You are on page 1of 7


1. What is it? Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or damages the natural environment into the atmosphere. 2. Causes Natural y Natural sources of sulphur dioxide include release from volcanoes, biological decay and forest fires. y Natural sources of nitrogen oxides include volcanoes, oceans, biological decay and lightning strikes. y Ozone is a secondary photochemical pollutant formed near ground level as a result of chemical reactions taking place in sunlight. y Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are naturally produced by plants and trees. Anthropogenic y Combustion Engine Exhaust - Cars, trucks, jet airplanes and other combustion engine vehicles cause air pollution. The exhaust from these contains carbon monoxide, nitrous oxide and gaseous oxide. This type of air pollution creates smog (as seen in Los Angeles) which causes respiratory health problems and holes in the ozone layer, which increases the exposure to the sun's harmful rays. y Factories - Factories, office buildings, homes and power-generating stations burn fossil fuels, which cause air pollution. The burning of oil and coal (fossil fuels) also contributes to smog. This air pollution destroys plants, damages buildings and creates oxidation on iron. y Petroleum - Petroleum refineries release hydrocarbons and various particulates that pollute the air. y Power Lines - Some power lines are not insulated and are high voltage. This creates air pollution. y Pesticides - Pesticides used to kill indoor and outdoor pests, insecticides used to kill insects and herbicides use to kill weeds all cause air pollution. y Radioactive Fallout - Radioactive fallout causes air pollution from the nuclear energy dispersed, which is a dust. y Fertilizer Dust - Dust from fertilizers used to help plants grow causes air pollution. y Indoor Air Pollution - Sick building syndrome (SBS) is the term used when there is indoor air pollution. This happens when there is not enough ventilation to disburse the toxic fumes from new carpet, paint and/or cleaning chemicals that are used indoors. Mold can also cause SBS. y Mining Operations - Mining causes air pollution by releasing a variety of particles. y Mills and Plants - Mills and plants, include paper mills, chemical plants, iron mills, steel mills, cement plants and asphalt plants, release emissions into the air causing air pollution. 3. Effects Effects on Humans y Reduced lung functioning y Irritation of eyes, nose, mouth and throat y Asthma attacks

y y y

Respiratory symptoms such as coughing and wheezing Increased respiratory disease such as bronchitis Reduced energy levels

Local Law y REPUBLIC ACT NO.y Cardiovascular problems Headaches and dizziness y Cancer Disruption of endocrine. can infiltrate soil by making it unsuitable for purposes of nutrition and habitation y Ozone holes in the upper atmosphere can allow excessive ultraviolet radiation from the sun to enter the Earth causing damage to trees and plants y Ozone in the lower atmosphere can prevent plant respiration by blocking stomata (openings in leaves) and negatively affecting plants photosynthesis rates which will stunt plant growth.Many environmental activists and other observers believe that countries have an obligation through customary international law to not cause transboundary environmental harm. and the responsibility to ensure that activities within their jurisdiction or control do not cause damage to the environment of other States or of areas beyond the limits of national jurisdiction.The State recognizes that the responsibility of cleaning the habitat and environment is primarily area-based. Finally. Principle 21 of the Stockholm Declaration (1972) and Principle 2 of the Rio Declaration that emerged out of the 1992 Earth Summit both clearly state this principle. reproductive y Premature death and immune systems y Neurobehavioral disorders Effects of Pollution on Animals y Acid rain (formed in the air) destroys fish life in lakes and streams y Excessive ultraviolet radiation coming from the sun through the ozone layer in the upper atmosphere which is eroded by some air pollutants. y y y y y y Whenever possible take your bicycle. Don t let your father drop you to school. the State recognizes that a clean and healthy environment is for the good of all and should therefore be the concern of all. The State shall promote and protect the global environment to attain sustainable development while recognizing the primary responsibility of local government units to deal with environmental problems. Encourage your family to form a car pool to office and back Reduce the use of aerosols in the household Look after the trees in your neighborhood. destroy the leaves of plants.The State shall protect and advance the right of the people to a balanced and healthful ecology in accord with the rhythm and harmony of nature. take the school bus. ." Under this principle. ozone can also decay plant cells directly by entering stomata y y 4. The Rio Declaration affirms that countries have "the sovereign right to exploit their own resources pursuant to their own environmental and developmental policies. The State also recognizes the principle that "polluters must pay". may cause skin cancer in wildlife y Ozone in the lower atmosphere may damage lung tissues of animals Effects on Trees and Plants y Acid rain can kill trees. countries are prohibited from undertaking or allowing actions that will cause pollution in other nations. 8749 (PHILIPPINE CLEAN AIR ACT OF 1999) . Proposed Solutions Encourage your family to walk to the neighbourhood market. As far as possible use public forms of transport. Solutions International Law y Customary International Law .

