M dM

lim ∆x = dx = −V

∆x →0

dV

From equation = − P we can write

dx

XD

VD − VC = − Pdx

XC

dM

From equation = −V

dx

MD − MC = − Vdx

Special cases:

Solid Mechanics

Solid Mechanics

Solid Mechanics

Solid Mechanics

0 ≤ x ≤ 2 − ( 1) − ( 1)

2 ≤ x ≤ 6 −(2 −(2)

6 ≤ x ≤ 8 − ( 3) − ( 3)

8 ≤ x ≤ 10 − ( 4 ) − ( 4 )

0 ≤ x ≤ 2 ( 1) − ( 1)

V −5=0

V =5

VA = 5 ; VB = 5

2 ≤ x ≤ 6 (2) − (2)

V − 5 + 30 − 7.5 ( x − 2 ) = 0

V = 5 − 30 + 7.5 ( x − 2 )

VB = −25 ; VC = 5

−25 + 7.5 ( x − 2 ) = 0

x = 5.33

6 ≤ x ≤ 8 ( 3) − ( 3)

V − 5 + 30 − 30 − 10 = 0

V = +15

VC = +15 ; VD = +15

8 ≤ x ≤ 10 ( 4 ) − ( 4 )

V − 5 + 30 − 30 − 10 + 20 = 0

V +5=0

V = −5

VD = −5 ; VE = −5

Solid Mechanics

0 ≤ x ≤ 2 − ( 1) − ( 1)

M − 10 + 5x = 0

M = −5x + 10

M A = +10 ; M B = 0

2 ≤ x ≤ 6 − (2) − (2)

7.5 ( x − 2 )2

M − 10 + 5x − 30 ( x − 2 ) + =0

2

7.5 ( x − 2 )2

M = 10 − 5x + 30 ( x − 2 ) −

2

ME x =5.33 = 41.66 +

MC x =6

= 40

6 ≤ x ≤ 8 − ( 3 ) − ( 3 ) [C − D]

M − 10 + 5x − 30 ( x − 2 ) + 30 ( x − 4 ) + 10 ( x − 6 ) + 20 = 0

MC x =6

= 20 +

MD x =8 = −10

8 ≤ x ≤ 10 [ D − E] ( 4 ) − ( 4 )

M − 10 + 5x − 30 ( x − 2 ) + 30 ( x − 4 ) + 10 ( x − 6 ) + 20 − 20 ( x − 8 ) = 0

M E x =8 = 0

and concentrated moment

Solid Mechanics

using above examples. This should be carried first before

drawing SFD and BMD.

0 ≤ x ≤ 2 [ A − B]

Solid Mechanics

V −5=0 M − 10 + 5x = 0

V =5 M = 10 − 5x

VA = 5 M A = 10 ; MB = 0

VB = 5

2 ≤ x ≤ 6 [B − C ]

( x − 2 )2

V − 5 + 30 − 7.5 ( x − 2 ) = 0 M − 10 + 5x − 30 ( x − 2 ) + 7.5 =0

2

V = 7.5 ( x − 2 ) + 5 − 30 x=6

VB = −25 ; VC = 5 MC = 40

−25 + 7.5 ( x − 2 ) = 0 ME x = 5.33 = 41.66

x = 5.33 x=2

MB = 0

6 ≤ x ≤ 8 [C − D]

V − 5 + 30 − 10 − 30 = 0

V = 15

VC = 15 , VD = 15

Solid Mechanics

8 ≤ x ≤ 10 [ D − E]

V − 5 + 30 − 10 − 30 + 20 = 0

V = −5

VD = −5 , VE = −5

Solid Mechanics

[ Fx → + = 0 ] R Ax = 0

Fy ↑ + = 0 R Ay + 60 − 90 = 0

RAy = 30 kN ↑

[ M∆ = 0] M + 60 − 90 × 4.5 = 0

M = 285 k − m

30 + V + 60 − 30 ( x − 3 ) = 0

V = 30 ( x − 3 ) − 90

= 30 × 3 − 90

= 90 − 90

=0

M B − M A = − ( −60 )

M B = 60 + M A = 60 − 285

= −225

Solid Mechanics

MC − M B = − ( −90 )

MC = MB + 90 = −225 + 90

= −135

MD − MC = − ( −135 )

MD = MC + 135 = −135 + 135 = 0

Fy ↑ + = 0

R Ay + RCy − 200 − 240 = 0

R Ay + RCy = 440 ( 1)

[ M A = 0]

− 200 × 3 − 240 × 4 + RCy × 8 = 0

RCy = 195 kN ↑

RAy = 245 kN ↑

V + 245 − 200 − 30 x = 0

V = 30 x − 45

V = 30 × 8 − 45 = 240 − 45

V = 195

Solid Mechanics

M − 245 × 3 + 90 × 1.5

M = 245 × 3 − 90 × 1.5

*

M = 600

RAy + RBy = 32

[ M A = 0 ] − 32 × 2 + 18 + 8 + 4 RBy = 0

−64 + 16 + 4 RBy = 0

RBy = 12 kN

RAy = 20 kN

Solid Mechanics

V + 20 − 8x = 0

V = 8x − 20

8x − 20 = 0

x = 20 / 8 = 2.5

MC − M A = − ( −50 )

MC = M A + 50 = −8 + 25 = 17

Problem:

[ Fx → + = 0 ]

RAx = 0

Fy = 0 ↑ + R Ay + RDy − 60 − 50 = 0 R Ay + RDy = 110 ( 1)

[ M A = 0 ] − 60 × 1.5 − 50 × 4 + RDy × 5 = 0

290

RDy = = 58 kN ↑

5

RAy = 52 kN ↑

Solid Mechanics

Fy = 0 ↑ + V + 52 − 20 x = 0

( B)

V = 20 x − 52 0 ≤ x ≤ 3m

[ M = 0]

20 x 2

M+ − 52 x = 0

2

20 x 2

M = 52 x − ( 0 ≤ x ≤ 3m )

2

Fy = 0 ↑ +

V + 52 − 60 = 0

B C

V = 8 kN ↑ 3 ≤ x ≤ 4m

[ M = 0] M − 52 x + 60 ( x − 1.5 ) = 0

B C

M = 52 x − 60 ( x − 1.5 ) 3 ≤ x ≤ 4m

Solid Mechanics

Fy = 0 ↑ +

V + 52 − 60 − 50 = 0

V = 58 kN ( 4 ≤ x ≤ 5)

[ M = 0] M − 52 x + 60 ( x − 1.5 ) + 50 ( x − 4 ) = 0

M = 52 x − 60 ( x − 1.5 ) − 50 ( x − 4 ) ( 4 ≤ x ≤ 5 )

dM

= −V

dx

dV

= −P

dx

20 × −52 = 0

x = 52 / 20 = 2.6 m

M B − ME = −1.6

M B = −1.6 + 67.6

Solid Mechanics

M B − M A = − Vdx

dM

= −V

dx

dV

= −P

dx

20 × −52 = 0

x = 52 / 20 = 2.6

MB − ME = −1.6

MB = −1.6 + ME = −1.6 + 67.6

= 66

MC − MB = −8

MC = −8 + MB

= −8 + 66 = 58

MD − MC = −58

MD = MC + 58

= 58 − 58 = 0

Solid Mechanics

2. Concept of stress

Traction vector or Stress vector

Now we define a quantity known as “stress vector” or

“traction” as

∆FR

Tn = lim ∆ A units Pa − N / m2

∆ A→0

∆MR

lim ∆ A → 0

∆ A →0

"P" on a plane whose normal is n̂

(3) Tn acts in the same direction as ∆FR

Solid Mechanics

(4) There are two reasons are available for justification of the

∆MR

assumption that lim →0

∆ A →0 ∆ A

(a) experimental

(b) as ∆ A → 0, ∆FR becomes resultant of a parallel

force distribution. Therefore ∆ M R = 0 for force

system.

(5) Tn varies from point to point on a given plane

(8) In general

Components of Tn

Solid Mechanics

∆FR ∆Fn ∆vt ˆ ∆vs

Tn = lim ∆ A lim ∆ A lim ∆ A lim ∆ A ˆs

= ˆ

n + t +

∆ A→0 ∆ A→0 ∆ A→0 ∆ A→0

where

∆Fn dFn

σ nn = lim ∆ A = dA = Normal stresscomponent

∆ A→0

∆v dv

τ nt = lim t = t = Shear stresscomponent

∆ A→0 ∆ A dA

∆v dv

τ ns = lim s = s = Another shear componet

∆ A→0 ∆ A dA

σ − NormalStress

τ − Shear stress

dFn = σ nn dA dVt = τ nt dA

The magnitude and direction of Tn clearly depends on the

plane m-m. Therefore, stress components magnitude &

direction depends on orientation of cut m-m.

(a) First subscript- plane on which σ is acting

(b) Second subscript- direction

Solid Mechanics

Rectangular components of stress

Cuts ⊥ to the coordinate planes will give more valuable

information than arbitrary cuts.

Tx = lim ∆ A lim ∆ A lim ∆ A ˆj + lim ∆ Az kˆ

= i +

∆ A→0 ∆ A→0 ∆ A→0 ∆ A→0

Tx = σ xxˆi + τ xy ˆj + τ xz kˆ

where

∆Fx

σ xx = lim ∆ A = Normal stress

∆ A→0

∆vy ∆v

τ xy = lim = Shear stress; τ xz = lim z = Shear stress

∆ A→0 ∆ A ∆ A→0 ∆ A

Solid Mechanics

dFx = σ xx dA dvy = τ xy dA dvz = τ xz dA

Similarly,

∆FR ∆ vx ˆ ∆Fy ∆ vz ˆ

Ty = lim = lim i + lim ˆj +

∆ A ∆ A ∆ A

lim ∆ A k

∆ A→0 ∆ A→0 ∆ A→0 ∆ A→0

Ty = τ yxˆi + σ yy ˆj + τ yz kˆ

Tz = τ zxˆi + τ zy ˆj + σ zz kˆ

only when we take section ⊥ to x-axis.

The stress tensor

Components a point “P” on the x-plane in x,y,z

directions

σ xx τ xy τ xz

σ jj = τ yx σ yy τ yz Rec tan gular stresscomponents

τ zx τ zy σ zz

• It is a second rank of tensor because of two indices

Solid Mechanics

• These 9 rectangular stress components are obtained by

taking 3 mutually ⊥ planes passing through the point

“P ”

• ∴ Stress tensor is an array consisting of stress

components acting on three mutually perpendicular

planes.

Tn = τ nxˆi + τ ny ˆj + τ nz kˆ

∆FR

q = lim

∆ A→0 ∆ A

No difference!

Except for their origin!

Solid Mechanics

Sign convention of stress components.

A positive components acts on a +ve face in a +ve coordinate

direction

or

A positive component acts on a negative face in a negative

coordinate direction.

means.

Solid Mechanics

State of stress at a point

The totality of all the stress vectors acting on every possible plane

passing through the point is defined to be state of stress at a point.

determining the critical planes and the respective critical

stresses.

• If the stress vectors [and hence the component] acting

on any three mutually perpendicular planes passing

through the point are known, we can determine the

stress vector Tn acting on any plane “n” through that

point.

The stress tensor will specify the state stress at point.

σ x′x′ τ x′y′ τ x′z′

σ ij′ = τ y′x′ σ y′y′ τ y′z′

τ z′x′ τ z′y′ σ z′z′

stress at a point.

Solid Mechanics

The stress element

Is there any convenient way to visualize or represent the

state of stress at a point or stresses acting three mutually

perpendicular planes say x- plane , y-plane and z-plane.

+σ xx +τ xy +τ xz

σ ij = +τ yx +σ yy +τ yz

P

+τ zx +τ zy +σ zz

σ xx = σ xx ( x,y ,z )

Continuous functions of x,y ,z

σ yy = σ yy ( x ,y ,z )

component as

Solid Mechanics

−10 5 −30

σ ij = 5 50 −60

−30 −60 −100

y

dz

τ xy

σx

dy τ xz

x

dx

z

[ Fx = 0 → + ]

σ x dydz + τ yx dxdz + τ zx dydx − σ x dydz − τ yx dxdz − τ zx dxdy = 0

Solid Mechanics

M zP = 0

C.C.W + ve

(τ xy dydz ) dx − (τ yx dxdz ) dy = 0

τ xy − τ yx = 0

τ xy = τ yx

are equal.

Since τ xy = τ yx , if τ xy = − ve τ yx is also –ve

Solid Mechanics

∴The stress tensor

σ xx τ xy τ xz

σ ij = τ yx = τ xy σ xy τ yz is sec ond rank symmetric tensor

τ zx = τ xz τ zy = τ yz σ yz

[ Fx → + = 0 ]

∂σ x ∂τ yx ∂τ

σx + ∆x ∆y∆z + τ yx + ∆y ∆x∆z + τ zx + zx ∆z ∆y∆x

∂x ∂y ∂z

−σ x ∆y∆z − τ xy ∆x∆z − τ zx ∆y∆x + Bx ∆x∆y∆z = 0

∂σ x ∂τ yx 2τ

∆x∆y∆z + ∆y∆x∆z + zx x∆y∆z + Bx ∆x∆y∆z = 0

∂x ∂y ∂z

Canceling ∆x∆y and ∆z terms and taking limit

∂σ x ∂τ yx ∂τ zx

lim + + + Bx = 0

∆x →0 ∂x ∂y ∂z

∆y →0

∆z→0

Solid Mechanics

∂σ x ∂τ yx ∂τ zx

+ + + Bx = 0 [ Fx = 0 ]

∂x ∂y ∂z

∂τ xy ∂σ yy ∂τ zy

+ + + By = 0 Fy = 0

∂x ∂y ∂z

∂τ xz ∂τ yz ∂σ zz

+ + + Bz = 0 [ Fz = 0 ]

∂x ∂y ∂z

• If a body is under equilibrium, then the stress

components must satisfy the above equations and must

vary as above.

For equilibrium, the moments of forces about x, y and z axis

at any point must vanish.

M zp = 0

∂τ xy x ∆x ∂τ yx ∆y

τ xy + ∆x ∆y∆z + τ xy ∆y∆z − τ yx + ∆y ∆x∆z

∂x 2 2 ∂y 2

∆y

−τ yx ∆x∆z =0

2

Solid Mechanics

2τ xy ∆y∆x∆z ∂τ xy ∆x 2 ∆y∆z 2τ yx ∆x∆y∆z ∂τ yx ∆x∆y 2 ∆z

+ − − =0

2 ∂x 2 2 ∂y 2

∂τ xy ∆x ∂τ yx ∆y

τ xy + − τ yx − =0

∂x 2 ∂y 2

Taking limit

∂τ xy ∆x ∂τ yx ∆y

lim τ xy + − τ yx − =0

∆x →0 ∂x 2 ∂y 2

∆y →0

∆z→0

τ xy − τ yx = 0 τ xy = τ yx

Relations between stress components and internal force

resultants

Solid Mechanics

Fx = σ xx dA ; Vy = τ xy dA ; Vz = τ xz dA

A A A

yτ xz dA − τ xy dAz = dMx

Mx = ( yτ xz − τ xy z ) dA

A

M y = σ xz dA ; M z = − σ xy dA

A A

Solid Mechanics

Plane stress- 2D State of stress

3D − State of stress

σx τ xy τ xz

σ ij = τ yx σ yy τ yz − 6 components

τ zx τ zy σ zz

2 D − State of stress

σ x τ xy 0

σx τ xy

σ ij = τ xy σy 0 =

τ yx =τ xy σy

0 0 0

Stresscomponents in plane xy

If

σ x ( x,y ) τ xy ( x,y )

σ ij = − plane stress-is a --- state of stress

τ xy ( x,y ) σ yy ( x,y )

components can be viewed in x − y plane.

Solid Mechanics

This type of stress-state (i.e plane stress) exists in bodies

whose z - direction dimension is very small w.r.t other

dimensions.

The state of stress at a point P in 2D-plane stress problems

are represented by

σ x τ xy σ nn τ nt

σ ij = =

τ xy σy τ nt σ tt

Solid Mechanics

* We can determine the stress components on any plane “n”

by knowing the stress components on any two mutually

⊥ planes.

planes passing through a point. In contrast to 3D problem,

all cutting planes in plane stress problems are parallel to x-

Solid Mechanics

axis. i.e we take different cutting plane by rotating about z-

axis.

domain is the totality of all the stress. If we know the stress

components on any two mutually ⊥ planes then stress

components on any arbitrary plane m-m can be determined.

Thus the stress tensor

σ x τ xy

σ ij = is sufficient to tell about the state of stress

τ xy σy

at a point in the plane stress problems.

dA = Area of AB

dACsθ = Area of BC

dASinθ = Area of AC

Fn +=0

σ nn dA − σ x dACosθ Cosθ − τ xy dACosθ Sinθ − τ xy dASinθ Cosθ −

σ yy dASinθ Sinθ = 0

Solid Mechanics

σx +σy σx −σy

σ nn = + Cos 2θ + τ xy Sin2θ

2 2

Fn +=0

σ nt dA − σ x dACosθ Sinθ − τ xy dACosθ Cosθ + τ xy dASinθ Sinθ −

σ y dASinθ Cosθ = 0

(

τ nt = −σ xCosθ Sinθ + σ y Sinθ Cosθ + τ xy Cos 2θ − Sin2θ )

( ) (

τ nt = −Cosθ Sinθ σ x − σ y + τ xy Cos 2θ − Sin 2θ )

τ nt

( σx −σy )

Sin2θ + τ

=− xyCos 2θ

2

on two mutually ⊥ planes then we can compute stresses on

any inclined plane. Let us assume that we know that state of

stress at a point P is given

σ x τ xy

σ ij =

τ xy σy

Solid Mechanics

Solid Mechanics

If θ = θ we can compute on AB

π

If θ = θ + we can compute on BC

2

If θ = θ + π we can compute on CD

3π

If θ = θ + we can compute on DA

2

• σ nn and τ nt equations are known as transformation

laws for plane stress.

• They are not only useful in determination of stresses on

any plane but also useful in transforming stresses from

one coordinate system to another

• Transformation laws do not require an equilibrium state

and thus are also valid at all points of the body under

accelerations.

• These laws are true for any point P of a body.

• Any quantity for which its 2D scalar components

transform from one coordinate system to another

according to σ nn and τ nt is called a two dimensional

Solid Mechanics

symmetric tensor of rank 2. Here in particular the tensor

is a stress tensor.

• Moment of inertia if σ x = I xx ,σ y = I yy ;τ xy = − I xy

• By definition a tensor is a mathematical quantity that

transforms according to certain laws, such that certain

invariant properties are maintained for all coordinate

systems.

• Tensors, as governed by their transformation laws,

possess several properties. We now develop those

properties for 2D second vent symmetric tensor.

