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Karnataka Secondary Education Examination Board (KSEEB)

for SSLC 2015 Examination


Class 10
Published by :

“Oswaal House” 1/11, Sahitya Kunj, M.G. Road, AGRA-282002
Ph.: 0562-2857671, 2527781, Fax : 0562-2854582, 2527784
email :, website :
Self Assessment__________________________________

Oswaal Karnataka (SSLC) Class -10, Examination Sample Question Paper

Time : 3 Hours Maximum Marks : 80

1. (b) Wind energy.

2. (c) Increased amount of Ultra violet radiation will reach earth’s surface.
3. (a) It helps in transporting gases and nutrients.
4. (a) retaining cytoplasm at maturity.
5. (d) absorb the neutrons.
6. (d) Citric acid.
7. (d) Carbon tetrachloride.
8. (a) particles are transferred from one place to another.
9. (c) Steam is passed over red hot iron.
10. (c) Chromosomes. (1 × 10)
11. (a) – (ii)
(b) – (i)
(c) – (iv)
(d) – (iii) (1 × 4)
Tidal power Potential ennergy
Kinetic energy of
(Gravitational ® of water in the ® ® Electricity
energy) reservior
13. Yes, evolved with complex body design and advanced in terms of evolution, resistance,
immunity, body design, does not mean superior in any form. (1)
14. At maximum concentration, sugar is the best preservative to prepare fruit jams. (1)
15.   As the nerve fibres do not innervate all the cells of the body and the cellular functions need to
be continuously regulated, therefore coordination by endocrine glands is necessary. (1)
16. (a) (1) Cu2+ (2) Zn2+ (3) Al3+ (4) Na1+ (1)

17. Rockets can operate in the vacuum of space because they carry their own oxidant. The
substance that provides oxygen to burn the fuel is called an oxidant. Both fuel and oxidant are
together called propellants. (1)
18. Some rocket propellants are :
(1) Liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen.
(2) Kerosene and liquid oxygen. (½ + ½)
2| OSWAAL Karnataka (SSLC), Science, Class – 10

19. If the star has a mass less than about 1.4 solar masses (known as Chandrasekhar limit), the star
collapses under the action of gravity. As the temperature increases, the core develops pressure which
prevents further collapse; the star becomes what is called White dwarf. (1 + 1)
20. Cause of Concern : Ozone layer present in the stratosphere has thinned out by about 8% over the
equator and more so over the Antartica where a big ozone hole appears every year. This has increased
the level of UV-B radiations reaching the earth by 15-20 %. These radiations are causing increased
number of skin cancers, cataracts and reduced immunity in human beings. These causes increased
incidence of blindness of animals, death of young ones, reduced photosynthesis, higher number of
mutations and damage to articles.
Steps to Limit Damage :
(i) Ban on the production and use of halons.
(ii) Ban an production and use of chlorofluoro carbons. (1 + 1)
21. Sodium silicate was also used as an egg preserving agent in the early 20th century with large success.
When fresh eggs are immersed in it, bacteria which cause the eggs to spoil are kept out and water is
kept in. Eggs can be kept fresh using this method for up to nine months. When boiling eggs preserved
this way, it is well advised to pin-prick the egg to allow steam to escape because the shell is no longer
porous. (2)
22. (a) Cells X are parenchyma cells.
(b) They are isodiametric. (1 + 1)
23. Speed (v) = Wavelength (l) × frequency (v)
v = 2 × 10 = 20m/s (2)
24. Examples of internal combustion heat engines :
(1) Gasoline engines are more efficient than steam engines. Around 33.33% of the energy in a gasoline
internal combustion engine gets converted to work.
(2) Cars mostly have four-stroke internal combustion heat engines consisting of the following parts:
• Intake Stroke • Compression Stroke
• Power Stroke • Exhaust Stroke
Example of External Combustion Heat Engines :
(1) Sterling Engine is an example which converts heat into mechanical work using both gas and fluid
as the working substance.
(2) Steam Engine is a heat engine that performs mechanical work using steam as its working fluid.
Steam engine is the example of an external combustion heat engine. (1 + 1)
Spark Plug