be fitted with catalytic converters Use only unleaded petrol. Different items take different lengths of time to degrade in water: y Radioactive Waste . WATER POLLUTION 1. affecting surrounding soil and groundwater. run-offs and dumping. Many UST s constructed before 1980 are made from steel pipes that are directly exposed to the environment. y Marine Dumping .y y y y y y y Begin a tree-watch group to ensure that they are well tended and cared for. medical and scientific processes that use radioactive material. Major upheavals such as storms. Do not burn leaves in your garden.Nuclear waste is produced from industrial. Litter items such as 6pack ring packaging can get caught in marine animals and may result in death. This is when the coral expels the microorganisms of . What is it? ‡ the contamination of water bodies (e. y Eutrophication .An increase in water temperature can result in the death of many aquatic organisms and disrupt many marine habitats. rivers. Nuclear waste comes from a number of sources: y Underground Storage Leakages . Nuclear waste can have detrimental effects on marine habitats. If possible share your room with others when the air conditioner. that are harmful to the surrounding environment should it become contaminated. y Atmospheric Deposition . as far as possible. Make sure that the pollution check for your family car is done at regular intervals Cars should.g. Switch-off all the lights and fans when not required. lakes.Dumping of litter in the sea can cause huge problems. groundwater) ‡ defined as the addition of harmful or objectionable material causing an alteration of water quality 2. Causes Natural y Natural catastrophes are the cause of water pollution effects as well. For example. it produces pollutants that are extremely harmful to people and the environment.Atmospheric deposition is the pollution of water caused by air pollution. They often store substances such as petroleum. cooler or fan is on. and volcano eruptions have been known to disrupt the ecological system and pollute water. floods. Anthropogenic y Sewage and Wastewater .Eutrophication is when the environment becomes enriched with nutrients. industrial and agricultural practices produce wastewater that can cause pollution of many lakes and rivers. put them in a compost pit. a rise in water temperatures causes coral bleaching of reefs around the world. This can be a problem in marine habitats such as lakes as it can cause algal blooms.A tank or piping network that has at least 10 percent of its volume underground is known as an underground storage tank (UST). oceans. y Global Warming .Oceans are polluted by oil on a daily basis from oil spills. y Industrial Waste .Industry is a huge source of water pollution. y Oil Pollution . earthquakes. acid rain. routine shipping.Domestic households. Over time the steel corrodes and causes leakages.