σx +σy σx −σy

σ nn = + Cos 2θ + τ xy Sin2θ

2 2

σx +σy σx −σ y

σt = + Cos 2θ − τ xy Sin2θ

2 2

σx −σ y

τ nt = − Sin2θ + τ xyCos 2θ

2

Solid Mechanics

σ n + σ t = σ x + σ y = σ x′ + σ y ′ = I 1

2 2

σ nσ t − τ nt = σ xσ y − τ xy = σ x′σ y′ − τ x′y′ = I 2

• I 1 ,I 2 are invariants of 2D symmetric stress tensor at a

point.

• Invariants are extremely useful in checking the

correctness of transformation

• Of I 1 and I 2 , I 1 is the most important property : the

sum of normal stresses on any two mutually ⊥ planes

( ⊥ directions) is a constant at a given point.

• In 2D we have two stress invariants; in 3D we have

three invariants of stresses.

Solid Mechanics

Solid Mechanics

Problem:

A plane-stress condition exists at a point on the surface of a

loaded structure, where the stresses have the magnitudes

and directions shown on the stress element. (a) Determine

the stresses acting on a plane that is oriented at a −15 w.r.t.

the x-axis (b) Determine the stresses acting on an element

that is oriented at a clockwise angle of 15 w.r.t the original

element.

Solution:

σ x = −46

σ y = 12

τ xy = −19

Q = −15 it is in C.W.

Solid Mechanics

σx +σy −46 + 12 −34

= = = −17 MPas

2 2 2

σx −σy −46 − 12 −58

= = = −29 MPa

2 2 2

σx +σy σx −σy

σn = + Cos 2θ + τ xySin2θ

2 2

σ n1 = −32.6 MPas

σx −σy

τ nt = − Sin2θ + τ xyCos2θ

2

τ n1t1 = −29 × 0.5 − 19 × 0.866

Solid Mechanics

σ t = σ n2 = τ nt θ =75

σ t = −1.4 MPa

τ tn = τ n2t2 = τ nt θ =75

= 31 MPa

Now θ = 145

= −32 MPa

τ nt = −31 MPa

As a check

Solid Mechanics

4. Principal Stresses

Principal Stresses

Now we are in position to compute the direction and

magnitude of the stress components on any inclined plane at

any point, provided if we know the state of stress (Plane

stress) at that point. We also know that any engineering

component fails when the internal forces or stresses reach a

particular value of all the stress components on all of the

infinite number of planes only stress components on some

particular planes are important for solving our basic

question i.e under the action of given loading whether the

component will ail or not? Therefore our objective of this

class is to determine these plane and their corresponding

stresses.

σn +σ y σn −σ y

(1) σ n = σ n (θ ) = + Cos 2θ + τ xy Sin2θ

2 2

what is the maximum normal stress value, what is the

minimum normal stress value and what are their

Solid Mechanics

corresponding planes i.e how the planes are oriented ? Thus

mathematically we are looking for maxima and minima of

σ ( Q ) function..

n

σn +σy σn −σ y

(3) σ n = + Cos 2θ + τ xy Sin2θ

2 2

For maxima or minima, we know that

dσ n

dθ

( )

= 0 = − σ x − σ y Sin2θ + 2τ xyCos 2θ

2τ xy

tan 2θ =

σx −σy

(4) The above equations has two roots, because tan repeats

itself after π . Let us call the first root as θ P1

2τ xy

tan 2θ P1 =

σx −σy

2τ xy

(

tan 2θ P2 = tan 2θ P1 + π = ) σx −σy

Solid Mechanics

π

θ P2 = θ P1 + s

2

(5) Let us verify now whether we have minima or minima at

θ P1 and θ P2

d 2σ n

dθ 2 ( )

= −2 σ x − σ y Cos 2θ − 4τ xy Sin2θ

d 2σ n

∴

dθ 2 θ =θ

( )

= −2 σ x − σ y Cos 2θ P1 − 4τ xy Sin2θ P1

P1

σx −σy

Cos 2θ P1 =

2

σx −σy 2

2 + τ xy

2

2τ xy τ xy

Sin2θ P1 = =

2 2

σx −σy 2 σx −σy 2

2 + τ xy + τ xy

2 2

Solid Mechanics

d 2σ n

=

(

−2 σ x − σ y σ x − σ y)( )− 4τ xyτ xy

dθ 2 θ =θ σx −σy 2

σx −σy 2

P1 2 2

2 + τ xy + τ xy

2 2

( )

2 2

− σx −σy 4τ xy

= −

2 2

σx −σy 2 σx −σy 2

+ τ xy + τ xy

2 2

2

−4 σx −σy 2

= + τ xy

σx −σy 2 2

2

+ τ xy

2

2

d 2σ n σx −σy 2

∴ = −4 + τ xy (-ve)

dθ 2 2

d2σn

dθ 2 θ =θ π

( ) (

= 2 σx −σ y Cos 2θP1 + π − 4τ xySin 2θP1 + π ) ( )

P2 =θP1 +

2

( )

= 2 σ x − σ y Cos2θP1 + 4τ xySin2θP1

2

d 2σ n σx −σy 2

∴ = −4 + τ xy s (+ve)

dθ 2 θ =θ 2

P2

Solid Mechanics

Thus the angles θ P1 s and θ P2 s define planes of either

maximum normal stress or minimum normal stress.

(6) Now, we need to compute magnitudes of these stresses

We know that,

σx +σy σx −σy

σn = + Cos 2θ + τ xy Sin2θ

2 2

σx +σy σx −σy

σ n θ =θ = σ1 = + Cos 2θ P1 + τ xy Sin2θ P1

P1 2 2

Substituting Cos 2θ P1 s and Sin2θ P1

2

σx +σy σx −σy 2

σ1 = + + τ xy

2 2

Max.Normal stress because of + sign

Similarly,

σx +σy σx −σy

σ n θ =θ

P2 =θ P1 =

π = σ2 =

2

+

2

(

Cos 2θ P1 + π + )

2

τ xy Sin ( 2θ P1 + π )

σx +σy σx −σy

= − Cos 2θ P1 − τ xy Sin2θ P1

2 2

Substituting Cos 2θ P1 and Sin2θ P1

Solid Mechanics

2

σx +σy σx −σy 2

σ = − + τ xy

2 2

Min.normal sress because of − ve sign

We can write

2

σx +σy σx −σy 2

σ 1 or σ 2 = ± + τ xy

2 2

π

(1) θ P2 = θ P1 + s - planes on which maximum normal stress

2

and minimum normal stress act are ⊥ to each other.

(2) Generally maximum normal stress is designated by σ 1

and minimum stress by σ 2 . Also θ P1 → σ 1 ;θ P2 → σ 2

0− σ1

−1000 − σ 2

Solid Mechanics

(4) maximum and minimum normal stresses are collectively

called as principal stresses.

(5) Planes on which maximum and minimum normal stress

act are known as principal planes.

(6) θ P1 and θ P2 that define the principal planes are known as

principal directions.

(8) Let us find the planes on which shearing stresses are zero.

( )

τ nt = 0 = − σ x − σ y Sin2θ + τ xyCos2θ

2τ xy

tan 2θ =

σx =σy

= directions of principal plans

Thus on the principal planes no shearing stresses act.

Conversely, the planes on which no shearing stress acts are

known as principal planes and the corresponding normal

stresses are principal stresses. For example the state of stress

at a point is as shown.

Then σx and σy are

principal stresses because

no shearing stresses are

acting on these planes.

Solid Mechanics

(9) Since, principal planes are ⊥ to each other at a point P,

this also means that if an element whose sides are parallel to

the principal planes is taken out at that point P, then it will

be subjected to principal stresses. Observe that no shearing

stresses are acting on the four faces, because shearing

stresses must be zero on principal planes.

say that

σ x + σ y = σ 1 + σ 2 = σ x′ + σ y′ = I 1

Solid Mechanics

Maximum and minimum shearing stresses

So far we have seen some specials planes on which the

shearing stresses are always zero and the corresponding

normal stresses are principal stresses. Now we wish to find

what are maximum shearing stress plane and minimum

shearing stress plane. We approach in the similar way of

maximum and minimum normal stresses

σx −σy

(1) τ nt = − Sin2θ + τ xyCos 2θ

2

dτ nt

dθ

( )

= − σ x − σ y Cos 2θ + τ xyCos 2θ

dτ nt

dθ

( )

= 0 = − σ x − σ y Cos 2θ − 2τ xy Sin2θ

tan 2θ =

(

− σx −σy )

2τ xy

tan 2θS1 =−

( σx −σy )

2τ xy

s − stan ds for shear stress

p − stan ds for principal stresses.

Solid Mechanics

(

− σx −σy )

(

tan 2θS2 = tan 2θS1 + π = ) 2τ xy

π

∴ θS2 = θS1 +

2

Now we have to show that at these two angles we will have

maximum and minimum shear stresses at that point.

Similar to the principal stresses we must calculate

d 2τ nt

dθ 2 ( )

= 2 σ x − σ y Sin2θ − 4τ xyCos 2θ

d 2τ nt

dθ 2 θ =θ

( )

= 2 σ x − σ y Sin2θS1 − 4τ xyCos 2θS1

S1

2τ xy

Cos 2θS1 =

2

σx −σy 2

2 + τ xy

2

Sin2θS1 =

(

− σx −σy )

2

σx −σy 2

2 + τ xy

2

show that

Solid Mechanics

d 2τ nt

= - ve

dθ 2 θ =θ

S1

d 2τ nt

= + ve

dθ 2 θ =θ π

S2 =θS1 +

2

Thus the angles θS1 and θS2 define planes of either maximum

shear stress or minimum shear stress. Planes that define

maximum shear stress & minimum shear stress are again ⊥

to each other.. Now we wish to find out these values.

τ nt

( σx −σy )

Sin2θ + τ

=− xyCos 2θ

2

τ nt θ =θ =−

( σx −σy )

Sin2θ + τ xyCos 2θS1

S1

S1 2

Substituting Cos 2θS1 and Sin2θS1 s , we can show that

2

σx −σy 2

τ max = + + τ xy

2

( σx −σy )

Sin ( 2θS

τ nt θ =θ

S2 =θS1 +

π =−

2 1 ) (

+ π + τ xyCos 2θS1 + π )

2

2

σx −σy 2

τ min = − + τ xy

2

Solid Mechanics

τ max is algebraically > τ min , however their absolute

magnitude is same. Thus we can write

2

σx −σy 2

τ max or τ min = ± + τ xy

2

Generally

τ max −θS1

τ min −θS2

Q. Why τ max and τ min are numerically same. Because θS1 &

θS2 are ⊥ planes.

maximum and minimum shear stress act are not free from

normal stresses.

Solid Mechanics

σx +σ y σx −σy

σn = + Cos 2θ + τ xy Sin2θ s

2 2

σx +σy σx −σy

σ n θ =θ = + Cos 2θS1 + τ xy Sin2θS1

S1 2 2

Substituting Cos 2θS1 and Sin2θS1

σx +σy

σ = σ n θ =θ =

S1 2

σx +σy σx −σy

σ n θ =θ

S2 =θS1 +

π =

2

+

2

(

Cos 2θS1 + π )

2

(

+τ xy Sin 2θS1 + π )

Simplifying this equation gives

σx +σy

σ = σ n θ =θ =

S2 2

Therefore the normal stress on maximum and minimum

shear stress planes is same.

(3) Both the principal planes are ⊥ to each other and also the

planes of τ max and τ min are also ⊥ to each other. Now let us

see there exist any relation between them.

Solid Mechanics

6. Mohr’s circle

Mohr’s circle for plane stress

So far we have seen two methods to find stresses acting on

an inclined plane

(a) Wedge method

(b) Use of transformation laws.

known as the Mohr’s circle for plane stress.

A major advantage of Mohr’s circle is that, the state of the

stress at a point, i.e the stress components acting on all

infinite number of planes can be viewed graphically.

Equations of Mohr’s circle

σx +σ y σx −σy

We know that, σn = + Cos 2θ + τ xy Sin2θ

2 2

This equation can also be written as

σx +σy σx −σ y

σn − = Cos 2θ + τ xy Sin2θ

2 2

σx −σy

τ nt = − Sin2θ + τ xyCos 2θ

2

2 2

σx +σy 2 σx +σy 2

σn − + τ nt = + τ xy

2 2

↓ ↓ ↓

2

(x − a) + y2 = R2

Solid Mechanics

The above equation is

clearly an equation of

circle with center at ( a, 0 )

on τ −σ plane it

represents a circle with

σx +σy

center at , 0 and

2

having radius

σx −σ y 2

R= + τ xy

2

Mohr’s circle.

From the above deviation it

can be seen that any point P

on the Mohr’s circle

represents stress which are

acting on a plane passing

through the point.

In this way we can

completely visualize the

stresses acting on all

infinite planes.

Solid Mechanics

(3) Construction of Mohr’s circle

Let us assume that the state of stress at a point is given

τ x′y′ on an inclined element. For the sake of clarity we

assume that, σ x′ ,σ y′s and τ x′y′ all are positive and σ x > σ y

Solid Mechanics

• Since any point on the circle represents the stress

components on a plane passing through the point.

Therefore we can locate the point A on the circle.

(

• The coordinates of the plane A = +σ x , +τ xy )

( )

coordinates +σ x , +τ xy s

the normal of the A-plane makes 0 w.r.t the x-axis.

• In a similar way we can locate the point B

corresponding to the plane B.

Solid Mechanics

( )

The coordinates of B = +σ y , −τ xy s

Therefore the point B diametrically opposite to point A.

• The line BC represents y- axis. The point A corresponds

to Q = 0 , and pt. B corresponds to Q = 90 (+ve) of the

stress element.

At this point of time we should be able to observe two

important points.

• The end points of a diameter represents stress

components on two ⊥ planes of the stress element.

• The angle between x- axis and the plane B is 90° (c.c.w)

in the stress element. The line CA in Mohr’s circle

represents x- axis and line CB represents y-axis or plane

B. It can be seen that, the angle between x-axis and y-

axis in the Mohr’s circle is 180° (c.c.w). Thus 2Q in

Mohr’s circle corresponds to Q in the stress element

diagram.

Stresses on an inclined element

• Point A corresponds to Q = 0 on the stress element.

Therefore the line CA i.e x-axis becomes reference line

from which we measure angles.

• Now we locate the point “D” on the Mohr’s circle such

that the line CD makes an angle of 2Q c.c.w from the x-

axis or line CA. we choose c.c.w because in the stress

element also Q is in c.c.w direction.

Solid Mechanics

• The coordinates or stresses corresponding to point D on

the Mohr’s circle represents the stresses on the x′ - face or

D on the stress element.

σ x′ = σ avg + RCosβ

τ x′y′ = RSinβ

σ y′ = σ avg − RCosβ

Since D& D′ are ⊥ planes inthe

stress element ,thenthey become

diametrically opposite point s on

thecircle, just likethe planes A& Bdid

Calculation of principal stress

The most important application of the Mohr’s circle is

determination of principal stresses.

The intersection of the Mohr’s circle --- with normal stress

axis gives two points P1 and P2 . Thus P1 and P2 represents

points corresponding to principal stresses. In the current

diagram the coordinates the of

P1 = σ 1 , 0s

P2 = σ 2 , 0

σ 1 = σ avg + R

σ 2 = σ avg − R

2θ p1 , in c.c.w direction from the x-axis.

Solid Mechanics

π

θ p2 = θ p1 ±

2

We can see that the points P1 and P2 are diametrically

opposite, this indicate that principal planes are ⊥ to each

other in the stress element. This fact can also be verified from

the Mohr’s circle.

In- plane maximum shear stress

What are points on the circle at which the shearing stress are

reaching maximum values numerically? Points S1 and S2 at

the top and bottom of the Mohr’s circle.

points P1 P2 and, i.e the planes of maximum shear stress

are oriented at ±45 to the principal planes.

• Unlike the principal stresses, the planes of maximum

shear stress are not free from the normal stresses. For

example the coordinates of

S1 = +τ max ,σ avg s

S2 = −τ max ,σ avg

τ max = ± R

σ = σ avg

methods are mathematically correct.

Solid Mechanics

Finally

• Intersection of Mohr’s circle with the σ -axis gives

principal stresses.

• The top and bottom points of Mohr’s circle gives

maximum –ve shear stress and maximum +ve shear

stress.

• Do not forget that all these inclined planes are obtained

by rotation about z-axis.

Solid Mechanics

Mohr’ circle problem

= = 10000 MPa

2 2

A - (15000,4000)

B - (5000,-4000)

2

σx −σy 2 15000 − 5000 2

R= + τ xy = + 4000 2

2 2

= 5000 2 + 4000 2

R = 6403 MPa

σx −σy

= 5000

(a) 2

Solid Mechanics

Point D : σ x′ = 10000 + 6403Cos 41.34 = 14807 MPa

τ x′y′ = −6403Sin 41.34 = −4229 MPa

38.66

b) σ 1 = 16403 ; θ P1 = = 19.33

2

σ 2 = 3597 MPa

Solid Mechanics

(2) θ = 45

Principal stresses and principal shear stresses.

Solution:

σx +σy −50 + 10

= = −20

2 2

2

σx −σy −50 − 10 2

R= 2

+ τ xy = + ( −40 )2 = 50 MPa

2 2

σx +σy

A → ( −50 , −40 ) p1 = σ 1 = + R = −20 + 50 = 30s

2

B → ( 10 , 40 ) σx +σy

p2 = σ 2 = − R = −20 − 50 = −70

2

Solid Mechanics

2Qp1 = 233.13

Qp1 = 116.6

Qp2 = 206.6

2Qs1 = 143.13

Qs1 = 71.6

Qs2 = 161.6

Solid Mechanics

Q. σ x = 31 MPa, σ y = −5 MPa and τ xy = 33 MPa

Principal stresses and maximum shear stress.