Exhaust Port
Transfer Port Intake Port

Connecting Rod

Crank Shaft


26. The materials used in a nuclear reactor are highly radioactive. They emit radiations, which are
dangerous to people and are known to contaminate materials also. Therefore, workers near a reactor
need to be protected from radiations. This is ensured by a thick concrete shield with lead sheets in it
because lead is opaque to nuclear radiations. (2)
27. Glass is a bad conductor of heat and does not have fixed melting point. (1 + 1)
Sample Question Papers | 3

28. Saturated sugar solution has less or no molecules of water. Solid sugar, on crystallization, loses some
molecules of glucose and hence, is less sweet. (1 + 1)
29. t = 1.02 s, v = 1531 m/s
Now, d = s × t
Distance travelled by sonar pulse = 2d = 2 × 1531 × 1.02 = 1561.62 m
Distance of the cliff = d/2 = 1561.62/2 = 780.81 m. (2)

Cup and Cone




Waste Gases


Hot Air

Molten Iron
31. P1V1 = P2V2
(1.5 atm)(5.6 L) = (x)(4.8 L)
x = 1.8 atm. (2)
32. Genetically-altered plants are produced for the following objectives:
(a) To produce early maturing and quick ripening of plant breeds with short lifespan.
(b) To produce disease-resistant varieties. (1 + 1)



Copper Sulphate
34. Siwalik specimens once assigned to the genus Ramapithecus are now considered by most researchers
to belong to one or more species of Sivapithecus. Ramapithecus is no longer regarded as a likely
ancestor of humans.
The first incomplete specimens of Ramapithecus were found in Nepal on the bank of Tinau River
western part of the country in 1932. The finder (G. Edward Lewis) claimed that the jaw was more
like a human’s than any other fossil ape then known. In the 1960s this claim was revived. At that
time, it was believed that the ancestors of humans had diverged from other apes 14 million years
ago. Biochemical studies upset this view, suggesting that there was an early split between orangutan
ancestors and the common ancestors of chimps, gorillas and humans. (2)
4| OSWAAL Karnataka (SSLC), Science, Class – 10

35. (i) Electronic configuration of phosphorus is [2, 8, 5]

Electronic configuration of silicon is [2, 8, 4]
(ii) Phosphorus belongs to V A group as it has 5 electrons in the valence shell.
(iii) Silicon belongs to IV A group.
(iv) Phosphorus and sulphur belong to the 3rd period. It is because both of them have 3 electron shells.
(v) Phosphorus is more non-metallic. It is because the non-metallic character increases as one moves
from left to right in the periodic table.
(vi) Phosphorus has smaller atomic radii. Number of atomic shells is same in both P and S but P has
more protons. Therefore, P attracts the electron cloud closer. ½x6
Merits :
(1) The classification is based on the fundamental property of elements, i.e., atomic number.
(2) It relates the position of an element to its electronic configuration in the valence shell and hence
the elements have similar chemical properties.
Demerits :
(1) The position of hydrogen is unresolved.
(2) It fails to accommodate lanthanides and actinides in the main body of the table. (3)
36. When mosquitoes bite a person, they do not inject the blood of a previous victim into the person they
bite next. Mosquitoes do, however, inject their saliva into their victims, which may carry diseases such
as dengue fever, malaria, yellow fever, or West Nile virus and can infect a bitten person with these
diseases. HIV is not transmitted in this manner. On the other hand, a mosquito may have HIV-infected
blood in its gut, and if swatted on the skin of a human who then scratches it, transmission may be
possible, though this risk is very small. (3)
37. In the blast furnace, ore, limestone and coke are to be taken in the ratio of 8 : 1 : 4. If limestone is
taken in lesser proportion or the concentrated ore contains unusually low quantity of silica, there is a
possibility of presence of silica in pig iron. Similarly, if the quantity of coke taken is unusually high,
there is the possibility of presence of carbon in pig iron.
To reduce silica in pig iron we must take more quantity of calcium carbonate and to reduce carbon, we
must reduce the proportion of coke taken along with the charge. (3)
38. Phosphorus is pentavalent. When a small quantity of it is introduced into germanium crystal, four of
the five valence electrons of phosphorus make covalent bonds with the valence electrons of adjacent
germanium atoms. The fifth electron is left free. This free electron aids the conduction of electric
current through the crystal. A pentavalent impurity donates electrons to the semiconductor and hence,
electrons become the majority charge carriers. Thus, the conductivity of germanium is increased. (3)
39. (i) (a) The pink colour of flower is the dominant trait whereas the recessive traits white colour.
(b) 3 : 1 (Pink : White)
(ii) Gene. (1 + 1 + 1)
The main objectives are:
(a) improving the growth rate.
(b) increasing the production of milk, meat, egg, wool etc.
(c) improving the quality of products.
(d) improving the resistance to genes.
(e) increasing the span of productivity.
(f) increasing the rate of reproduction. (½ × 6)
Sample Question Papers | 5