especially lakes and rivers. the toxins travel from the water the animals drink to humans when the animals meat is eaten.The State shall pursue a policy of economic growth in a manner consistent with the protection. abate and control pollution of water. These factors all have an affect on the marine life. the effects of water pollution are said to be the leading cause of death for humans across the globe. ‡ Presidential Decree 3931. This can result in great damage to coral reefs and subsequently. It occurs when waste is not disposed properly. y Diseases can spread via polluted water. skin lesions. 9275 . the framework for sustainable development shall be pursued.which it is dependent on. In fact. 984 . and damage to the nervous system. The human heart and kidneys can be adversely affected if polluted water is consumed regularly. 308 Int'l Rev. air and land for the more effective utilization of the resources.Purpose: To prevent. When toxins are in the water. brackish and marine waters.Philippine Clean Water Act of 2004 . ‡ Republic Act No. 3. agricultural. Solutions International Law y The Protection of Water in Times of Armed Conflict. 4. Cause Anthropogenic .AN ACT CREATING THE NATIONAL WATER AND AIR POLLUTION CONTROL COMMISSION . Other health problems associated with polluted water are poor blood circulation. To achieve this end. y Altered water temperatures (due to human actions) can kill the marine life and affect the delicate ecological balance in bodies of water. y Marine food sources are contaminated or eliminated by water pollution. of the Red Cross 550 (1995) Local Law ‡ REPUBLIC ACT NO. y Pollutants in the water will alter the overall chemistry of the water. industrial and other legitimate purposes.It is hereby declared a national policy to maintain reasonable standards of purity for the waters and of this country with their utilization for domestic. vomiting. causing changes in acidity. preservation and revival of the quality of our fresh. all the marine life that depends on it. Proposed Solutions y Reduced sewage pollution y Fighting Global Warming y Stopping Deforestation LAND POLLUTION 1. Infectious diseases such as typhoid and cholera can be contracted from drinking contaminated water. What is it? Land pollution is the degradation of Earth's land surfaces often caused by human activities and their misuse of land resources. y Acid rain contains sulfate particles. 3931 . temperature and conductivity. which can harm fish or plant life in lakes and rivers. Effects y The food chain is damaged. This is called microbial water pollution. 2.

3. If all these wastes are not disposed of properly. Proposed Solution y encourage organic farming y proper garbage disposal y recycle garbage y reduce use of herbicides and pesticides y Avoid overpackaged items y efficient utilization of resources and reducing wastage HEAT / THERMAL POLLUTION 1. abate and control pollution of water. in extreme cases. can cause human fatalities. Construction uses up forestland. pesticides and herbicides used by farmers to increase crop yields also pollute the land when they are washed into the soil. a large amount of rubbish is neither burnt nor recycled but is left in certain areas marked as dumping grounds. While waste collected from homes. More constructions means increase in demand for raw materials like timber. y vegetation that provides food and shelter is destroyed.y y y y y Increase in urbanization. As the human population grew there was a greater demand for food. Besides domestic waste. and fish. pesticides used in an effort to control or destroy undesirable vegetation and insects often destroy birds and small animals. air and land for the more effective utilization of the resources of this country. Reservoirs are built leading to the loss of land. Most pesticides kill or damage life forms other than those intended. Industrial activities also are a contributing factor to land pollution. Heaps of mining waste are left behind and these waste often contain several poisonous substances that will contaminate the soil. This caused more land allocated to agriculture. offices and industries may be recycled or burnt in incinerators. 4. in open cast mining.It is hereby declared a national policy to prevent. and.What is it? . Agricultural activities. animals. 3931. and poison birds. Increase in agricultural land. Domestic waste. This leads to the exploitation and destruction of forests. For example. tons and tons of domestic waste is dumped ranging from huge pieces of rubbish such as unused refrigerator to fish bones. For example. Solutions International Law y Customary international law Local Law y PRESIDENTIAL DECREE NO. kill vegetation. y pesticides can damage crops. COMMONLY KNOWN AS THE POLLUTION CONTROL LAW. We throw away more things today and there is an increase in the quantity of solid waste. 984 [PROVIDING FOR THE REVISION OF REPUBLIC ACT NO. Forests were cut down for this purpose. Industrial activities. There is more demand for water. Effects y exterminates wild life y acid rain kills trees and other plants. y it can seriously disrupt the balance of nature. AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES] . This has given rise to problems as new dumping grounds have to be found. Some life forms develop immunity to pesticides used to destroy them. Every single day. huge holes are dug in the ground and these form dangerously deep mining pools. the damage they can do to the environment and humankind can be devastating.