Solution: σx +σy 31 − 5

σ avg = = = 13 MPa

2 2

2

σx −σy 2

R= + τ xy = 37.6 MPa

2

A ( 31 , 33 )

B ( −5 , −33 )

σ x′ = RCosβ + σ avg s

= 37.6 Cos 28.64 + 13 = 46 MPa

σ y′ = RCosβ − σ avg

= −20 MPa

Solid Mechanics

∴ σ 1 = 50.6 MPa

σ 2 = −24.6 MPa

θ p1 = 30.68

τ min = −37.6 MPa

σ = σ avg = 13 MPa

Solid Mechanics

7. 3D-Stress Transformation

3D-stress components on an arbitrary plane

system

n x ′x n x ′y n x ′z − D i r . c o s i n e s o f x ′

ˆi ′ = n x ′ x ˆi + n x ′ y ˆj + n x ′ z kˆ

ˆj′ = ny′xˆi + ny′y ˆj + ny′z kˆ

kˆ ′ = nz′xˆi + nz′y ˆj + nz′z kˆ

Solid Mechanics

ˆ

Tn = Tx′xˆi + Tx′y ˆj + Tx′z ks

Tn = σ x′x′ˆi′ + τ x′y′ˆj′ + τ x′z′ kˆ ′

ABC − dA

PAB − dAnx′x

PAC − dAnx′x

PBC − dAnx′z

[ Fx → + = 0 ]

Tx′x da = σ x dAnx′x + τ yx dAnx′y + τ zx dAnx′z

Tx′y = τ xy nx′x + σ y nx′y + τ zy nx′z τ x′y′ σ y′ τ y′z′

Tx′z = τ xznx′x + τ yznx′y + σ znx′z τ z′x′ τ y′z′ σ z′

σ x′ ,τ x′y′ ,τ x′z′

( )(

σ x′ = Tnˆi′ = Tx′xˆi + Tx′y ˆj + Tx′z kˆ . nx′xˆi + nx′y ˆj + nx′z kˆ ) (1)

Ty′y = τ xy ny′y + σ y ny′y + τ zy ny′z

Ty′z = τ xzny′y + τ yzny′y + σ zny′z

( )(

σ y′ = Ty′xˆi + Ty′y ˆj + Ty′z kˆ ny′xˆi + ny′y ˆj + ny′z kˆ ) (4)

Solid Mechanics

( )(

τ y′z′ = Ty′xˆi + Ty′y ˆj + Ty′z kˆ nz′xˆi + nz′y ˆj + nz′z kˆ ) (6)

nx′y = Sinθ ny′y = Cosθ nz′y = 0

nx′z = 0 ny′z = 0 nz′z = 1

σ z′ = 0 : τ x′z′ = 0 : τ y′z′ = 0

=σz

0 0 0

( ) ( 2

τ x′y′ = − σ x − σ y Sinθ Cosθ + τ xy Cos θ − Sin θ 2

)

Principal stresses

nx ,ny ,nz

(

Tn = σ nˆ = σ nxˆi + ny ˆj + nz kˆ )

Tn = Tnxˆi + Tny ˆj + Tnz kˆ

Where

Tnx = σ x nx + τ yx ny + τ zx nz

Tny = τ xy nx + σ y ny + τ zy nz

Tnz = τ xznx + τ yzny + σ znz

Solid Mechanics

(σ x − σ ) nx + τ yx ny + τ zx nz = 0

( )

τ yx nx + σ y − σ ny + τ zy nz = 0 Syst.of linear hom og.eqns.

τ xznx + τ yzny + (σ z − σ ) nz = 0

σx −σ τ xy τ zx nx

τ xy σ y −σ τ zy ny = ( 0 )

τ zx τ yz σz −σ nz

( ) (

σ 3 − σ x + σ y + σ z σ 2 + σ xσ y + σ yσ z + σ zσ x − τ xy

2 2

− τ yz 2

− τ zx σ)

( 2

− σ xσ yσ z + 2τ xyτ yzτ zx − σ xτ yz 2

− σ yτ zx 2

− σ zτ xy =0)

This has 3- real roots σ 1 ,σ 2 ,σ 3

(σ x − σ 1 ) nx + τ yx ny + τ zx nz = 0

( )

τ yx nx + σ y − σ 1 ny + τ zy nz = 0

and nx2 + ny2 + nz2 = 1

nx ,ny ,nz → σ 1

σ1 > σ2 > σ3

Stress invariants

σ 3 − I 1σ 2 + I 2σ − I 3 = 0 (1)

Solid Mechanics

I1 = σ x + σ y + σ z

2 2 2

I 2 = σ xσ y + σ yσ z + σ xσ z − τ xy − τ yz − τ zx stress inv ar iants

2 2 2

I 3 = σ xσ yσ z + 2τ xyτ yzτ zx − σ xτ yz − σ yτ zx − σ zτ xy

σ 3 − I 1′ σ 2 + I 3′ = 0

I 1 = I 1′ ; I 2 = I ′2 ; I 3 = I ′3

3D 2D

I1 = σ 1 + σ 2 + σ 3 I1 = σ 1 + σ 2

I 2 = σ 1σ 2 + σ 2σ 3 + σ 3σ 1 I 2 = σ 1σ 2

I 3 = σ 1σ 2σ 3 I3 = 0

Tnnˆ ′ = Tn′ .nˆ

n̂ = nxˆi + ny ˆj + nz kˆ

n̂′ = nx′ˆi + ny′ˆj + nz′ kˆ

Tn = Tnxˆi + Tny ˆj + Tnz kˆ

Tn′ = Tn′xˆi + Tn′y ˆj + Tn′z kˆ

Solid Mechanics

Tnnˆ ′ = Tn′nˆ

τ xy = τ yx

Tnnˆ ′ = Tn′nˆ

(σ 1nˆ ) nˆ ′ = (σ 2 nˆ ′ ) nˆ

( ) (

σ 1 nx nx′ + ny ny′ + nznz′ = σ 2 nx nx′ + ny ny′ + nznz′ )

σ1 ≠ σ2

nx nx′ + ny ny′ + nznz′ = 0

The state of stress in principal axis

σ1 0 0

0 σ2 0

0 0 σ3

Tnx = σ 1nx

Tny = σ 2 ny

Tnz = σ 3nz

2

Tn = Tn2x + Tn2y + Tn2z s

2

τ 2 = Tn − σ n2

Solid Mechanics

3-D Mohr’s circle & principal shear stresses

σ x τ xy 0

σ ij = τ xy σy 0

0 0 σz

σ2 −σ3

τ1 = σ1 > σ2 > σ3

2

σ +σ3

στ 1 = 1

2

σ −σ3

τ2 = 1

2

σ +σ2

στ 2 = 1

2

σ −σ2 σ1 −σ2 σ2 −σ3 σ3 −σ1

τ3 = 1 τ max = max , ,

2 2 2 2

σ −σ2

στ 3 = 1

2

Solid Mechanics

1

failure of the engineering materials.

• It is evident now that in many two-dimensional cases

the maximum shear stress value will be missed by not

considering σ 3 = 0 and constructing the principal circle.

Solid Mechanics

Problem:

The state of stress at a point is given by

σ x = 100 MPa, σ y = −40 MPa, σ z = 80 MPa and

τ xy = τ yz = τ zx = 0

stress at that point.

Solution:

σ1 −σ2 100 − 80

τ 12 = = = 10 MPa

2 2

σ1 −σ3 100 + 40

τ 13 = = = 70 MPa

2 2

σ2 −σ3 80 + 40

τ 23 = = = 60 MPa

2 2

σ1 +σ2

σ 12 = = 90

2

σ 13 = 30 MPa

σ 23 = 20 MPa

τ max = max τ 12 ,τ 13 ,τ 23

τ max = 70 MPa This occurs in the plane of 1-3

Solid Mechanics

τ 1 ,τ 2 ,τ 3 → Principal shear stress in 3D

τ max = max (τ 1 ,τ 2 ,τ 3 )

Solid Mechanics

Plane stress

σ1 > σ

σ3 = σz = 0

2

σx −σ y 2

τ =± + τ xy ---- in plane principal shear stresses.

2

σ1 −σ3 σ1

τ max = =

2 2

Solid Mechanics

Problem

At appoint in a component, the state of stress is as shown.

Determine maximum shear stress.

Solution:

100 0

σ ij = - plane stress problem

0 50

100 0 0

We can also write the matrix as aij = 0 50 0

0 0 0

σ 1 = 100

σ 2 = 50

σ 1 − σ 2 100 − 50

= = 25

2 2

τ max = 25 MPa

Solid Mechanics

Now with σ 1 = 100 , σ 2 = 50 , σ 3 = 0

σ1 −σ3

τ max = = 50 MPa

2

Occurs in the plane 1-3 instead of 1-2

Solid Mechanics

Some important states of stresses

(1) Uniaxial state of stress: Only one non-zero principal

stress.

σ1 0 0

σ1 0

0 0 0 = - plane stress.

0 0

0 0 0

σ1 0 0

σ1 0

0 σ1 0 = - plane stress

0 σ1

0 0 0

non zero.

σ1 0 0

0 σ2 0 − 3D stress

0 0 σ3

(4) Spherical state of stress: σ 1 = σ 2 = σ 3 (either +ve or – ve)

σ 0 0

0 σ 0 − 3D stress-special case of triaxial stress.

0 0 σ

Solid Mechanics

(5) Hydrostatic state of stress

+P 0 0

0 +P 0 hydrostatic tension

0 0 +P

−P 0 0

0 −P 0 hydrostatic compression.

0 0 −P

σ x τ xy τ xz

σ ij = τ xy σ y τ yz

τ zx τ zy σz

0 τ x′y′ τ x′z′

σ ij = τ x′y′ 0 τ y′z′

τ z′x′ τ z′y′ 0

I 1 = 0 is necessary and sufficient condition for state of pure

shear

Solid Mechanics

Octahedral planes and stresses

If nx = ny = nz w.r.t to the principal planes, then these planes

are known as octahedral planes. The corresponding stresses

are known as octahedral stresses.

Octahedron

2

Tn = σ 12 nx2 + σ 22 ny2 + σ 32 nz2

1

nx = ny = nz = ± = 54.730

3

2 2 2

1 1 1

σ oct = σ 1 +σ1 +σ1

3 3 3

σ1 +σ2 +σ3

=

3

Solid Mechanics

σ1 +σ2 +σ3 I1

= = meanstress

3 3

σ oct = canbe int erpreted − − meannormal stress at a pt.

τ oct = Tn 2 − σ oct

2

1

τ oct = (σ 1 − σ 2 ) 2 + (σ 2 − σ 3 ) 2 + (σ 3 − σ 1 ) 2

3

with reference to

(i) stress components of x,y,z coordinate system

(ii) stress components of x’,y’z’ coordinate system

(iii) using principal stresses

(iv) using octahedral shear and normal stresses

We can prove that:

τ oct is smaller than τ max (exist only on 4 planes) but can exist on 8

planes at a point.

Solid Mechanics

Decomposition into hydrostatic and pure shear stress

σ x τ xy τ xz

σ ij = τ yx σ z τ yz

τ zx τ zy σz

σx +σy +σz I1

Mean stress P = =

3 3

σ x τ xy τ xz P 0 0 σx − P τ xy τ xz

τ yx τy τ yz = 0 P 0 + τ yx σy − P τ yz

τ zx τ zy σz 0 0 P τ zx τ zy σz − P

Hydrostatic State of pure shear

stat of stress Deviatoric state of stress

Dilitational stress Stress deviator

by sum of dilational stress and stress deviator

Solid Mechanics

σ1 +σ2 +σ3 I1

P= =

3 3

σ1 0 0 P 0 0 σ1 − P 0 0

0 σ2 0 = 0 P 0 + 0 σ2 − P 0

0 0 σ3 0 0 P 0 0 σ3 − P

σ 1 = mean stress + deviation from the mean

The deviatoric and octahedral shear stresses are the answer

for the yielding behavior of materials – which is a type of

failure of materials.

Solid Mechanics

u = u ( x ,y ,z )

v = v ( x,y ,z ) ( x,y ,z) is the point in the undeformed geometry

w = w ( x,y ,z )

infinitesimal element.

Deformation of the whole body = Sum of deformations of

Deformation is described by measuring two quantities.

(1)Elongation or contraction of a line segment

(2)Rotation of any two ⊥ lines.

element is known as strain.

• The strain component that measures elongation or

construction – normal strain - ε

• The strain component that measures rotation of any two

⊥ lines is – shearing strain- γ

Solid Mechanics

Normal strain ε - Account for changes in length between two

points.

P* Q* − PQ ∆s* − ∆s

∈n ( P ) = lim = lim

∆s→0 PQ ∆s→0 ∆s

We can also define the same point ∈x ,∈y ,∈z

lim as ∆s → 0

*

∈x is - if ∆s > ∆s ∆s* = ( 1+ ∈n ) ∆s

∆s* ( 1+ ∈n ) ∆s if ∆s → 0

s ∈n ∆s s =∈n ∆s

∈n we must consider PQ in the direction of n̂ in the

undeformed geometry

(3) In general ∈n =∈n ( x ,y ,z ) s Mm/mm,0.5%=0.005;

(4) No units. µ = 10 −6 , 1000 µ

(5) Meaning of ∈nn = 1000 × 10 −6 = 0.001 mm / mm

Shearing strain -

Accounts the change in angle

Yn+ ( P ) Change in angle between

π

Ynt ( P ) lim − φnt = lim α + β

∆x →0 2 ∆x →0

∆y →0 ∆y →0

Solid Mechanics

(1)We must select two ⊥ lines in the undeformed geometry.

(2)Units of Ynt → radius.

(3)By deflection Ynt = Ytn

(4)Two subscripts are required for

Y - to show directions of initial

infinitesimal line segments.

(5) Ynt is +ve if angle is decreased

Ynt is -ve if angle is more.

By taking two ⊥ lines

We can define ∈n ,∈t &Ynt

Rectangular strain components

∈x ,∈y andYxy − PQRS

∈z ,∈y andYyz − QABS

∈x ,∈z andYxz − RSCD

- We then say that we have strain

Eij = Yxy ∈y Yyz

computer associated with x ,y ,z

Yxz Yyz ∈z coordinate system.

They represent the state of strain at a point , since we can

determine strain along any direction n̂

Solid Mechanics

Strain displacement relations: Strains are due to

deformation as displacement so there must be some relation

between deformational displacements and strains. So let us

consider the side of the element PQRS . We shall demonstrate

that ‘w’ has no impact. So it can be neglected.

P → u,v

∂u ∂v

Q →u+ ∆x ; v + ∆x

∂x ∂x

PQ = ∆x

P* Q* = ∆x*

∆x* ( 1+ ∈x ) ∆x

lim ∆x* = ( 1+ ∈x ) ∆x

∆x →0

2 2 2

* ∂u ∂v ∂w

∆x = 1 + ∆x + ∆x + ∆x

∂x ∂x ∂x

2 2 2

∂u ∂u ∂v ∂w

= 1+ 2 + + + ∆x

∂x ∂x ∂x ∂x

Solid Mechanics

∆x* − ∆x

∈x = lim

∆x →0 ∆x

2 2 2

∂u ∂u ∂v ∂w

= lim 1+ 2 + + + −1

∆x →0 ∂x ∂x ∂x ∂x

2 2 2

∂u ∂u ∂v ∂w

∈x = 1 + 2 + + + −1

∂x ∂x ∂x ∂x

2 2 2

∂v ∂u ∂v ∂w

∈y = 1 + 2 + + + −1

∂y ∂y ∂y ∂y

2 2 2

∂w ∂u ∂v ∂w

∈z = 1 + 2 + + + −1

∂z ∂z ∂z ∂z

So far no assumption has been made except for size of

∆x, ∆y & ∆z

* ∂u ∆x ∂u ∆y

Cosφxy = 1+

∂x ∆x* ∂y ∆y*

∂v ∆x ∂v ∆y

+ 1+

∂x ∆x* ∂y ∆y*

∂w ∆x ∂w ∆y

+

∂x ∆x* ∂y ∆y*

π *

Yxy = lim − φxy

∆x →0 2

∆y →0

∆z→0

Solid Mechanics

*

SinYxy = lim Cosφxy

∆x →0

∆y →0

∆z→0

∂u ∂u ∂v ∂v ∂w ∂w ∆x∆y

SinYxy = lim 1+ + 1+ +

∆x →0 ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂x ∂x ∂y ∆x* ∆y*

∆y →0

∆z→0

∆x* = ( 1+ ∈x ) ∆x

(

∆y* = 1+ ∈y ∆y)

∂u ∂v ∂u ∂u ∂v ∂v ∂w ∂w

+ + + +

∂y ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y

SinYxy = lim

∆x →0 ( 1+ ∈x ) ( 1+ ∈y )

∆y →0

∆z→0

∂u ∂v ∂u ∂u ∂v ∂v ∂w ∂w

Sin −1 + + + +

∂y ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y

Yxy =

( 1+ ∈x ) ( 1+ ∈y )

∂u ∂v ∂u ∂u ∂v ∂v ∂w ∂w

+ + + +

∂y ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y

Yyz = sin −1

( 1+ ∈x ) ( 1+ ∈y )

∂w ∂u ∂w ∂w ∂u ∂u ∂v ∂v

+ + + +

Yxz = sin −1 ∂x ∂w ∂x ∂z ∂x ∂w ∂x ∂z

( 1+ ∈x )( 1+ ∈z )

deformations”

Solid Mechanics

Small deformations :

(1) The deformational displacements u = uiˆ + vjˆ + wk are

infinitesimally small.

(2) The strains are small

(a) Changes in length of a infinitesimal line segment are

infinitesimal.

(b) Rotations of line segment are also infinitesimal.

2

∂u ∂u ∂u ∂v ∂u ∂u ∂v

, , , 1 ∈x 1 ; ∈y ≤< 1 ; ∈z 1; ; are

∂x ∂u ∂w ∂x ∂x ∂x ∂y

∂u ∂v

negligible compare to , quantities.

∂x ∂x

∂u

∈x = 1 + 2 −1

∂x

2 ∂u

−1

= 1 + ∂x

2

∂u

∈x =

∂x

∂v

∈y =

∂y

∂w

∈z =

∂z

SinYxy ≈ Yxy

Solid Mechanics

∂u ∂v

+

∂y ∂x ∂v ∂u

Yxy = = +

( 1+ ∈x + ∈y ) ∂x ∂y

∂w ∂u

Yxz = +

∂x ∂z

∂v ∂w

Yyz = +

∂z ∂y

Another derivation : Let us take plane PQRS in xy plane.

Also assume that u = u ( x ,y ) & v = v ( x ,y ) only.

Small deformation

Displacements are small

Strains are small

P* Q* − PQ ∆x* − ∆x

∈x = lim =

∆x →0 PQ ∆x

′ ∂y

∆x* P* Q* = 1 + ∆x

∂x

∂y

1+ ∆x − ∆x

∂x ∂u

∈x = lim =

∆x →0 ∆x ∂x

∂v

1+ ∆y − ∆y Strains<0.001

∂y ∂v

∈y = lim =

∆y →0 ∆y ∂y Y < 0.06

∆s* = 0.2002

s = 2 × 10 −4 mm

Solid Mechanics

π *

Yxy = lim − φxy = lim α + β

∆x →0 2 ∆x →0

∆y →0 ∆y →0

∂v ∂v

∆x

tan α = ∂x = ∂x

∂y ∂y

1+ ∆x 1 +

∂x ∂x

tan α ≈ α

∂v ∂u ∂u ∂v ∂v

α= , , , 1

∂x ∂u ∂v ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂x

Yxy = + 2 2

∂u ∂y ∂x ∂u 2

∂u ∂v

β= , ,

∂y ∂x ∂y ∂yx

of strains

∈x , ∈y , ∈z, Yxy , Yxz , Yyz

↓ ↓ ↓

Yyx Yzx Yzy

State of strain

∈x Yxy Yxz - Engineering strain matrix

Eij = Yxy ∈y Yyz - We can find ∈n in any

direction we can find Ynt for

Yxz Yyz ∈z

any two arbitrary directions.