Semi-circular canal
Ear ossicles


Eustachian tube

41.  A simple rule to know the direction of the induced current is Fleming’s right-hand rule.
Fleming’s right hand rule shows the direction of induced current flow when a conductor moves
in a magnetic field. The right hand is held with the thumb, first finger and second finger mutually
perpendicular, as shown below.



If :
(i) The thumb represents the direction of motion of the conductor.
(ii) The first finger represents the direction of the magnetic field.
(iii) Then, the second finger represents the direction of the induced or generated Current (in the
classical direction, from positive to negative).


(2 + 2)
(i) Ramesh conducted this method to make an electromagnet.
(ii) The electrical current flowing through a coil will create a uniform magnetic field. This magnetic
field causes the needle to turn. Reversing the connections to the battery, reverses the direction of
the current flow, and the needle will point in the opposite direction.
(iii) A bunch of nails or an iron rod placed along the axis of the coil can be magnetised by the current
allowed to pass through the coil. Once the current is put-off the magnetic field will also be lost.
Such magnets are called electromagnet. (1 + 1 + 2)
42. (a) CO acts as poison by combining with haemoglobin in the blood. On reaction with haemoglobin,
CO forms carboxyhaemoglobin, which prevents the haemoglobin to transport oxygen around the
body. The person dies of suffocation.
(b) To increase their shelf life as oils undergo oxidation in air and become rancid.
(c) Because methane is lighter than air (oxygen). (2 + 1 + 1)
Self Assessment__________________________________
Oswaal Karnataka (SSLC) Class -10, Examination Sample Question Paper

Time : 3 Hours Maximum Marks : 80

1. (c) nuclear fusion.

2. (d) Carbon dioxide and sulphur dioxide.
3. (a) Tendon.
4. (a) xylem and phloem.
5. (d) high temperature helps to overcome repulsion between nuclei.
6. (b) Chloroform.
7. (d) C5H12.
8. (d) ultrasonic waves.
9. (d) Alloy of copper and iron.
10. (b) Sterility of seeds. (1 × 10)
11. (a) - (ii)
(b) - (i)
(c) - (iv)
(d) - (iii) (1 × 4)
12. Solar energy into electrical energy. (1)
13.   As they have a tunic like body structure consisting of cellulose-like material. (1)
14. Sucrose is made up of one unit of glucose and one unit of fructose, which are mono-
saccharides. (1)
15.   It is so as they do not have ducts to pass their hormones. (1)
16. Solutions of many inorganic chemical compounds (e.g. common salt, sulphuric acid, etc.) are
examples of this type of liquid. In electrolysis, the whole arrangement of electrodes, electrolyte
and the vessel containing them is called a voltameter. (1)
17. Artificial satellites are being utilised in various fields such as communications, agriculture,
flood forecast, identifying geological mineral resources, identifying underground water
sources, monitoring air, water, sound & thermal pollutions. (1)