rare in unheated water. animal or machine-created sound that disrupts the activity or balance of human or animal life. 2. but in local areas like large cities it can accumulate and affect the micro-climate in that area. Effects . The species that are intolerant to warm conditions may disappear. may result in the loss of sensitive species 3. y Sound that is undesirable for human hearing is called as noise. together cause a cumulative sound of about 87 dB. But road vehicles are also great contributors of noise pollution. y Airplanes cause the highest sound among all 150 dB. may thrive so that the structure of the community changes. it constitutes what is known as noise pollution.What is it? y Noise pollution (or environmental noise) is displeasing human. and keep showers as short as possible. Effects y 4. particularly when organic pollution is also present. take a shower instead of a bath. Causes y Appliances in the home such as mixer grinders. if loudspeakers. Thermal pollution can have a great influence on the aquatic ecosystem. Causes y When fuels are used to produce electricity. Overall the earth's heat balance can accommodate this.Heat pollution (atmospheric) is a term used to describe the release of heat into the environment by human activities. An increase of temperature also means a decrease in oxygen solubility. vacuum cleaners. When there is a lot of noise in the environment. On top of that. Species that are restricted to heated waters. SUVs and even motorcycles and most cars. Noise coming from sources such as dripping taps and ticking of clocks can contribute to environmental noise pollution. tractors. Parasites and diseases may also be affected. This itself is above the sound limits in most areas. buses. while others. y Small factories using single unit machines would cause a sound of about 98 dB and above. The reproduction period may be brought forward and development may be speeded up. y Then there are lots of environmental sources of noise pollution that cannot be ignored. then we can well imagine how much noise pollution is being created. can build up large populations in the receiving waters. The sound will definitely go higher as the number of machines increase. to heat a building. Solutions Proposed Solutions y On a personal level. or to drive vehicles. Respiration and growth rates may be changed and these may alter the feeding rates of organisms. NOISE POLLUTION 1. Continuous noises are the most distressing. television sets and music systems are used with high volumes. 2. there is always low quality heat energy rejected in the process. All this heat goes into the environment. 3. These vehicles include the trucks. washing machines. walk or cycle instead of driving. etc. turn off unwanted lights and electrical appliances. Any reduction in the oxygen concentration of the water. Think about the heat coming out of your car exhaust or radiator for instance. There are various effects on the biology of the ecosystems when heated effluents reach the receiving waters.

Solutions Local Law y House Bill 7072 . It is observed that the rate at which heart pumps blood increases when there is a constant stimulus of noise pollution. . Keep track of which appliances need maintenance. This could be the precursor of chronic gastrointestinal problems. Noise pollution is known to increase digestive spasms. As an example. y Do not honk horns in your vehicles unless it is absolutely necessary. y If you are working in a factory that has a lot of noise issues. but honking horns will not solve any issues. Grow trees around your house if you can.ban horns in residential areas Proposed Solutions y We must constantly check up on the appliances we use at home. and that is when the noise pollution will begin. Noise pollution can cause dilation in the pupils of the eye. Most of them have rubber insulations that act for soundproofing. This could lead to sideeffects like elevated heartbeat frequencies. Even on a short-term basis. make it a point to wear earplugs and muffs. Trees act as buffers for absorbing the sound that is produced on the streets and hence reduce noise pollution. noise pollution can cause temporary deafness. noise pollution is a big deterrent in focusing the mind to a particular task. We all know how easily traffic sound limits are trespassed when there is a traffic jam. We might be desperate to get through. Over time. This will also help if you stay close to an airport. people who are living too close to airports will probably be quite jumpy.y y y y y The most immediate effect is a deterioration of mental health. But over time. provide these things to your workers. It will only add to the noise pollution. this insulation may wear out. It will protect you from the noise on the streets. Noise pollution also takes a toll on the heart. 4. the mind may just lose its capacity to concentrate on things. That is the reason why roads with trees on both sides seem to be more silent and peaceful. which may even culminate into seizures. palpitations. Continuous noise can create panic episodes in a person and can even increase frustration levels. But if the noise pollution continues for a long period of time. there's a danger that the person might go stone deaf. Another immediate effect of noise pollution is a deterioration of the ability to hear things clearly. and replace insulations if needed. Also. which could interfere in ocular health in the later stages of life. If you are the owner of the factory. breathlessness and the like. y Growing trees is a very significant way in which roadside noise can be curtailed.