Solid Mechanics

2D- strain transformation

∈x =∈x ( x,y )

∈x Yxy

∈y =∈y ( x,y )

Yxy ∈y

Yxy = Yxy ( x ,y )

implication of these

∈z = 0 equation is that a point in

Yyz = 0 a given plane does not

Yzx = 0 leave that plane all

deformations are in to

plane of the body.

Solid Mechanics

Given ∈x ,∈y & Yxy what are ∈n ,∈t & Ynt .

If ∈x ,∈y & Yxy

laws.

∈ dxSinθ

α1 = x

ds

dx

=∈x sinθ

ds

=∈x sinθ cosθ

dy

α 2 =∈y cosθ =∈y cosθ sinθ

ds

dy

α 3 = Yxy sinθ

ds

= Yxy sinθ sinθ

Solid Mechanics

dL =∈x dx cosθ + ∈y dy sinθ + Yxy dy cosθ

dL dx dy dy

=∈n =∈x cosθ + ∈y sinθ + Yxy cosθ

dS ds ds ds

=∈x cosθ cosθ + ∈y sin2 θ + Yxy sinθ cosθ

∈x + ∈y ∈x − ∈y Yxy

∈n = + cos 2θ + sin 2θ

2 2 2

β = − ∈x cosθ ( − sinθ ) + ∈y cos θ ( − sinθ ) − Yxy cos 2 θ

=∈x cos θ sinθ − ∈y cos θ sinθ − Yxy cos 2 θ

Ynt

=−

(

∈x − ∈y

sin 2θ +

)

Yxy

cos 2θ

2 2 2

∈x Yxy

Yxy ∈y - state of strain at a point

σ x τ xy - stress tensor

Yxy

∈x τ xy σy

2 - strain tensor

Yxy Replace

∈y

2 σ x →∈x

∈x ∈xy Yxy σ y →∈y

∈xy =

∈xy ∈y 2 Yxy

τ xy →∈xy =

2

Solid Mechanics

Principal shears and maximum shear

In plane- principal strains

2 ∈xy → ϒ xy / 2

tan 2Qp =

∈x − ∈y

θ p1 − θ p2 − ⊥ to each other

∈1 ,∈2 ∈1 >∈2

tan 2θs =−

(∈x − ∈y )

2 ∈xy

θ s = θ p1 ± π / 4

σ x + σ y = I1 ∈x − ∈y 2

∈max or ∈min = ± R = ± + ∈2xy

∈x + ∈y = J I 2

2

σ xσ y − τ xy = I2

Ymax

2

∈∈y − ∈xy = J2 =∈max −θ s1

2

2 Ymin

Yxy =∈min −θ s2

∈x∈y − = J2 2

2

Solid Mechanics

Mohr’s Circle for strain

∈x′ ,Yx′y′ ,∈y′

3D-strain transformation

Yxy

σ x →∈x ; σ y →∈y ;σ z →∈z ;τ xy =∈xy =

2

(∈x − ∈) ∈xy ∈xz

∈xz ∈yz (∈z − ∈)

∆s 2 = ∆x 2 + ∆y 2

*2 * * ′2 * * ′2

∆s =P Q +P R

2 2

∂u ∂v

= 1+ ∆x + 1+ ∆y − ∆x 2 + ∆y 2

∂x ∂x

Solid Mechanics

2

∆y

∈n = 1 + .∆x

∆x

2 2

∂u ∂v ∆y

= 1+ + 1+ ∆x 2 − ∆x 2 − ∆y 2

∂x ∂x ∆x

2 2

∂u ∂u ∂v ∂v

1+ +2 ∆x 2 + 1 + +2 ∆y 2 − ∆x 2 − ∆y 2

∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y

=

2

∆y

1+ ∆x

∆x

∂u ∂v

1+2 ∆x 2 + 1 + 2 ∆y 2 − ∆x 2 + ∆y 2

∂x ∂y

=

2

∆y

1+ ∆x

∆x

σ x′ = σ x nx2′x + σ y ny2′y + σ znz2′z + τ xy nx′x nx′y σ y →∈y τ yz →∈yz

+ τ yznx′y nx′z + τ zx nx′znx′x σ z →∈zx τ zx →∈zx

+ ∈yz nx′y nx′z + ∈zx nx′znx′x

Yx′y′

τ x′y′ →∈x′y′ →

2

Solid Mechanics

Principal strains:

(∈x − ∈) nx + ∈xy ny + ∈xz nz = 0 System of linear

( )

∈xy nx + ∈y − ∈ ny + ∈yz nz = 0 homogeneous

equations

∈xz nx + ∈yz ny + (∈z − ∈) nz = 0

∈xz ∈yz (∈z − ∈)

∈3 − J 1 ∈12 + J 2 ∈ − J 3 = 0

J 1 =∈x + ∈y + ∈z

∈x ∈xy

2

J 2 =∈x∈y + ∈x∈z + ∈y ∈z − ∈xy − ∈2yz − ∈2zx +

∈xy ∈y

∈y ∈yz ∈x ∈xz

+

∈yz ∈z ∈xz ∈z

2

∈x ∈xy ∈xz

− ∈z∈2xy ∈yx ∈y ∈yz

∈zx ∈zy ∈z

∈1 >∈2 >∈3

Solid Mechanics

(∈x − ∈1 ) nx + ∈xy ny + ∈zx nz = 0

( )

∈xy nx + ∈y − ∈1 ny + ∈zy nz = 0

J 2 =∈1∈2 + ∈2∈3 + ∈3∈1

J 3 =∈1∈2∈3

hydrostatic strain

∈x ∈xy ∈xz ∈x − ∈ ∈xy ∈xz ∈ 0 0

∈ij = ∈yx ∈y ∈yz = ∈yx ∈y − ∈ ∈yz + 0 ∈ 0

∈zx ∈zy ∈z ∈zx ∈zy ∈z − ∈ 0 0 ∈

State of pure shear Hydrostatic

∈x + ∈y + ∈z

where ∈=

3

Solid Mechanics

Plane strain as a special case of 3D

z→ is a principal direction

if ∈1 >∈2 ; ∈1 =∈2 +ve

if ∈1 +ve, ∈2 -ve.

if ∈1 +ve, ∈2 -ve

to the maximum extent,

so that the included angle

π

is − ∈max

2

Solid Mechanics

Transformation equations for plane-strain

Given state of strain at a point P.

∈xx Yxy

Eij = This also means that

Yxy ∈yy

deformation

∈x′x′ Yx′y′

Ei′j′ = This also means that

Yx′y′ ∈y′y′

Solid Mechanics

( P * R * )2 = ( P * R * )2 + ( Q * R * )2 − 2 ( P * R * )(Q * R * )

π

cos + Yxy

2

( )

2 2 2

∆x′ ( 1+ ∈x′ ) = ∆x ( 1+ ∈x ) + ∆y 1+ ∈y − 2 ∆x ( 1+ ∈x )

π

(

∆y 1+ ∈y ) cos

2

+ Yxy

∆x = ∆x′ cos θ and ∆y = ∆x′ sinθ

( )

cos π2 + Yxy = − sinYxy ≈ −Yxy

( )

2 2 2

∆x′2 ( 1+ ∈x′ ) = ∆x′2 cos 2 θ ( 1+ ∈x ) + ∆x′2 sin2 θ 1+ ∈y

(

− 2 ∆x′2 sinθ cosθ ( 1+ ∈x ) 1+ ∈y −Yxy )( )

Solid Mechanics

2

( )

1+ ∈x2′ +2 ∈x = cos 2 θ 1+ ∈x2 +2 ∈x + sin 2 θ 1+ ∈2y +2 ∈y ( )

(

+ sin 2θ Yxy 1+ ∈x + ∈y + ∈x∈y )

1 + 2 ∈x = cos 2 θ ( 1 + 2 ∈x ) + sin2 θ 1 + 2 ∈y ( )

(

+ Yxy sin 2θ 1+ ∈x + ∈y )

= cos 2 θ ( 1 + 2 ∈x ) + sin 2 θ ( 1 + 2 ∈y )

+ Yxy sin 2θ

2 2 Yxy

∈x′ =∈x cos θ + ∈y sin θ + sin 2θ

2

∈x + ∈y ∈x − ∈y Yxy

∈x′ = + cos 2θ + sin 2θ

2 2 2

π

If θ =Q+ ∈y′

2

∈x + ∈y ∈x − ∈y Yxy

∈x′ = + cos 2θ + sin 2θ

2 2 2

∈x + ∈y ∈x − ∈y Yxy

∈y′ = + cos 2θ − sin 2θ

2 2 2

∈x′ + ∈y′ =∈x + ∈y = J 1 = first invariant of strain.

Solid Mechanics

∈x + ∈y Yxy

∈x′ Q=π =∈OB = +

4 2 2

2 ∈OB =∈x + ∈y +Yxy

Yxy = 2 ∈OB − ∈x + ∈y ( )

(

Yx′y = 2 ∈OB′ − ∈x′ + ∈y′ )

(

= 2 ∈OB′ − ∈x + ∈y ) ( 3)

∈x + ∈y ∈x − ∈y Yxy

∈x′ Q=Q+ π =∈OB′ = − sin 2θ + cos 2θ - (4)

4 2 2 2

Substituting (4) in (3)

( ) ( )

Yx′y′ = ∈x + ∈y − ∈x − ∈y sin 2θ + Yxy cos 2θ − ∈x + ∈y ( )

Yx′y′ = − (∈x − ∈y ) sin 2θ + Yxy cos 2θ (5)

=∈xx ,∈yy ,∈z

tensorial shear strain ∈xy( ) =

2 2

Solid Mechanics

Yxz

∈xx ∈xy ∈xz =

2 Components.

∈ij = ∈xy ∈yy ∈yz - Strain tensors

∈zx ∈zy (∈zz =∈zz )

∈x + ∈y ∈x − ∈y

∈x′ = + cos 2θ + ∈xy sin 2θ

2 2

∈x + ∈y ∈x − ∈y

∈y′ = − cos 2θ − ∈xy sin 2θ

2 2

∈x′y′ =−

(∈x − ∈y )

sin 2θ + ∈ cos 2θ

xy

2

Solid Mechanics

Problem:

An element of material in plane strain undergoes the

following strains

Solution: ∈x = 340 × 10 −6

Solid Mechanics

Problem:

During a test of an airplane wing, the strain gage readings

from a 45 rosette are as follows gage A, 520 × 10 −6 ; gage B

360 × 10 −6 and gage C −80 × 10 −6

Determine the principal strains and maximum shear strains

and show them on sketches of properly oriented elements.

Solution:

∈x = 520 × 10 −6

∈OB = 360 × 10 −6

∈y = −80 × 10 −6

(

Yxy = 2 ∈OB − ∈x + ∈y )

(

= 2 × 360 × 10 −6 − 520 × 10 −6 − 80 × 10 −6 )

= 280 × 10 −6 rad

(1) ∈x + ∈y 520 × 10 −6 − 80 × 10 −6

= = 220 × 10 −6

2 2

Solid Mechanics

∈x − ∈y 520 × 10 −6 + 80 × 10 −6

= = 300 × 10 −6

2 2

2 ∈xy e × 140 × 10 −6

tan 2θ p = =

∈x − ∈y 300 × 10 −6

Yxy280 × 10 −6

∈xy = = = 140 × 10 −6

2 2

∴ 2θ p = 25.02

θ p = 12.51 θ p = 102.51

2

∈x + ∈y ∈x − ∈y 2

∈1 or ∈2 = ± + ∈xy

2 2

( ) ( )

2 2

= 220 × 10 −6 ± 300 × 10 −6 + 140 × 10 −6

= 220 × 10 −6 ± 331.06 × 10 −6

∴ ∈1 = 551.06 × 10 −6

∈2 = −111.06 × 10 −6

∈x′ θ =12.51

∈x + ∈y ∈x − ∈y

= + Cos 2θ + ∈xy Sin2θ

2 2

= 220 × 10 −6 + 300 × 10 −6 cos ( 2 × 12.51 ) + 140 × 10 −6 Sin ( 2 × 12.51 )

= 551.06 × 10 −6

Solid Mechanics

θ p1 = 12.51 and θ p2 = 102.51

2

xy xy ∈x − ∈y 2

∈max or ∈min = ± + ∈xy

2

= ±331.06 × 10 −6

(∈xy )min = −331.06 × 10−6

tan 2Qs =−

(∈x − ∈y ) −300 × 10 −6

=

2. ∈xy 140 × 10 −6

2Qs = 64.98

Qs = −32.5 Qs = 57.5

∈x′y′ =−

(∈x − ∈y )

Sin2 ( 57.5 ) + ∈ Cos 2 ( 57.5 )

xy

Q = 57.5 2

= −271.89 × 10 −6 − 59.17 × 10 −6 = 331.06 × 10 −6

Solid Mechanics

θ s1 = −32.5 and θ s2 = −32.5

Ymin = −662.11 × 10 −6

Ymax = 662.11 × 10 −6

∈x + ∈y

∈= = 220 × 10 −6

2

Solid Mechanics

• Bar or rod – the longitudinal direction is considerably

greater than the other two, namely the dimensions of

cross section.

• For the design of the m/c components we need to

understand about “mechanical behavior” of the

materials.

• We need to conduct experiments in laboratory to

observe the mechanical behavior.

• The mathematical equations that describe the

mechanical behavior is known as “constitutive

equations or laws”

• Many tests to observe the mechanical behavior- tensile

test is the most important and fundamental test- as we

gain or get lot of information regarding mechanical

behavior of metals

• Tensile test Tensile test machine, tensile test specimen,

extensometer, gage length, static test-slowly varying

loads, compression test.

Stress -strain diagrams

After performing a tension or compression tests and

determining the stress and strain at various magnitudes of

load, we can plot a diagram of stress Vs strain.

Solid Mechanics

Such is a characteristic of the particular material being tested

and conveys important information regarding mechanical

behavior of that metal.

We develop some ideas and basic definitions using σ − ∈

curve of the mild steel.

Structural steel = mild steel = 0.2% carbon=low carbon steel

L f − Lo

∈=

Lo

Region O-A

(1) σ and ∈ linearly proportional.

(2) A- Proportional limit

σ p - proportionality is maintained.

(4) Strains are infinites ional.

Solid Mechanics

Region A-B

(1) Strain increases more rapidly than σ

(2) Elastic in this range

Proportionality is lost.

Region B-C

(1) The slope at point B is horizontal.

(2) At this point B, ∈ increases without increase in further

load. I.e no noticeable change in load.

(3) This phenomenon is known as yielding

(4) The point B is said to be yield points, the corresponding

stress is yield stress σ ys of the steel.

which means that it deforms without an increase in the

applied load.

(6) Elongation of steel specimen or ∈ in the region BC is

typically 10 to 20 times the elongation that occurs in region

OA.

(7) ∈s below the point A are said to be small, and ∈s above A

are said to be large.

(8) ∈s <∈A are said to be elastic strains and ∈>∈A are said to

be plastic strains = large strains = deformations are

permanent.

Solid Mechanics

Region C-D

(1)The steel begins to “strain harden” at “C” . During strain

hardening the material under goes changes in its crystalline

structure, resulting in increased resistance to the

deformation.

(2)Elongation of specimen in this region requires additional

load,

∴ σ − ∈ diagram has + ve slope C to D.

(3) The load reaches maximum value – ultimate stress.

(4)The yield stress and ultimate stress of any material is also

known as yield strength and the ultimate strength .

(5) σ u is the highest stress the component can take up.

Region-DE

Further stretching of the bar is needed less force than

ultimate force, and finally the component breaks into two

parts at E.

Solid Mechanics

Look of actual stress strain diagrams

∈C toE >∈BtoC >∈Oto A

so small in comparison to the

strains from A to E that they

cannot be seen.

(2) The presence of well defined

yield point and subsequent large

plastic strains are characteristics of mild – steel.

(3) Metals such a structural steel that undergo large

permanent strains before failure are classified as ductile

metals.

Ex. Steel, aluminum, copper, nickel, brass, bronze,

magnesium, lead etc.

Aluminum alloys – Offset method

(1) They do not have clear cut yield point.

(2) They have initial straight line portion with clear

proportional limit.

(3) All does not have obvious

yield point, but undergoes

large permanent strains after

proportional limit.

(4) Arbitrary yield stress is

Solid Mechanics

determined by off- set method.

(5) Off-set yield stress is not material property

Elasticity & Plasticity

(1) The property of a material by which it (doesn’t) returns to

its original dimensions during unloading is called (plasticity)

elasticity and the material is said to be elastic (plastic).

(3) For practical purpose proportional limit = elastic limit =

yield stress

(4 )All metals have some amount of straight line portion.

Solid Mechanics

Brittle material in tension

strain are classified or brittle materials.

(2) Brittle materials fail with only little elongation (elastic)

after the proportional limit.

(3)Fracture stress = Ultimate stress for brittle materials

(4)Up to B, i.e fracture strains are elastic.

(5)No plastic deformation in case of brittle materials.

Ex. Concrete, stone, cast iron, glass, ceramics

Ductile metals under compression

Solid Mechanics

(1) σ − ∈ curves in compression differ from σ − ∈ in tension.

(2)For ductile materials, the proportional limit and the initial

portion of the σ − ∈ curve is same in tension and

compression.

(3)After yielding starts the behavior is different for tension

and compression.

(4)In tension after yielding – specimen elongates – necking

and fractures or rupture. In compression – specimen bulges

out- with increasing load the specimen is flattened out and

offers greatly increased resistance.

Brittle materials in compression

(2)The proportional limit and ultimate stress i.e fracture

stress are different.

(3)In case of compression both are greater than tension case

(4)Brittle material need not have linear portion always they

can be non-linear also.

Solid Mechanics

relationship between σ and ∈ is said to be linearly elastic.

(2) All most all engineering materials are linearly elastic up

to their corresponding proportional limit.

(3) This type of behavior is extremely important in

engineering – all structures designed to operate within this

region.

(4) Within this region, we know that either in tension or

compression

σ = E∈

Stress in particular direction = straininthat dir.X E

= Young’s modulus of elasticity.

(5) σ x = E ∈x or σ y = E ∈y

(7) Hooke’s law is valid up to the proportional limit or

within the linear elastic zone.

Solid Mechanics

Poisson’s ratio

When a prismatic bar is loaded in tension the axial

elongation is accompanied by lateral contraction.

Lateral contraction or lateral strain

d f − do

∈′ = this comes out to be –ve

do

lateral strain − ∈′

Poisson's ratio =ν ( nu ) = − =

axial strain ∈

∈′ is perpendicular to∈

If a bar is under compression ∈ -ve, ∈′ +ve and ν = +

ν = always +ve = material constant

For most metals ν = 0.25 to 0.35s

Concrete ν = 0.1 to 0.2

Rubber ν = 0.5

ν is same for tension and compression

ν is constant within the linearly elastic range.