18. The total energy emitted by a star in one second is called its luminosity; the value of luminosity
depends on the temperature and diameter of the star. (1)
19. A protostar has a hydrogen core formed at its central portion. With the formation of a
protostar contraction and heating up continues. Gradually the temperature increases to
millions of degrees. When the temperature is high enough, fusion of hydrogen begins. The
energy released during nuclear fusion tries to expand the matter. Eventually the outward
pressure due to the radiation generated balances the inward gravitational pull. This gives the
star a stable state. A protostar thus reaches steady state. (2)
Sample Question Papers | 7

20.   Rain water dissolves various gaseous pollutants such as sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide which
are released by various industries; when these ions come back on earth in the form of rain, it is known
as acid rain.
It has harmful effects on plants, aquatic animals and infrastructure. Aquatic life dies when water
becomes acidic. This acid rain corrodes the metal and stones of buildings. Due to these rains various
historical monuments are being damaged. Other consequence of acid rain is that the soil on which it
falls, becomes acidic in nature. (2)
21. (a) The substance used in grinding tools prepared from is silicon carbine. It is prepared by heating a
mixture of silicon and coke in an electric furnace.
Si + C ¾® SiC
(b) Silicon does not react with water. However, when steam is passed over red hot silicon, hydrogen
is liberated.
Si + 2H2O ¾® SiO2 + 2H2 (1 + 1)
22. Horse is an animal whereas Mango tree is a plant.
Plants and animals have different types of tissues because :
l Plants do not show locomotion while most of the animals move from one place to another.
l They have different pattern of growth; plant’s growth is limited to certain regions whereas
animal’s growth is more or less uniform. (1 + 1)
23. Frequency of an oscillating body is the number of complete oscillations made by it in one second.
The frequency of a source is 80Hz. It means that it makes 80 complete oscillations in one second.
Hence, in one minute (60 seconds), the number of oscillations it will make = 80Hz × 60s = 4800 (2)
24. (a) It is customary to cool liquids such as fruit juice by adding a piece of ice. The required heat for
melting of ice is taken from the juice. This is why the juice becomes cool.
(b) The high latent heat of steam is useful in the working of a steam engine.
(c) The pot has number of pores in its wall. Water oozes out through these pores and evaporates by
taking heat from water. Thus the water is cooled. (1 + 1)
25. Fuel

Glow Plug
Starting Aid

Intake Exhaust

Exhaust Valve
Intake Valve
Combustion Chamber



Drive Shaft After Devins

26. The nucleons in the nucleus are bound together by forces called nuclear forces. The energy that binds
the nucleus together is called the binding energy of the nucleus. The stability of the nucleus depends
on the binding energy per nucleon. Higher the binding energy per nucleon greater would be the
stability of the nucleus. In some nuclei, the binding energy per nucleon is relatively lower and hence,
they are unstable. (2)
8| OSWAAL Karnataka (SSLC), Science, Class – 10

27. (a) By annealing, glass gains the capacity to withstand stress and loses brittleness.
(b) Because vinyl plastic can withstand high stress and is also splinter-proof. (1 + 1)
28. Fermentation of molasses includes three steps:
(a) Dilution of molasses by water such that the solution contains about 10% sugar.
(b) Addition of yeast and maintaining the temperature range of 308 K to 313 K.
(c) Distillation of the fermented matter. (1 + 1)
29. Depth of sea bed, d = vt/2 = [1530 × 3.42] / 2 = 2616.3 m (2)
30. 600° Cathode