Solid Mechanics

Hooks law in shear τ

(1)To plot τ ,Y the test is twisting Yield point

of hollow circular tubes

Proportional limit

G

1

ϒ

(2)τ ,Y diagrams are (shape of them) similar in shape to

tension test diagrams (σ Vs ∈) for the same material,

although they differ in magnitude.

(3)From τ − Y diagrams also we can obtain material

properties proportional limit, modulus of elasticity, yield

stress and ultimate stress.

(4)Properties are usually ½ of the tension properties.

(5)For many materials, the initial part o the shear stress

diagram is a st. line through the origin just in case of tension.

τ = GY - Hooke’s law in shear

G = Shear modulus of elasticity or modulus of rigidity.

= Pa or N / m2 s

Proportional limit

Elastic limit

Material properties

Yield stress

Ultimate stress

Solid Mechanics

E,v, and G → material properties – elastic constants - elastic

properties.

Basic assumptions solid mechanics

Fundamental assumptions of linear theory of elasticity are:

(a) The deformable body is a continuum

(b) The body is homogeneous

(c) The body is linearly elastic

(d) The body is isotropic

(e) The body undergoes small deformations.

Continuum

Completely filling up the region of space with matter it

occupies with no empty space.

Because of this assumption quantities like

u = u ( x,y ,z )

σ = σ ( x ,y ,z )

∈=∈ ( x,y ,z )

Homogeneous

Elastic properties do not vary from point to point. For non-

homogenous body

E = E ( x ,y ,z )

v = v ( x,y ,z )

G = G ( x,y ,z )

Solid Mechanics

Linearly elastic

Material follows Hooke’s law

σ = E∈

τ = GY

v = Constant

Isotropic

Material properties are same in all directions at a point in the

body

E = C1 for allθ

ν = C2 for allθ

G = C3 for allθ

The meaning is that

σ x = E ∈x

σ y = E ∈y

E = E (θ )

ν = ν (θ )

G = G (θ )

The meaning is that

σ x = E1 ∈x

σ y = E2 ∈y

E1 ≠ E2

Solid Mechanics

Small deformations

(a) The displacements must be small

(b) The strains must also be small

Generalized Hooke’s law for isotropic material

We know the following quantities from the tension and

shear testing.

σ = E∈

∈′ Tensiletest

v=−

∈

τ = GY - Shear test or torsion test.

to 3D state of stress. i.e what is the generalized Hooke’s law.

Hooke’s law – when only one stress is acting

Generalized Hooke’s law – when more than one stress acting

We assume that

Material is linearly elastic, Homogeneous, Continuum,

undergoing small deformations and isotropic.

For an isotropic material the following are true

(1)Normal stress can only generate normal strains.

- Normal stresses for reference xyz cannot produce Y of this

reference

Solid Mechanics

(2)A shear stress say τ xy can only produce the corresponding

shear strain Yxy in the same coordinate system.

Principal of superposition:

This principle states that the effect of a given combined loading on

a structure can be obtained by determining separately the effects of

the various loads individually and combining the results obtained,

provided the following conditions are satisfied.

(1)Each effect is linearly related to the load that produces it.

(2)The deformations must be small.

Solid Mechanics

From Hooke’s we can write

σx

∈x =

E

σx

∈y = − v

E

σx

∈z = − v

E

Solid Mechanics

Only σ y applied

σy

∈y =

E

σy

∈x = − v

E

σy

∈z = − v

E

Similarly, σ z alone is applied

σz

∈z =

E

σz

∈x = − v

E

σz

∈y = − v

E

Contribution to ∈x due to all three normal stresses is

σ x vσ y vσ 3

∈x = − −

E E E

Therefore

∈x =

1

E

(

σx − v σy +σz )

1

∈y = σ y − v (σ x + σ z )

E

1

(

∈x = σ z − v σ x + σ y

E

)

Normal strains are not affected by shear stresses

Solid Mechanics

Now let us apply only τ xy

τ xy

Yxy =

G

τ yz

Yyz =

G

τ xz

Yxz =

G

Therefore, when all six components of stresses and strains

are acting on an infinitesimal element or at a point then the

relation between six components of stresses and strains is

∈x =

1

E

(

σx − v σy +σz )

1

∈y = σ y − v (σ x + σ z )

E

1

(

∈x = σ z − v σ x + σ y

E

)

τ xy

Yxy =

G

τ yz

Yyz =

G

τ xz

Yxz =

G

These six equations are known as generalized Hooke’s law for

isotropic materials.

Solid Mechanics

Matrix representation of generalized Hooke’s law for

isotropic materials is therefore,

1 −v −v

0 0 0

E E E

∈x −v 1 −v σx

0 0 0

E E E

∈y σy

−v −v 1

∈z 0 0 0 σz

E E E

=

Yxy 1 τ xy

0 0 0 0 0

Yyz G τ yz

1

Yxz 0 0 0 0 0 τ xz

G

1

0 0 0 0 0

G

Stress components in terms of strains

∈x + ∈y + ∈z =

1

E

(

σx +σy +σz −

2v

E

σx +σy +σz s ) ( )

1 − 2v

(

e = σx +σy +σz

E

)

∈x + ∈y + ∈z = e

∈x =

1

E

σ x − vσ x − v σ y + σ z ( )

=

1

E

(

σ x − v σ x + σ y + σ z + vσ x )

=

1

E

(

σ x (1 + v) − v σ x + σ y + σ z )

Solid Mechanics

1 veE

= σ x (1 + v) −

E (1 − 2v)

σ × (1 + v) ve

= −

E (1 − 2v)

ve E

∴ σ x = ∈x +

1 − 2v 1 + v

E Ev

= µ (mu) where λ=

1+ v ( 1 + v )( 1 − 2 v )

λ,µ are Lames constants

σ x = eλ + ∈x µ

σ y = eλ + ∈y µ

σ z = eλ + ∈z µ

τ xy = YxyG = 2 µYxy

τ xy = YyzG = 2 µYyz

τ xy = YzxG = 2 µYzx

Stress-strain relations for plane stress

Solid Mechanics

σ x = σ x ( x,y ) ∈x =

1

E

(

σ x − vσ y )

σ y =∈y ( x,y )

τ xy = τ xy ( x,y )

1

(

∈y = σ y − vσ x

E

)

σ z = τ yz = τ zx = 0 −v

v

(

∈z = − σ x + σ y =

E 1− v

)

∈x + ∈y ( )

τ xy

Yxy =

G

Yyz = Yxz = 0

∈x =∈x ( x,y ) σ x = eλ + µ ∈x = σ x ( x ,y )

∈y =∈y ( x,y ) σ y = eλ + µ ∈y = σ y ( x,y )

Yxy = Yxy ( x ,y ) ( )

σ z = − v σ x + σ y = σ z ( x ,y )

∈3 = Yxz = Yyz = 0 = − v ( 2 eλ + µ e )

e =∈x + ∈y = − ve ( 2 λ + µ )

(

= − v ( 2 λ + µ ) ∈x + ∈y )

τ xy = GYxy

τ xz = τ yz = 0

Solid Mechanics

• Therefore, the stress transformation equations for plane

stress can also be used for the stresses in plane strain.

• The transformation laws for plane strain can also be

used for the strains in plane stress. ∈z does not effect

geometrical relationships used in derivation.

Example of Generalized Hooke’s law

1

∈x = σ x − vσ y

E

σ x = λ e + µ ∈x σ x = 2σ y

1

∈y = σ y − vσ x

E σ x = −σ y

σ y = λ e + µ ∈y

1 1

∈x = σ x − vλ e − vµ ∈y ∈x = σ x + vσ y

E E

1+ v

= σx

E

isotropic materials

τ is zero along those planes,

therefore Y is also zero along these planes

i.e normal strains of the element are

principal strains. For isotropic materials -

the principal strains and

principal stresses occurs in the same direction.

Solid Mechanics

Relation between E,ν and G

1

σ 1 = τ xy ∈1 = (σ 1 − vσ 2 )

E

1

σ 2 = −τ xy ∈2 = (σ 2 − vσ 1 )

E

τ xy ( 1 + v )

∈1 =

1

E

(τ xy + vτ xy = ) E

−τ xy ( 1 + v )

∈2 =

E

Yxy τ xy

∈1 =∈xy = =

2 2G

−τ xy

∈2 =

2G

τ xy ( 1 + v ) τ xy

=

E 2G

E

G=

2 (1 + v)

Only two elastic constants are independent.

Solid Mechanics

Volumetric strain-dilatation

Consider a stress element size dx,dy ,dz

dv = dxdydz

After deformations

dx* = ( 1+ ∈x ) dx

(

dy* = 1+ ∈y dy)

dz* = ( 1+ ∈z ) dz

In addition to the changes of length of the sides, the element

also distorts so that right angles no longer remain sight

angles. For simplicity consider only Yxy .

( )

dv* = Area OA* B* C* × dz*

( )

= ( 1+ ∈x ) 1+ ∈y ( 1+ ∈z ) dxdydz

Solid Mechanics

(

dv* = 1+ ∈x + ∈y + ∈z dxdydz )

Now, analogous to normal strain, we define the measure of

volumetric strain as

Volumetric strain =

initialvolume

dv* − dv

e=

dv

e =∈x + ∈y + ∈z

valid only for infinitesimal strains and rotations

• e =∈x + ∈y + ∈z = J 1 = first in variance of strain.

depend on orientation of coordinate system.

• Dilatation is zero for state of pure shear.

Bulk modulus of elasticity

(1 − 2v)

∈x + ∈y + ∈z =

E

(σ x + σ y + σ z )

Mean stress = σ =

1

3

(σx +σy +σz )

3(1 − 2v)

e= σ

E

σ = Ke

Solid Mechanics

E

Where K = bulk modulus of elasticity.

3(1 − 2v)

• Bulk modulus is widely used in fluid mechanics.

• From physical reasoning E > 0 ,G > 0 ,K ≥ 0

Steel : E = 200 Gpa

v = 0.3

Al : E = 70 Gpa

v = 0.33

Copper: E = 100 Gpa

v = 0.35

E

G= SinG E and G > 0

2 (1 + v)

( 1 + v ) > 0 → v > −1

Similarly SinG E > 0 & K ≥ 0

E

K= → 1 − 2 v ≥ 0 → v ≤ 0.5

3(1 − 2v)

∴ Theoretical bounds on v are

−1 < v ≤ 0.5

as v → 0.5 K → α and C →0 material is incompressible.

Solid Mechanics

Solid Mechanics

Geometry, locating and material properties

• A prismatic bar is subjected to axial loading

• A prismatic bar is a st. structural member having

constant cross-section through out it length.

• Bar or rod → length of the member is cross sectional

dimensions.

can create tension or compression in the member.

Typical cross sections of the members

- Solid Sections

- Hollow Sections

Solid Mechanics

- Other sections

elastic and isotropic material.

Stresses, strains and deformations

Consider a prismatic bar of constant cross-sectional area A

and length L, with material properties A & v. Let the rod be

subjected to an axial force “p”, which acts along x-axis.

F=P

Mx = M y = M z = 0

Vy = Vz = 0

stresses on to the left of the section to maintain the

equilibrium. Sum of all these elementary forces must be

equal to the resultant F.

Solid Mechanics

σ x dA = F

A

M y = σ x zdA = 0

M z = − σ x ydA = 0

however, it does not tell how σ is distributed in the cross-

x

section.

The distribution cannot determine by the methods of static

or equations of equilibrium- statically indeterminate

To know about the distribution of σ x in any given section, it is

necessary to consider the deformations resulting from the

application of loads.

Since the body needs to develop only σ x component in order

to maintain equilibrium, therefore the state of stress at any

point of prismatic rod is

σx 0 0

σ ij = 0 0 0

0 0 0

Solid Mechanics

We make the following assumptions on deformation based

on experimental evidence

(1)The axis of the bar remains straight after Key

deformation kinematical

(2)All plane cross-sections remain plane and assumptions

perpendicular to the axis of the bar

points in a given y-z plane have the same displacements

in the x-direction.

• Any line segment AB undergoes same strain ∈ therefore

x

x

of x- only.

In the present case situation is same at all cross-sections of

the prismatic bar, therefore

∈x = Constant

at all points of the body i.e ∈x is also no a function of x.

Solid Mechanics

Since we are studying a homogenous, linearly elastic and

isotropic prismatic bar

σx

∈x =

1

E

(

σx − v σy −σz → ) ∈x =

E

1 V

∈y = σ y − v (σ x − σ z ) → ∈y = − σ x

E E

1

(

∈z = σ z − v σ x − σ y →

E

) V

∈z = − σ x

E

In the present case, ∈x is independent of y and z coordinates,

therefore σ x is also independent of y and z coordinates i.e

σ x is uniformly distributed in a cross-section

We know that internal resultant force

F = σ x dA

A

Solid Mechanics

F = σ da = σ A

A

F P

∴ σ= =

A A

M y = σ x .zdA = 0 zdA = 0

A A

(1)

M z = − σ x .ydA = 0 ydA = 0

A A

Eq. (1) indicates that moment are taken about the centroid of

the cross-section.

Elongation or Contraction

σx P

∈x = =

E AE

Total elongation of the rod

L L

P PL

u ( L ) − u ( 0 ) = δ = ∈x da = dx =

0 0

AE AE

Solid Mechanics

P

σx =

A

PL

δ=

AE

AE = Axial rigidity

If A,E and P are functions of x then

L

P (x)

δ= dx

0

A(x) E(x)

P = kS

S = fP

1

k=

f

AE L

k= f =

L AE

These are useful in computer analysis of structural members.

Solid Mechanics

Extension of results: Non-uniform bars (non-prismatic)

For a prismatic bar

P PL

σx = & δ=

A AE

P(x) F (x)

σx = =

A(x ) A(x)

L

P(x)

S= dx

0

A ( x ) E ( x )

Approximate exp ression

The above formula becomes a good approximation for

uniformly varying cross-sectional area A ( x ) member.

Above formula is quite satisfactory if the angle of taper is

small

Plane sections remain plane and perpendicular to the x- axis

is no longer valid for the case of non-prismatic rods.

Solid Mechanics

Σ Fx = 0 σ x ( b∆y ) − τ yx ( b∆x ) = 0

∆y

τ xy = τ yx = σ x ( x ) . s

∆x

∆y

Taking ∆x → 0 , we note that τ yx → 0 only if → 0 i.e at the

∆x

slope of the upper surface of the rod tends to zero.

Solid Mechanics

Case2

PL − ( PA + PB ) L2

δ BC = =

AE A2 E2

PL − PAL1

δ AB = =

AE A1E1

σ BC = −

( PA + PB )

A2

σ AB = − PA / A1

δCA = SBC + S AB

This method can be used when a bar consists of several

prismatic segments each having different material, each

having different axial forces, different dimensions and

different materials. The change in length may be obtained

from the equation

n

Pi Li Pi

δ= and σi =

i =1 Ai Ei Ai

Solid Mechanics

Statically indeterminate problems

Equilibrium

Σ Fy = 0

Fa1 + Fa 2 + Fs − P = 0

[Σ MC = 0]

bFa1 − bFa 2 = 0

Fa 1 = Fa 2

2 Fa + Fs = P (1)

must consider the deformation of the

entire system to obtain “compatibility

equation”

The rigid plate must be horizontal

after deformation

Fs Ls FAL A

δs = and δA =

As Es E A AA

Then using the geometry compatibility

FAL A Fs L As (2)

δs = δ A =

EA AA Es As

Solid Mechanics

By solving (1) & (2) we can obtain internal forces Fs & FA

Stresses in axially loaded members

σx 0

σ ij =

0 0

σ1 = σx

σ σ

τ max = 1 = x

2 2

Occurs at 45 to x − y or x − z planes.

Solid Mechanics

B,C − maximum shear stress elements.

planes.

along σ 1 planes.

Limitations of analysis

P PL

σx = & S=

A AE

(1)They are exact for long prismatic bars of any cross-section,

when axial force is applied at the centroid of the end cross-

sections.

Solid Mechanics

P

(2)They should not be employed (especiallyσ x =

) at

A

concentrated loads and in the regions of geometric

discontinuity.

(3)They provide good approximation if the taper is small.

(4)Above equations should not be applied for the case of

relatively short rods.

(5)They are exact for relatively short members under

compressive loading.

Solid Mechanics

Stress concentrations

• High stresses are known as stress concentrations

• Sources of stress concentrations- stress raisers

• Stress concentrations are due to :

(1)Concentrated loads

(2)Geometric discontinuities

Stress concentration due to concentrated loads

σ max

Stress concentration factor=K =

σ ave

P

σ nom =

bt

Solid Mechanics

Stress concentration due to hole

Discontinuities of cross section may result in high localized

or concentrated stresses.

σ max P

K= σ nom =

σ nom dt

K = Stressconcentration factor

Solid Mechanics

Stress Concentration due to fillet

σ max P

K= σ ave =

σ ave dt

Solid Mechanics

Geometry, loading and Material properties

A prismatic bar of circular cross- section subjected to equal

and opposite torques acting at the ends.

Torsion refers to the twisting of a straight bar when it is

loaded by torques.

Material: Homogeneous, linearly elastic, and isotropic

undergoing small deformations.

Presently theory is valid only for

Stresses, strains and displacements in polar coordinates.

Since we are dealing with a circular member it is preferable

to use polar coordinates

Solid Mechanics

σ r τ rθ τ rx

σ ij = τθ r σθ τθ x

τ xr τ xθ σ x

1

∈x = σ x − v (σ r + σ θ )

E

1

∈r = σ r − v (σ x + σ θ )

E

1

∈x = σθ − v (σ r + σ x )

E

τ rQ τ xθ τ rx

Yrθ = ; Yxθ = Yθ x = ; Yxr = Yrx =

G G G

Equilibrium and elementary forces

Fx = Vy = Vz = M y = M z = 0

Mx = T = T0

cross-section is subjected to the same internal torque “T”, then the

bar is said to be under “pure torsion”

To keep the body under

equilibrium, elementary forces

dF = τ xθ dA are only forces that are

required to be exerted by the other

section, so that

Solid Mechanics

dT = dF × r = σ xθ rdA

T = τ xθ rdA (1)

A

T = T0

internal torque T at that section.

The state of stress in pure torsion is therefore

0 0 0

0 0 τθ x

0 τ xθ 0

While the relation in (1) express an important condition that

must be satisfied by the shearing stresses τ xQ in any given

cross-section of the bar it does not tell how these stresses are

distributed in the cross-section.

The actual distribution of stresses under a given load is

statically indeterminate. So we must know about the

deformation of the bar.

Presence of τ xθ in polar coordinates means, presence of

τ xy = τ xQCosθ

τ xz = τ xQSinθ

Solid Mechanics

Therefore the state of stress in case pure torsion in terms of

rectangular stress components is then

0 τ xy τ xz

τ yx 0 0 - state of pure shear.

τ zx 0 0

Vy = τ xy dA = 0

Vz = τ xz dA = 0

a circular bar subjected to equal and opposite end torques.

(1)The cross-sections of the bar do not change in shape i.e

they remain circular.

(2)A line parallel to the x- axis or longitudinal line become a

helical curve.

(3)All cross-sections remain plane.

(4)All cross-sections rotate about the axis of the bar as a solid

rigid slab.

Solid Mechanics

(5)However, various cross-sections along the bar rotate

through different amount.

(6)The radial lines remain radial lines after deformation

(7)Neither the length of the bar nor the length of radius will

change.

These are especially of circular bars only. Not true for non-

circular bars.

Assumptions on deformation for pure torsion

(1)All cross –sections rotate with respect to the axis of the

circular bar i.e x-axis.

(2)All cross-sections remain plane and remain perpendicular

to the axis of the bar.

(3)Radial lines remain straight after the deformation.

(4)Neither the length of the bar nor its radius will change

during the deformation.

These assumptions are correct only if the circular bar

undergoes “small deformations” only.

Variation of shear strain ( Yxθ )

Because of T0 , the right

end will rotate through

an infinitesimal angle

φ - angle of twist.

Solid Mechanics

*φ - varies along the axis of the bar.

dφ

= − rate of twist angle of twist per unit length.

dx

dφ

Y =r

dx

Solid Mechanics

In case of pure torsion the shear strain Y varies linearly with

“r”

Maximum shear strain Y occurs at the outer surface of the

circular bar i.e., r = R

dφ

Ymax = R

dx

Shear strain is zero at the center of the bar.

dφ

The equation Y = r is strictly valid to circular bars having

dx

small deformations.

If the material is linearly elastic

τ = GY

Therefore, variation of shear stress τ xQ in pure torsion is

given by

dφ

τ = τ xQ = GYxQ = GY

dx

radius r of the circular bar.

dφ

τ max = τ xQmax = RG

dx

Solid Mechanics

The torsion formula

Relation between internal torque T and shear stressτ

T = τ rdA

A

dφ

T = Gr rdA

dx

dφ

Since G & are independent of area A then

dx

dφ 2

T =G r dA

dx A

I P = r 2 dA

A

Polar moment of inertia of across − sec tion

π π

For solid circular bar, IP = D4 IP = R4

32 2

dφ

∴ T = GI P

dx

∴ dφ T

= =

dx GI P

dφ

But τ = Gr

dx

τ T

=

Gr GI P

Tr

τ=

IP

Torsion formula

Solid Mechanics

This is the relation between shear stresses τ xQ and torque T

existing at the section.

Torsion formula is independent of material property.

TR

τ max = τ xQmax =

IP

16T

τ max =

π D3

for solid circular bars

Angles of twist

We now determine the relative rotation of any two cross-

sections

dφ T

= =

dx GI P

xB

T

φB / A = φB − φ A = dx

xA

GI P

Solid Mechanics

In case of prismatic circular bar subjected to equal opposite

torques at the ends

TL

φB / A = φB − φA = n

GI P

if xB − x A = L

puretorsion

TL T0L

φ= =

GI P GI P

dφ T

Since = = then, in case of pure torsion.

dx GI P

dφ φ

= = = constant

dx L

In case of torsion

Load

TL

φ=

GI P

displacement

GI P L

k= ; f =

L GI P

Solid Mechanics

τ xy = τ xQCosθ

τ xz = τ xQSinθ

Vy = Vz = 0

Vy = τ xy dA = τ xθ Cosθ dA

A A

2π R

Tr

Vy = Cosθ drdθ

0

I

0 P

2π R

T

= rCosθ drdθ = 0

IP 0 0

∴ Vy = 0

2π R

T

Vz = rSinθ drdθ = 0

IP 0 0

∴ Vz = 0

Hollow circular bars: The deformation of hollow circular

bars and solid circular bars are same. The key kinematic

assumptions are valid for any circular bar, either solid or

hollow. Therefore all equations of solid circular bars can be

employed for hollow circular bars, instead of using

Solid Mechanics

π 4

IP = D − Soild

32

π

IP =

32

( )

Do 4 − Di4 − hollow

TRo

τ max =

IP

TR

τ min = i

IP

Hollow bars are move efficient than solid bars of same “A”.

• Most of the material in soild shaft is stressed below the

maximum stress and also have smaller moment arm “r”.

• In hollow tube most of the material is near the outer

boundary, where τ is maximum values and has large

moment arms “r”.

Tr

τ=

IP

π 4

IP = D − solid

32

π

=

32

( )

Do4 − Di4 − hollow

Solid Mechanics

TR TRo

τ max = ;

IP IP

TR

τ min = i

IP

τ

Y=

G

τ ,Y − f ( r )

dφ T

= =

dx GI P

TL

φ B / A = φB − φ A =

GI P

L = xB − x A

= constant

φ = linearly with x

(4) If weight reduction and savings of materials are

important, it is advisable to use a circular tube.

(5) Ex large drive shafts, propeller shafts, and generator

shafts usually have hollow circular cross sections.

Extension of results

Case-I Bar with continuously varying cross-sections and

continuously varying torque

• Pure torsion refers to torsion of prismatic bar subjected

to torques acting only at the ends.

Solid Mechanics

• All expressions are developed based on the key

kinematic assumptions, these are therefore, strictly valid

only for prismatic circular bars.

T (x)r

τ (x) =

IP (x )

dφ T (x)

(x) = =

dx GI P ( x )

xB

T (x)

φB − φ A = φB / A = dx

xA

GI P ( x )

solution, provide if R ( x ) doesn’t vary sharply with x.

Solid Mechanics

Some special cases

Tr T (x)r

τ (x) = τ (x) =

IP (x ) IP

T T (x)

(x) = (x) =

GI P ( x ) GI P

Case II

Ti ri

τi =

I Pi

n

Ti Li

φB / A =

i =1 Gi I Pi

Solid Mechanics

Statically indeterminate problems

[Σ Mx = 0] TA + TC + T = 0 (1)

We note that within AB, T = TA and

within BC T = TC

deformation to formulate the compatibility equation.

• Clearly the rotation of section B with respect to A must

be same as that with respect to C i.e

φB / A = φB / C

Compatibility equation

TAL AB T L

φB / A = ; φB / C = C BC

G AB I PAB GBC I PBC

TAL AB T L (2)

= C BC

G AB I PAB GBC I PBC

Solid Mechanics

Stresses in pure torsion

generally weak in tension, failure will occur in tension along

a helix inclined at 45 to the axis.

Ductile materials generally fail in shear. When subjected to

torsion, a ductile circular bar breaks along a plane

perpendicular to its longitudinal axis or x – axis.

Solid Mechanics

P

σx =

A

Solid Mechanics

Combined loading or combined stress

Principal of

superposition

TR

τ max = P

IP σx =

A

Solid Mechanics

Stress concentrations in torsion

τ max = Kτ avg = Kτ nom

16T

τ avg = τ nom = Kτ 1 = K

π D13

Solid Mechanics

Tr T TL dφ

τ= , = ;φ = ;Y = r

IP GI P GI P dx

(1)The above solutions are exact for pure torsion of circular

members (solid or hollow section)

(2)Above equations can be applied to bars (solid or hollow)

with varying cross-sections only when changes in R ( x ) are

small and gradual.

(3)Stresses determined from the torsion formula are valid in

regions of the bar away from stress concentrations, which are

high localized stresses that occur whenever diameter

changes abruptly and whenever concentrated torque are

applied.

(4)It is important to recognize that, the above equation

should not be used for bars of other shapes. Noncircular bars

under torsion are entirely different from circular bars.

Solid Mechanics

Some basics

having their vectors perpendicular to the axis of the bar.

• Classification of structural members.

• Axially loaded bars :- Supports forces having their

vectors directed along the axis of the bar.

• Bar in tension:- Supports torques having their moment

vectors directed along the axis.

• Beams :- Subjected to lateral loads.

• Beams undergo bending (flexure) because of lateral

loads.

Solid Mechanics

Roughly speaking, “bending” refers to a change in shape from

a straight configuration to a non straight configuration.

Bending moments i.e M z and M y are responsible for

bending of beams.

The loads acting on a beam cause the beam to bend or flex,

thereby deforming its axis into a curve-known as “

deflection curve” of the beam.

deformation i.e after bending then xy − plane is known as

“plane of bending”.

If a beam bend in a particular plane, then the deflection

curve is a plane curve lying in the plane of bending.

Solid Mechanics

The y − direction displacement [i.e. v − component] of any

point along its axis is known as the “deflection of the

beam”.

Pure bending and non-uniform bending

If the internal bending moment is constant at all sections

then beam is said to be under “pure bending”.

dM

= −V

dx

Pure bending (i.e., M=constant) occurs only in regions of a beam

where the shear force is zero.

Solid Mechanics

Curvature of a beam

When loads are applied to the beam, if it bends in a plane

say xy − plane, then its longitudinal axis is deformed into a

curve.

O− Center of curvature

R − Radius of curvature

1

k= = Curvature

R

in general R = R ( x ) and k = k ( x ) .

RdQ = dS

1 dQ

k= = for any amount of R

R dS

The deflections of beams are very small under small

deformation condition. small deflections means that the

deflection curve is nearly flat.

1 dQ

under small deformations.

k= =

R dX

Solid Mechanics

Symmetrical bending of beams in a state of pure bending

Geometry, loading and material properties

A long prismatic member possess a plane of symmetry

subjected to equal and opposite couples M0 (or bending

moments) acting in the same plane of symmetry.

Solid Mechanics

Initially we choose origin of the coordinate system “ O ” is

not at the centroid of the cross-section.

The y − axis passing through the cross-section is an axis of

symmetry. The XY plane is the plane of symmetry.

undergoing small deformations.

Stresses in symmetric member in pure bending

Fx = Vy = Vz = 0

Mx = My = 0

M z = M = M0

Solid Mechanics

M = − yσ x dA

required to be developed by right of the section on to the left

of the section.

The distribution of σ X any section should satisfy

Fx = 0 σ x dA = 0

My = 0 zσ x dA = 0

Mz = M − yσ x dA = M

indeterminate - deformations should be considered.

Thus, the state of stress at any point within a prismatic beam

(cross-section having an axis of symmetry) subjected to pure

bending is a uniaxial state of stress.

σx 0 0

σ ij = 0 0 0

0 0 0

Solid Mechanics

Deformations in a symmetric member in pure bending

Since the member is subjected to bending moments, it will

bend under the action of these couples.

(i.e xy- plane) and subjected to equal and opposite couples

M0 acting in the plane of symmetry, the member will bend

in the plane of symmetry (i.e xy plane).

The curvature k at a particular point on the axis of the beam

depends on the bending moment at that point. Therefore a

prismatic beam in pure bending will have constant

curvature.

The line AB, which was originally a straight line, will be

transformed in to a circle of center O and so the line A′B′ .

Solid Mechanics

Decrease in length of AB and increase in length of A′B′ in

positive bending.

Cross-sections which are plane and ⊥ to the axis of Kinematic

the undeformed beam, remain plane and remain ⊥ to assumption

the axis of the deformed beam i.e to the deflection

curve.

Variation of strain and M − κ relation

Elementary theory of bending or Euler-Bernoulli theory

(plane of symmetry) and any longitudinal fibers such as SS

bent into a circular curve. The beam is bent concave upward

(due to +ve bending) upon which is a +ve curvature.

Solid Mechanics

Cross-sections mn and pq remain plane and normal to the

longitudinal axis of the beam. Cross-sections mn and pq

rotate with respect to each other about z-axis.

Lower part of the beam is intension and upper part is in

compression.

The x- axis lies along the neutral surface of undeformed

beam

Variation of strain and M-k relations (contd.)

Final length of ef = e* f * = ( R − y ) dQ

The distance dx between two planes is unchanged at the

neutral surface,

1 dQ

RdQ = dx k= =

R dx

Solid Mechanics

Therefore, the longitudinal strain i.e ∈x at a distance “y”

from the neutral axis is

e* f * − ef ( R − y ) dQ − dx − y

∈x = = =

ef dx R

y ∈x = − ky

∴ ∈x = −

R

The preceding equation shows that the longitudinal strains

(∈x ) in the beam (in pure bending) are proportional to the

curvature and vary linearly with the distance y from the

neutral axis or neutral surface.

− y1

Maximum compressive ∈x =

R

+ y2

Maximum tensile ∈x =

R

However, we still do not know the location of neutral axis or

neutral surface.

Solid Mechanics

Stresses in beams in pure bending :- For linearly elastic and

isotropic beam material

τ xy

∈x =

1

E

(

σx − v σy +σz ) Yxy =

G

1 τ yz

∈y = σ y − v (σ x + σ z ) Yyz =

E G

τ zx

∈z =

1

E

(

σz − v σx +σy ) Yxz =

G

The state of the stress at any point within a prismatic beam

in pure bending is

σx 0 0

σ ij = 0 0 0

0 0 0

−Ey

∴ σ x = E ∈x = = −Eky

R

V

∈y = − σ x = −V ∈x

E

V

∈z = − σ x = −V ∈x

E

From the above equation

σ x ≠ σ ( x ,z )

σ x = σ ( y ) ∈x =∈x ( y )

∈x = linear f ( y )

∴σ x = linear f ( y )

i.e.,var y linearly with the distance y from the neutral surface

Solid Mechanics

EC 1

Maximum compressive σ x = −

R

EC 2

Maximum tensile σx =

R

Maximum normal stress σ x occurs at the points farthest

from the neutral axis.

In order to compute the stresses and strain we must locate

the neutral axis of the cross-section.

Solid Mechanics

Location of neutral axis

We must satisfy the following equations at any given section

m-m

σ x dA = 0

− σ x ydA = M = M0 = M z

σ x zdA = M y = 0

Ey

σ x dA = − =0

A A

R

ydA = 0

A

neutral axis and centroid “C” of a cross-section is zero.

the centroid of the cross-section, provided if the

material follows Hooke’s law.

Solid Mechanics

The origin ‘O’ of coordinates is located at the centroid of the

cross-sectional area.

Thus, when a prismatic beam of linearly elastic material is

subjected to pure bending, the y and z (neutral axis) axes are

principal centroidal axes.

Moment – Curvature relationship

M = − σ x ydA

A

Ey

M=+ ydA

A

R

E

M= y 2 dA

RA

y 2 dA = I zz = Moment of inertia of

A cross-sectional area about

neutral axis

EI

∴ M=

R

1 M

k= =

R EI

1 M0

k= =

R EI Moment-Curvature relation

Solid Mechanics

Curvature k is directly proportional to M- internal bending

moment and inversely proportional to EI- flexural rigidity of

the beam.

Flexural rigidity is a measure of the resistance of a beam to

bending.

σ x = −Eky

M

and k =

EI

My

∴ σx = − - flexure formula.

I

Stresses evaluated from flexure formula are called bending

stresses or flexural stresses.

Solid Mechanics

The maximum tensile and compressive bending stresses

occur at points located farthest from the neutral axis.

The maximum normal stresses are

− MC1 M MC 2 M

σ1 = =− σ2 = =

I S1 I S2

I I

S1 = and S2 = -Section moduli

C1 C2

S = Section modulus

Solid Mechanics

bh 3 bh 2

I zz = S=

12 6

π π d3

I zz = d 4 S=

64 32

bh 3

I zz =

36

h = 3 b / 2 for eqilateral triangle

I zz = 0.1098r 4

Solid Mechanics

Distribution σ x on various cross-sections

M

σ max =

S

I

S=

ymax

M = σ alllowS

Ssquare

= 1.18

Scircle

Solid Mechanics

• This result shows that a beam of square cross-section is

more efficient in resisting bending then circular beam of

same area.

• A circle has a relatively larger amount of material

located near the neutral axis. This material is less highly

stresses.

• I - Section is more efficient then a rectangular cross-

section of the same area and height, because I - section

has most of the material in the flanges at the greatest

available distance from the neutral axis.

Extension of results

Long prismatic beam under pure bending, and symmetrical

bending.

M ≠ M (x)

M = Constant

My σx

σx (y) = − ∈x =

I E

I = I zz ∈y = − v ∈x

1 M ∈z = − v ∈z

k= =

R EI

Solid Mechanics

Bending of beams due to applied lateral loads

dM

= −V

dx

transverse loads acting. In this case the interval bending

moment M = M ( x ) and V ( x ) ≠ 0, and thus we have non-

uniform bending.

Non-uniform bending is a result of presence of transverse shear

force V ( y ) . If V ( y ) = 0 then M = constant.

It can be shown that the above results can also be used for

non-uniform bending problems.

−M (x ) y σ x ( x,y )

σ x ( x,y ) = ∈x ( x,y ) =

I E

1 M (x) ∈y = −ν ∈x

k= =

R (x) EI ∈z = −ν ∈x

Solid Mechanics

The above results can also be used for non-uniform bending

problems provided if they satisfy the following conditions.

• All applied transverse or lateral loads should lie in the

x-y plane of symmetry and all applied couples act about

z-axis only.

• L h − − long slender beams

• Bending that conforms to conditions (i) and (ii) is called

symmetrical bending.

If these three conditions are satisfied then one can employ

the following expressions for non-uniform bending as-well

Solid Mechanics

M (x) y σx

σ x ( x,y ) = − ∈x ( x,y ) =

I E

I = I zz ∈y ( x ,y ) = − v ∈x

1 M (x) ∈z ( x,y ) = − v ∈z

k(x) = =

R(x) EI

Application of above equations to the non-uniform bending

problems is equivalent to the following two assumptions.

(a)That even under such loading conditions, plane sections

still remain plane after deformation and they remain ⊥ to

the deformed longitudinal axis or neutral surface.

Bending stresses in a non-prismatic beam

The above equation can also be applied to the case of non-

prismatic beam subjected to either pure or non-uniform

bending, provided cross-sectional properties do not vary

sharply.

M (x) y

σx = −

I (x)

1 M (x)

k (x) = =

R ( x ) EI ( x )

Solid Mechanics

Problem

Determine the maximum tensile and compressive stresses in

the beam due to the uniform load.

Solution

Centroid :-

A mm2 y yA mm3

1 20 × 90 = 1800 50 90 × 10 3

2 40 × 30 = 1200 20 24 × 10 3

3

A = Σ A = 3000 Σ yA = 114 × 10

Ay = Σ yA y 3000 = 114 × 10 3 y = 38 mm

(

I zz = I = Σ I + Ad 2 s )

bh 3

=Σ + Ad 2

12

1 1

= 90 × 20 3 + 1800 × 12 2 + × 30 × 40 2 + 1200 × 182

12 12

Solid Mechanics

C1 = 22 mm and C 2 = 38 mm

My

σx = −

I

M I

σ max = :S=

S ymax

At maximum +ve bending moment i.e at (D)

I 868 × 10 −9 −6

S1 = = = 39 .45 × 10

C1 22 × 10 −3

I 868 × 10 −9

S2 = = −3

= 22.84 × 10 −6

C 2 38 × 10

at D:

M 1.898

σt = =

max s2 22.84 × 10 −6

σt = 83.1 MPa

max

M 1.898

σC = =

max s1 39.45 × 10 −6

σC = 48.11 MPa

max

M 3.375

σt = = = 85.55 MPa

max s1 39.45 × 10 −6

M 3.375

σC = = −6

= 147.8 MPa

max s2 22.84 × 10

σ tmax = 85.55 and σ Cmax = 147.8 MPa

Solid Mechanics

Problem

a wooden member of length L = 3m having a rectangular

cross-section 3 cm × 6 cm is to be used as a cantilever with a

load P = 240 N acting at the free end. Can the member carry

this load if the allowable flexural stress both in tension and

in compression is σ allow = 50 Mpa ?

Solution

Mmax = 720 N-m

1 0.06 × 0.033

SA = = 9 × 10 −6 m 3

12 0.015

M PL

σ tmax = σ Cmax = =

SA SA

σ tmax = σ Cmax = σ allow

σ allow × S A

Palow = = 150 N

L

1 0.03 × 0.06 3

SB = = 1.8 × 10 −5 m3

12 0.03

σ ×S

Palow = allow B = 300 N

L

Solid Mechanics

Limitations

(1)The flexure formula is exact for a prismatic beam in pure

bending.

(2)It provides very good approximation of σ x for long

slender beams (L >> h) under symmetrical bending.

(3)The flexure formula can be employed for any shape of the

cross-section, provided the cross-section has y-axis of

symmetry.

(4)It should not be employed in regions close to geometric

discontinuities and concentrated loads.

Solid Mechanics

Vy ( x ) = τ xy dA

A

(1)The shear stresses acting on the cross-section are parallel

to the shear force Vy ( x ) i.e ⊥ to the line PQ

are uniformly distributed across the width of the beam, so

that M x = T = 0 for symmetrical bending

∴ τ xy = τ xy ( x,y ) such thats

Vy ( x ) = τ xy ( x,y ) dA

A

Solid Mechanics

shear stresses) acting between horizontal layers of the

beam as well as vertical shear stresses acting on the

cross-sections.

• At any point of the beam τ xy = τ yx

τ yx

h

τ xy must vanish at y = ± , if the beam is subjected only

2

lateral loads.

Solid Mechanics

Derivation of shear stress formula

Beam under non-uniform bending i.e M = M ( x )

Solid Mechanics

We now wish to satisfy equilibrium in the x- direction.

Taking [ Σ Fx → + = 0 ] we have then

A A

1

τ yxt = σ x ( x + ∆x,y ) dA − σ x ( x,y ) dA

∆x A A

−M (x ) y

σ x ( x ,y ) =

I

1 1 1

τ yxt = − M ( x + ∆x ) ydA + M ( x ) ydA

∆x I A IA

1

τ yxt = − M ( x + ∆x ) − M ( x ) ydA

∆xI A

−1 M ( x + ∆x ) − M ( x )

τ yx = ydA

It ∆x A

taking limit as ∆x → 0

−1 M ( x + ∆x ) − M ( x )

τ yx = lim ydA

It ∆x→0 ∆x A

−1 dM

τ yx = ydA

It dx A

dM

= −Vy ( x )

dx

Vy ( x )

∴ τ yx = ydA

It A

Solid Mechanics

The above integral is by definition the first moment of are A

Q = ydA

A

VyQ

∴ τ yx = τ xy = τ =

It (1)

shear formula

in the above equation I = I zz stands for the moment of

inertia of the entire cross sectional area around the neutral

axis.

From (1)

VyQ VQ

τ yxt = f = =

I I

The quantity “f” is known as the “shear flow”.

Shear flow is the horizontal shear force per unit distance

along the longitudinal axis of the beam.

Solid Mechanics

Distribution of shear stresses in a Rectangular beam

An example of application of equations

h h / 2−y

Q = udA = b −y y+ s

A

2 2

b h2

Q= − y2

2 4

1 3

I= bh

12

VQ V h 2

τ xy = τ yx = = − y2

It 2 I 4

h

at y = ± τ xy = τ yx = 0

2

with the distance y from the neutral axis.

Maximum value of shear stress occurs at the neutral axis

where Q is maximum.

Vh 2 3 V

τ xymax = τ yxmax = =

8I 2A

Solid Mechanics

Thus τ max in a beam of rectangular cross-section is 50%

V

larger than the average shear stress

A

as

V

τ xymax = K

A

for most of the cross-sectional areas

3

K= Rec tan gular

2

4

K= Circular

3

3

K= Triangular

2

For most of the cross-section τ max occurs at the neutral axis.

This is not always true.

Solid Mechanics

Stress elements in non-uniform bending

Solid Mechanics

Problem

A wood beam AB is loaded as shown in the figure. It has a

rectangular cross –section (see figure). Determine the

maximum permissible value pmax of the loads if the

allowable stress is bending is σ allow = 11 MPa (for both tension

and compression) and allowable stress in horizontal shear is

τ allow = 1.2 MPa

Solution

between the loads.

bh 2

S= A = bh

6

M 6 Pa

∴ σ max = max = 2

S bh

3 Vmax 3 P 3 P

τ xymax = τ yxmax = τ max = = =

2 A 2 A 2 bh

Therefore, the maximum permissible values of the load P in

dending and shear respectively are

σ allowbh 2 2τ allow bh

Pallow b = Pallow s =

6a 3

Solid Mechanics

Substituting numerical values into these formulas,

Pallow b = 8.25 kN

Pallow s = 8.25 kN

allowable load is

Pmax = 8.25 kN

Problem

An I –beam is loaded as in figure. If it has the cross-section as

shown in figure, determine the shearing stresses at the levels

indicated. Neglect the weight of the beam.

Solution

Solid Mechanics

I zz = I = − = 95.7 × 106 mm 4s

12 12

V 250 × 10 3

The ratio = = 2.61 × 10 −3 N / mm 4s

I 95.7 × 106

Level A mm2 ( ) y Q = Ay t

τ xy =

VQ

MPa

mm ×10 3 mm3 mm It

2-2 12 × 150 144 259.2 150 4.5

= 1800 12 56.4

3-3 12 × 150 144 259.2

278.2

= 1800 132 19.0 12 60.5

12 × 12

= 144

4-4 12 × 150 144 259.2

373.5

= 1800 69 114.3 12 81.3

12 × 138

= 1656

Solid Mechanics

Warping of the cross sections due to shear stress

the axis of the beam in the deformed configuration due to

the presence of shear force.

The cross-sections are wrapped with highest distortion at the

axis.

It can be shown that if L >> h then distortion of cross-sections

due to shear negligible.

Use all formulae developed so far only when L >> h - such

beams are called slender beams.

Do not apply them if L << h -- short beams.

Solid Mechanics

(1) Maximum shearing stress theory

For ductile materials

(2) Octahedral shearing stress theory

(3) Maximum normal stress theory – for brittle materials.

Maximum shearing stress theory or Tresca Criterion

This theory says that:

Yielding occurs when the maximum shear stress in the material

reaches the value of the shear stress at yielding in a uniaxial

tension (or compression) test.

Maximum shearing stress under general state of stress is

τ max = max (τ 1 ,τ 2 ,τ 3 )

σ2 −σ3 σ1 −σ3 σ1 −σ2

where τ 1 = ; τ2 = ; τ3 =

2 2 2

The maximum shearing stress in uniaxial tension test at the

moment of yielding is

σ ys

τt =

2

σ ys

Tresca criterion is τ max ≥

2

Octahedral shearing stress theory or Hencky-Von-Mises

failure criterion

This theory also known as “The maximum distortion strain-

energy theory”

Solid Mechanics

This theory states that

Yielding occurs when the octahedral shear stress in the material is

equal to the value of the octahedral shear stress at yielding in a

uniaxial tensile test.

1

τ oct = (σ 1 − σ 2 ) 2 + (σ 2 − σ 3 ) 2 + (σ 1 − σ 3 ) 2

3

Octahedral shear stress in the uniaxial tension test at the

moment of yielding i.e. σ y = σ ys = σ 1

1

( ) ( )

2 2

τt = σ ys − 0 + ( 0 − 0 )2 + σ ys − 0

3

2

τt = σ ys

3

2

Von Mises theory says that τ oct ≥ σ ys

3

3

σ von = τ oct

2

Von Mises theory says that τ von ≥ σ ys

supporting maximum shearing stress and Von Mises

criterion

This theory is generally used for design of components made

up of brittle materials.

Solid Mechanics

According to this theory, a given structural component fails when

the maximum normal stress (tensile) in that component reaches the

ultimate strength or ultimate stress σ ult obtained from the tensile

test of a specimen of the same material.

Thus the structural component will fail when

σ 1 ≥ σ ult

Simple application of theories

Solid Mechanics

Torsion + Direct shear

Mr Tr

σA = τ1 =

I Ip

4V

τ2 =

3A

Solid Mechanics

Bending + axial loading

− My

σx =

I

P

σx = P − M zz y

A σx = +

A I zz

Neutral surface is now shifted due to the application of axial

load.

Solid Mechanics

Consider an infinitesimal stress element at point in a linearly

elastic body, subjected to a normal stress σ x

1

dWint = dF × dS

2

1

= σ x dydz × ∈x dx

2

force distance

1

dWint = σ x ∈x dV

2

This internal work is stored in the volume of the element as

the internal elastic energy or the elastic strain energy.

1

∴ dU = σ x ∈x dV

2

dV = volume of the element.

The strain energy density U0 is defined as the internal elastic

energy stored in an elastic body per unit volume of the

material.

dU σ x ∈x

∴ Strain energy density = U0 = =

dV 2

Solid Mechanics

U0 can be interpreted as an area under the inclined line on

the stress-strain diagram. Similar expressions can developed

for σ y and σ z corresponding to strains ∈y and ∈z .

1

dUshear = τ xy dxdz × Yxy dy

2

distance

average force

1

dU shear = τ xy Yxy dv

2

Analogous expressions apply for the shearing stresses

τ xz ,τ zx with the corresponding shear strains Yyz and Yxz

The strain energy expressions for a 3D state of stress follow

directly by addition of the energies of each stress component.

dU =

1 1 1 1 1 1

σ x ∈x + σ y ∈y + σ z ∈z + τ xyYxy + τ yzYyz + τ zxYzx dV

2 2 2 2 2 2

The strain energy density for the most general case is

Solid Mechanics

dU 1 1 1 1

U0 = = ∈x σ x + ∈y σ y + ∈z σ z + τ xyYxy

dv 2 2 2 2

1 1

+ τ yzYyz + τ zxYzx

2 2

Substituting the values of strain components from

generalized Hooke’s law, we can show that

U0 =

1

2E

( ) (

v

σ x2 + σ y2 + σ z2 − σ xσ y + σ yσ z + σ zσ x

E

)

+

1 2

2G

( 2

τ xy + τ yz 2

+ τ zx )

It is the expression for elastic strain energy per unit volume

for linearly plastic, homogeneous, isotropic materials.

In general, for a stressed body the total strain energy is

obtained by integration of U over its volume.

0

V

σ x = σ z = τ xy = τ xz = τ yz = 0

1 1 σ 1 2

∴ U 0 = σ x ∈x = σ x x = σx

2 2 E 2E

1 2

∴ The total internal energy = U = U 0 dv = σ x dV

V V

2 E

Solid Mechanics

σ x2 P2 P2L

U= AL == 2

.AL =

2E 2 EA 2 EA

P 2L

U=

2 EA

Strain energy in torsion of circular shafts

1 1 τ 1 2

U0 = τ .Y = τ . = τ

2 2 G 2G

1 2 TY

U = U 0 dv = τ dv τ=

2G IP

v v

Tr π

τ= where I p = R4

Ip 2

R

1 T2 2

U= . 2 .r .2π r.dr.L

0

2 G Ip

T 2L

U=

2GI p

σ x2 M2 2 M2

∴ U= dv = 2

y dv = 2

y 2 dA.L

v

2E v

2 EI 2 EI

Solid Mechanics

M 2L

U=

2 EI

Conclusion

P2L

Axially loaded bars U =

2 AE

T 2L

Torsion of shafts U=

2GI P

M 2L

Bending (pure) of beams U=

2 EI

We can use the following equations in case of non-uniform

cases

L L L

P2 T2 M2

U= dx ; U = dx ; U = dx

0

2 AE 0

2 GI P 0

2 EI

Solid Mechanics

Problem:

P ( x ) = Y.A ( L − x )

L

P2

U= dx

0

2 AE

L

Y 2 A2 ( L − x ) 2

= dx

0

2 AE

L

Y 2 A2 2 2 Y2A 2 L3

= L + x − 2 Lx.dx = L L + − L3

2 AE 0 2E 3

Y 2 A2 3 L3 3 Y 2 AL3

= L + −L =

2 AE 3 6E

P2L

U=

2 AE

P ( x ) = Y.A ( L − x ) + P

L

Y 2 A2 ( L − x )2 + P 2 + 2YA ( L − x ) .P

U= dx

0

2 AE

Y 2 AL3 P 2 L2 2YAP 2 L2

U= + + L −

6E 2 AE 2 AE 2

Y 2 AL3 P 2 L2 YP 2

= + +

6E 2 AE 2 E

Since U ∞ P 2 or U∞δ 2 principle of superposition should

not be used.

Solid Mechanics

When a beam with a straight longitudinal axis is loaded by

lateral loads, the axis is deformed into a curve, called the

“deflection curve” or “elastic-curve”

of beams deflection means v displacement of particles

located on the axis of the beam.

Deflection calculation is an important part of component

design

Deflections -- useful in vibration, analysis of various

engineering components ex. Earthquake loading.

Undesirable vibrations are due to excessive deflections.

Solid Mechanics

Approximate sketches of deflection curves

Approximate sketches of the deflection curve can be drawn

if BM diagram is available for a given loading.

We know that +BM means

- BM means

Examples

(1)

Solid Mechanics

The objective is to find the shape of the elastic curve or

deflection curve for given loads i.e., what is the function v(x).

There are two approaches

(1) Differential equations of the deflection curve

(2) Moment-area method

Differential equations of the deflection curve

Consider a cantilever beam: The axis of the beam deforms

into a curve as shown due to load P.

plane is the plane of bending.

↓ − v deflection of the beam.

↑ v + ve and. ↓ − v

To obtain deflection curve we must express v as a function

of x.

Solid Mechanics

When the beam is bent, there is not only a deflection at each

point along the axis but also a rotation.

The angle of rotation θ of the axis of the beam is the angle

between x – axis and the tangent to the deflection curve at a

point.

For given x-y coordinate system

θ → + ve → anticlockwise

O′ = Center of curvature

ρ = Radius of curvature

From geometry ρ dθ = ds

1 dθ

k= =

ρ ds

curvature of the deflectioncurve

k - curvature - +ve when angle of rotation increases as we

move along the beam in the +ve x – direction.

dv

Slope of the deflectioncurve = = tanθ

dx

dv

Slope is positive when the tangent to the curve slopes

dx

upward to the right.

The deflection curves of most beams have very small angles

of rotations, very small deflection and very small curvatures.

That is they undergo small deformations.

When the angle of rotation θ is extremely small, the

deflection curve is nearly horizontal

Solid Mechanics

ds ≈ dx

This follows from the fact that

2

ds = dx 2 + dv 2 = 1 + ( v′ ) dx

2

for small θ ( v′ ) can be neglected compared to 1

∴ ds ≈ dx

Therefore, in small deflection theory no difference in length

is said to exist between the initial length of the axis and the

arc of the elastic curve.

1 dθ

k= =

ρ dx

Since θ is small tanθ ≈ θ

dv

∴ =θ

dx

1dθ d 2 v

∴k = = = 2

ρ dx dx

d 2ν

k = 2 = ν ′′

dx only insmall deformationtheory

du

θ= = u′

dx

If the material of the beam is linearly elastic and follows

Hooke’s law, the curvature is

1 M

k= =

ρ EI

Solid Mechanics

+ M → leads to +K and so on

d2v M

∴ 2= or

dx EI

d2 v

EI 2 = M

dx

The basic differential equations of the deflection curve.

Sign conventions used in the above equation:

dv

(a) The (b) and θ are

dx

(c) k is + (d) M is +ve if beam bends

Another useful equations can be obtained by noting that

dM

= −V

dx

dV

= −p

dx

Non-prismatic beams

d2v

EI ( x ) 2 = M ( x )

dx

( EI ( x ) v′′ )′ = − v ( x )

( EI ( x ) v′′ )′′ = + P ( x )

Solid Mechanics

For prismatic beams.

EIv′′′ = −V ( x ) Shear force equation( 3rd order )

EIv′′′′ = + P ( x ) Load equation( 4th order )

Integrating the equations and then evaluating constants of

integration from boundary conditions of the beam.

Assumptions involved in the above equations

(a) Material obeys Hooke’s law

(b) Slope of deflection curve small – small deformations

(c) Deformations due to bending only – shear neglected

When sketching deflection curve we greatly exaggerate the

deflection for clarity. Otherwise they actually are very small

quantities.

Solid Mechanics

Approximate sketching

(3) (4)

(5) (6)

Solid Mechanics

Boundary conditions

(1)Boundary conditions

(2)Continuity conditions

(3)Symmetry conditions

Boundary conditions

Pertain to the deflections and slopes at the supports of a

beam:

(i)Fixed support or clamped support

v ( a) = 0

θ ( a ) = v′ ( a ) = 0

(ii)

v ( a) = 0

M ( a ) = EIv′′ ( a ) = 0 v′′ ( a ) = 0

M ( a ) = EIv′′ ( a ) = 0

(iii)

V ( a ) = −EIv′′ ( a ) = 0

Solid Mechanics

Continuity conditions

All deflection curves are physically

continuous. Therefore

v ( c ) from side AC = v ( c ) from side BC

Similarly at “C”

v′ ( c ) from side AC = v′ ( c ) from side BC

Symmetry conditions

L

v′ = 0 because of loading

2

and beam. This we should load

in advance.

The method for finding deflection using differential

equations is known as “ method of successive integration”.

Application of principle of superposition: Numerous

problems with different loadings have been solved and

readily available. Therefore in practice the deflection of beam

subjected to several or complicated loading conditions are

solved using principle of superposition.

+ +

Solid Mechanics

Problem 1

Determine the equation of the deflection curve for a simple

beam AB supporting a uniform load of intensity of acting

through out the span of the beam. Also determine maximum

deflection δ max at the mid point of the beam and the angles

of rotation Q A and QB at the supports. Beam has constant EI.

Solution

qL

V+ − qx = 0

2

qL

V = qx − (1)

2

qL qx 2

M− x+ =0

2 2

qLx qx 2

M= − (2)

2 2

Differential equation of deflection curve.

EIv′′ = M ( x )

qLx qx 2

EIv′′ = −

2 2

Slope of the beam

Solid Mechanics

qLx 2 qx 3

EIv′ = − + C1

4 6

BC → Symmetry conditions

L

v′ x = =0

2

qLL2 qL3

0= − + C1

16 48

qL3 qL3

0= − + C1

16 48

qL3

C1 = −

24

Slope equation is

qLx 2 qx 3 qL3

EIv′ = − − s

4 6 24

−q

v′ =

24EI

(

L3 − 6L2 + x 3)

Deflection of the beam

qLx 3 qx 4 qL3

EIv = − − x + C2

12 24 24

B.C.

v(x = 0) = 0

0 = 0 − 0 − 0 + C2 C2 = 0

qLx 3 qx 4 qL3

EIv = − − x

12 24 24

Solid Mechanics

−q

∴v =

24EI

(

L3 x − 2 Lx 3 + x 4 )

−q

v=

24EI

(

x 4 + L3 x − 2 Lx 3 )

you can check v = 0 at x = 0 and L = 0

(b) From symmetry maximum deflection occurs at the

L

midpoint x =

2

L −5qL4

v x= =

2 384EI

-ve sign means that deflection is downward as expected.

L 5qL4

δ max = v x= = s

2 384EI

−qL3

Q A = v′ ( 0 ) =

24EI

-ve sign indicates clock wise rotation as expected.

QB = v′ ( x = L ) = − −

4EI 6EI 24EI

qL3

v′ ( L ) = + ve sign means anticlockwise direction.

24EI

since the problem is symmetric, v′ ( 0 ) = v′ ( L )

Solid Mechanics

Problem: 2

Above problem using third order equation

EIv′′′ = −V ( x )

qL qL

EIv′′′ = − qx − = − qx

2 2

Moment equation

qLx qx 2

EIv′′ = − + C1

2 2

B.C.

M (x = 0) = 0 EIv′′ ( x = 0 ) = 0

C1 = 0

qLx qx 2

EIv′′ = −

2 2

Problem 3

Above problem using fourth order differential equation

P=q

EIv′′′′ = −q

Shear for a equation

EIv′′′ = −qx + C 1

From symmetry conditions

Solid Mechanics

L L

V x= =0 EIv′′′ x = =0

2 2

L qL

0 = −q + C 1 C1 = +

2 2

qL

∴ EIv′′′ = −qx +

2

Problem 4

Determine the equation of the deflection curve for a

cantilever beam AB subjected to a uniform load of intensify

q. Also determine the angle of rotation and deflection at the

free end. Beam has constant EI.

Solution:

V + qL − qx = 0

V = qx − qL

qL2 qx 2 qL2 qx 2

M+ − qLx + M = qLx − −

2 2 2 2

Differential equation of deflection curve

EIv′′ = M ( x )

qL2 qx 2

EIv′′ = − + qLx −

2 2

Solid Mechanics

qL2 x qLx 2 qx 3

Slope equation: EIv′ = − + − + C1

2 2 6

BC: v′ ( x = 0 ) =C01 = 0

qL2 x qLx 2 qx 3

EIv′ = − + −

2 2 6

Deflection equation

qL2 x 2 qLx 3 qx 4

EIv = − + − + C2

4 6 24

v (x = 0) = 0

0 = 0 + 0 − 0 + C2 C2 = 0

qL2 x 2 qLx 3 qx 4

∴ EIv = − + −

4 6 24

−q − +

v= 6L x + 4Lx 3

2 2

x4

24EI

v′ ( x = L )

−qL3 qL3 qL3 −qL3

EIv′ = + − =

2 2 6 6

qL3

∴ v′ = QB = −

6EI

v(x = L)

−q 4 4 4 −3qL4

v= 6 L − 4L + L =

24EI 24EI

−3qL4 qL4 -maximum deflection also.

v(x = L) = v=

24EI 8EI

Solid Mechanics

Problem 5

Above problem using third order equation

EIv′′ = −V ( x )

EIv′′′ = qL − qx

Moment equation

qx 2

EIv′′ = qLx − + C1

2

B.C. M ( x = L ) = 0 EIv′′ ( x = L ) = 0

0 = qL − = 4=−

2 2 2

qx 2 qL2

EI ′v′′ = qLx − +

2 2

qx 2 qL2

EIv′′ = qLx − +

2 2

Problem 6

Above problem with fourth order equation

EIv′′′′ = P ( x )

−

∴ EIv′′′′ = ⊕ q

Shear force equation

EIv′′′ = −qx + C 1

B.C V ( x = L ) = 0 EIv′′′ ( x = L ) = 0

0 = −qL + C 1 C1 = + qL

Solid Mechanics

∴ EIv′′′ = −qx + qL

Problem 7

A simple beam AB supports a concentrated

EI = load P acting at

distances a and b from the left-hand and right-hand supports

respectively. Determine the equations QofA the Q deflection

B

curve, the angles of rotation and

δL

δ max at the supports, the

maximum deflection and the deflection at the midpoint C of

the beam. Constant EI

Solution

Pb Pb

+x=P x=P−

L L

Pb

V+ =0

L

Pb

V =−

L

Pb Pbx

M− x=0 H=

L L

Pb

V+ −P=0

L

Pb

V =P−

L

Solid Mechanics

Pbx

M + P ( x − a) −

L

Pbx

M= − P ( x − a)

L

Pbx Pxa

M= − Px + Pa = − + Pa

L L

Differential equation of deflection curve

Pbx

EIv′′ = 0≤x≤a

L

Pxa

EIv′′ = − + Pa a≤x≤L

L

Slope equations:

Pbx 2

EIv′ = + C1 o ≤ x ≤ a

2L

− Px 2 a

EIv′ = + Pax + C 2 a ≤ x ≤ L

2L

B.C. v′ ( x = a ) AP = v′ ( x = a ) PB

P ( L − a ) a2 − Pa3

+ C1 = + Pa2 + C 2

2L 2L

/ 2 Pa

PLa / /3 / /3

Pa

− + C1 = − + Pa2 + C 2

2 L/ 2/ L/ 2/ L/

Pa2

C1 = + C2

2

Solid Mechanics

Deflection curve equations:

Pbx 3

EIv′ = + C 1x + C 3 0≤x≤a

6L

− Px 3 a Pax 2

EIv = + + C2x + C4 a ≤ x ≤ L

6L 2

B.C: v ( x = 0 ) = 0 and v ( x = L ) = 0

0 = 0 + 0 + C3 C3 = 0

PL3 a PaL2

0=− + + C2L + C 4

6L 2

PL2 a PaL2

0=− + + C2L + C 4

6 2

PaL2

= + C2L + C 4

3

PaL2

C4 = − − C2L

3

v ( x = a ) AP = v ( x = a ) PB

P ( L − a ) a3 − Pa 4 Pa 3

+ C1a = + + C2 a + C4

6L 6L 2

PLa 3 Pa

/ /4 / / 4 Pa 3

− Pa

+ + C1 a = + + C2 a + C 4

6L 6/ L/ 6L/ 2

Pa 3 Pa 3

+ C1a = + C2 a + C 4

6 2

Pa 3 PaL2

C1 a = + C2 a − − C2L

3 3

Solid Mechanics

Pa 3 Pa 3 PaL2

+ C/ 2 a = + C/ 2 a − − C2L

2 3 3

Pa 3 PaL2 PaL2 Pa 3

=− − C2L C2L = − −

6 3 3 6

PaL Pa 3

C2 = − −

3 6

Some important formulae to remember

(1)

qL4 qL3

δB = ,QB =

8EI 6EI

PL3 PL2

δB = , QB =

(2) 3EI 2 EI

M0 L2 M L

(3) δB = , QB = 0

2 EI EI

(4)

5qL4 qL3

δ c = δ max = ; Q A = QB =

384EI 24EI

δ c = δ max = ;Q A = QB =

48EI 16EI

Problem 8

A simple beam AB supports a concentrated load P acting at

the center as shown. Determine the equations of the

deflection curve, the angles of rotation Q A and QB at the

supports, the maximum deflection δ max of the beam.

Solid Mechanics

Solution

Px

M=

2

P

V =−

2

P

M− x=0

2

Px

M= Px

2 M=

2

P

V+ −P=0

2

V=P/2

Px L

M− +P x− =0

2 2

Px L Px PL PL Px

M= −P x− = − Px + = −

2 2 2 2 2 2

PL Px

M= −

2 2

Solid Mechanics

Differential equation deflection curve

Px

EIv′′ = 0≤x≤L/ 2

2

PL Px L

EIv′′ = − ≤x≤L

2 2 2

Slope equations

Px 2

EIv′ = + C1 0≤x≤L/ 2

4

PLx Px 2 L

EIv′ = − + C2 ≤x≤L

2 4 2

L L

v′ x = = v′ x =

2 AP 2 PB

+ C1 = − + C2

16 4 16

PL2 PL2 PL2

C1 = C 2 + − = C2 +

4 8 8

PL2

C1 = C 2 +

8

Deflection equations:

Px 3

EIv = + C 1x + C 3 0≤x≤L/ 2

12

PLx 2 Px 3

EIv = − + C2x + C4 L / 2 ≤ x ≤ L

4 12

B.C: v ( x = 0 ) = 0 and v ( x = L ) = 0

Solid Mechanics

0 = 0 + 0 + C3 C3 = 0

PL3 PL3

0= − + C2L + C 4

4 12

PL3

= + C2L + C 4

6

PL3

C4 = − − C2L

6

L L

v′ x = = v′ x =

2 AP 2 PB

PL3 C1L PL3 PL3 L

+ = − + C2 + C 4

96 2 16 96 2

L PL3 PL3 L

C1 = − + C2 + C 4

2 16 48 2

L PL3 L

C1 = + C2 + C 4

2 24 2

C/ 2 + = + C/ 2 − − C2L

2/ 16 24 2/ 6

PL3 PL3 PL3 ( 2 − 8 − 3 ) PL2

− − = C2L C2 =

24 6 16 48

9 PL2 −3PL2

C2 = − =

48 16

3 PL2

C2 = −

16

Solid Mechanics

∴ C1 = − + =−

16 8 16

PL2

C1 = −

16

PL3 −3 PL2

∴ C4 = − −L

6 16

− PL3 3 PL3 ( −8 + 9 ) PL3

= + =

6 16 48

PL3

C4 = −

48

Deflection curves

Px 3 PL2 L

EIv = − x + C3 0≤x≤

12 16 2

PLx 2 Px 3 3 PL2 PL3 L

EIv = −+ − x+ ≤x≤L

4 12 16 48 2

PL3 PL3 − PL3

EIv x = L = − =

2 96 32 48

PL3

∴ v x= L =−

2 48EI

EIv x = L = − − + =

2 16 96 32 48 96

PL3

=−

48

Solid Mechanics

v = − PL3 / 48EI

Slope equations:

Px 2 PL2 L

EIv′ = − 0≤x≤

4 16 2

PLx Px 2 3PL2 L

EIv′ = − − ≤x≤L

2 4 16 2

PL2 PL2

EIv′ ( x = 0 ) = 0 − =−

16 16

PL2

∴ v′ ( x = 0 ) = QA = − ( − ) Clock wise

16EI

PL2 PL2 3 PL2 ( 8 − 4 − 3 ) PL2 PL2

EIv′ ( x = L ) = − − = =

2 4 16 16 16

PL2

∴ v′ ( x = L ) = QB = (+ ve, CCW from x-axis )

16EI

Problem 9

A cantilever beam AB supports load of intensity of acting

over part of the span and a concentrated load P acting at the

free end. Determine the deflections δ B and angle of rotation

QB at end B of the beam. Beam has constant EI. Use principle

of superposition.

Solution

qa 3 qL3

δ B1 = ( 4L − a ) , QB1 =

24EI 6EI

PL3 PL2

δ B2 = , QB2 =

3EI 2 EI

Solid Mechanics

qa3 PL3

δ B = δ B1 + δ B2 = ( 4L − a ) +

24EI 3EI

qa3 PL2

QB = QB1 + QB1 = +

6EI 2 EI

Solid Mechanics

This method is based upon two theorems related to the area

of the bending moment diagram it is called moment-area

method.

First moment area theorem

Consider segment AB of the deflection curve of a beam in

region of + ve curvature.

The equation

d 2θ M

2

= can be written as

dx EI

d 2θ dθ M

2

= =

dx dx EI

M

dθ = dx

EI

M

The quantity dx corresponds to an infinitesimal area of

EI

M

the diagram. According to the above equation the area is

EI

equal to the arrange in angle between two adjacent point m1

and m2 . Integrating the above equation between any two

points A & B gives.

B B

M

dθ = θ B − θ A = ∆θ BA = dx

A A

EI

Solid Mechanics

This states that the arrange in angle measured in radius

between the two tangents at any two points A and B on the

M

elastic curve is equal to the area of diagram between A &

EI

B , If θ A is known then

θ B = θ A + ∆θ BA

In performing above integration, areas corresponding to the

+ M are taken + ve, area corresponding to the – ve M are

taken –ve

B

M

If dx is +ve- tangent B rotates c.c.w from A or θ B is

A

EI

algebraically larger than A.

If – ve – tangent B rotates c.w from A.

Second moment-area theorem

This is related to the deflection curve between A and B.

Solid Mechanics

We see that dt is a small contribution to tBA . Since the angles

between the tangents and x-axis are very small we can take

M

dt = x1dθ = x1 dx

EI

M

The expression x1 dx = first moment of infinitesimal area

EI

M

dx w.r.t. a vertical line through B.

EI

Integrating between the point A & B

B B′

M M

tBA = dt = x1 dx = First moment of the area of the

A A

EI EI

diagram between points A & B, evaluated w.r.t. B.

tBA = φ x1

t AB = φ x

B

M

where φ = dx

A

EI

if M is +ve φ = +ve

if M is -ve φ = -ve

x and x1 are always taken +ve quantities.

∴ Sign of tangential deviation depends on sign of M.

Solid Mechanics

A positive value of tangential deviation- point B is above A

and vice versa – ve value means point B is below the point A.

In applying the moment area method a carefully prepared

sketch of the elastic curve is always necessary.

Problem:1

Consider an aluminum cantilever beam 1600 mm long with a

10 –kN for a applied 400 mm from the free end for a distance

of 600 mm from the fixed end, the beam is of greater depth

than it is beyond, having I 1 = 50 × 106 mm4 . For the

remaining 1000 mm of the beam I 2 = 10 × 106 mm4 . Find the

deflection and angular rotation of the free end. Neglect

weight of the beam and E = 70GPa

Solution:

EI = 3.5 × 10 24

70 × 109 × 10 −6 N/mm2

= 70 × 10 3 N/mm2

Solid Mechanics

1 1 −0.12 36

A1 = bh = × 600 × =−

2 2 E E

129.6

A2 = bh = −

E

1 1 −0.48 115.2

A3 = bh = × 480 × =−

2 2 E E

1 1 −0.12 7. 2

A4 = bh = × 120 × =−

2 2 E E

B

M

∆QBA = QB − Q A = dx = A1 + A2 + A3 + A4

A

EI

QB = − − − − =−

E E E E E

Solid Mechanics

288 288 −3

QB = − =− 3

= −4. 14 × 10 rad

E 70 × 10

QB = 4.14 × 10 −3 rad from tangent at

A.

tBA = δ B

x2 = 1060mm; x1 = 1400 ; x3 = 840 mm; x4 = 480 mm

tBA = δ B = A1x1 + A2 x2 + A3 x3 + A4 x 4

−36 −129.6 −115.2 −7.2

= 1400 + 1060 + 840 + 480

E E E E

−288000

= = −4.11 mm

E

δ B = −4.11 mm below the tangent at point A.

Problem 2

Find the deflection due to the concentrated force P applied as

soon as figure, at the center of a simply supported beam EI

constant.

Solution:

Solid Mechanics

M

Since EI is constant

EI

diagram is same as M

diagram.

vc = c′′c′ − tCB

1

c′′c′ = t AB

2

1 1 3 Pa 3 Pa2

A1 = bh = × a × = s

2 2 4EI 8EI

1 1 3Pa 9 Pa2

A2 = bh = × 3 a × =

2 2 4EI 8EI

2

x1 = a ; x 2 = 2 a

3

3 Pa2 2 9 Pa2

t AB = A1x1 + A2 x2 = a+ 2a

8EI 3 8EI

Pa3 9 Pa3 10 Pa3 5 Pa3

= + = = ( + ve )

4EI 4EI 4EI 2 EI

Solid Mechanics

1 Pa 2a Pa 3

tCB = × 2 a × × = s

2 2 EI 3 3EI

5 Pa 3

c′′c′ = t AB / 2 =

4EI

5 Pa 3 Pa 3 ( 15 − 4 ) Pa 3 11Pa 3

∴ vc = − = =

4EI 3EI 4EI 12 EI

11Pa 3

vc =

12 EI

The +ve sign of t AB & tCA indicate points A & C above the

tangent through B.

(a) The slope of the elastic curve at C can be found from the

slope of one of the ends as:

∆QBC = QB − QC QC = QB − ∆QBC

B

M 1 Pa Pa2

∆QBC = QB − QC dx = × 2 a × = s

C

EI 2 2 EI 2 EI

5 Pa 3 1 Pa 2 5Pa 2 Pa 2

QB ≈ t AB /L= − = −

2 EI 4 a 2 EI 8EI 2 EI

Pa2

Qc =

8EI

selecting an ordinary point E at a distance x

vE = E′′E′ − EE′′

Solid Mechanics

L−x

vE = t AB − tEB

L

In this way one

can obtain equation

of the deflection curve.

tangent at a support must be considered.

In this approach to find

tCA we need to consider

unhatched region which

is more difficult.

t AC + tBC

vc =

2

complicated approach compared to first, as to find tCA we

again need to consider unhatched region.

Solid Mechanics

Problem 3

Find the deflection of the end A of the beams shown in

figure caused by the applied forces. The EI is constant.

Solution

Solid Mechanics

1 1 − Pa Pa 2

A1 = bh = × a × =−

2 2 EI 2 EI

1 a Pa Pa 2

A2 = × × − =−

2 2 EI 4EI

Pa 2 Pa 2

A3 = and A4 =

4EI 2 EI

a 7a 2a a 11a

x1 = + 2 a = ; x 2 = + +a=

3 3 33 2 6

1a 2a

x3 = + a = 7 a / 6 ; x4 =

32 3

tCB = A2 x2 + A3 x3 + A4 x 4

Pa2 11a Pa 2 7 a Pa2 2 a

=− × + × + ×

4EI 6 4EI 6 2 EI 3

11Pa3 7 Pa 3 Pa3 ( −11 + 7 + 8 ) Pa3

=− + + =

24EI 24EI 3EI 24EI

4 Pa 3 Pa 3

tCB = =

24EI 6EI

The + sign of tCB indicates that the point C is above the

tangent through B. Hence corrected sketch of the elastic

curve is made.

Solid Mechanics

Pa 2 2 Pa 3

t AB = − × a=−

2 EI 3 3EI

∴ v A = t AB − A′′A′

Pa3 Pa3 Pa3

= − =

3EI 12 EI 4EI

Pa 3

vA =

4EI

simpler method than the present one.

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