600° Anode

CuSO4 Solution

31. According to Charle’s law, the volume of a given mass of a gas becomes zero at –2730C i.e. the gas
ceases to exist. Below this temperature, the volume becomes negative which has no significance. So,
–2730C is the lowest possible temperature. (2)
32. Some examples of genetically-modified organisms are : (any 2)
(a) Bacterium Rhizobium meliloti is used as biofertilizers.
(b) Fungus Penicilliun are producers of antibiotic penicilliun in high amounts than the natural strains.
(c) Bacillus thuringiensis is used as insecticide. (2)
33. (1) A metal conducts electric current, but does not undergo any chemical reaction whereas an
electrolyte conducts electric current and at the same time undergoes a chemical reaction.
(2) A metal conducts electric current due to the migration of electrons whereas an electrolyte conducts
electric current due to the migration and discharge of cations and anions. (2)
34. There are many physical and cultural differences between Homo habilis and Homo erectus.
Diet : Homo erectus had a much larger proportion of meat in its diet than Homo habilis. Also, H.
habilis had stronger teeth so it could eat tougher foods. They both ate their veggies and bone marrow.
Fire : H. erectus discovered fire and used it for hunting, fighting, scaring animals, cooking, and making
tools, while H. habilis did not have control of fire.
Morphology : Homo erectus had a proportionally larger brain than Homo habilis, and smaller teeth.
See related links below for modern reconstructions of these species physical appearance.
Posture : H. Erectus walked upright, much like the modern human. However, H. habilis stooped over
and did not walk upright.
Erectus means upright and habilis means handyman. (2)
35. The atomic size depends on the number of shells and the nuclear charge on the atom. Along a period
i.e., from sodium to chlorine, the number of shells does not change. But the nuclear charge increases
along a period. The increase in nuclear charge causes the electrons in the valence shell to be attracted
more strongly by the nucleus. This causes a decrease in the atomic size from sodium to chlorine in the
3rd period. (3)
(a) (i) Francium is most metallic element.
(ii) Fluorine is most non-metallic element.
(b) (i) Electronegativity increases from left to right in a period.
(ii) Electronegativity decreases from top to bottom in a group. (3)
Sample Question Papers | 9

36. (i) Sonam’s regular interactions with the AIDS patients portray her strong values of care and
compassion towards the society.
No, her actions would not put her at risk for AIDS because AIDS spreads by exchange of body
fluids (through unprotected sexual intercourse, blood transfusion, etc) but not by casual physical
contact or conversation with the affected persons.
(ii) Sonam chose to maintain a reasonable distance from her ailing father because tuberculosis is an
infectious disease which spreads through air when people with an active TB infection cough,
sneeze, or otherwise transmit their saliva through air. Hence it is advised to maintain a safe
distance from the patient and the requisite care should be taken by following adequate safety
standards (e.g. using gloves, masks etc.).
(iii) No, AIDS is also an infectious disease like Tuberculosis but the mechanism of spread of the disease
is different in both cases.
AIDS can be transmitted from an infected person to a healthy individual via unprotected sexual
intercourse, contaminated blood transfusions and hypodermic needles, and from mother to child
during pregnancy, delivery, or breastfeeding. (1 + 1 + 1)
37. The elements or compounds, which occur naturally in the Earth’s crust are known as minerals. The
mineral from which a particular metal can be profitably extracted is called ore. Metals at the bottom
of the activity series are least reactive, so they are found in free state. So, gold is in free state whereas
aluminium is at the top of the activity series. So, it is reactive and is not found in nature as free
element. (1 + 2)
38. Boron is trivalent. When a small quantity of it is introduced into germanium crystal, each impurity
atom takes away one electron from the neighbouring germanium atoms and forms covalent bonds.
This results in the creation of holes in germanium atoms. Electrons from the neighbouring atoms can
fill up these holes and there will be apparent motion of holes. Thus, holes aid the conduction of electric
current through the crystal. A trivalent impurity accepts electrons from germanium and hence, holes
become the majority charge carriers. Thus, the conductivity of germanium is increased. (3)
39. (i) The transmission of traits from one generation to the next with the help of genes is called heredity.
(ii) Inherited traits pass from one generation to the next through genes.
Acquired traits are present only during the life span of the person and are not passed on to the
next generation. (1 + 1 + 1)
Genetic manipulation is a process where the gene for a particular character is introduced inside the
chromosome of a cell. When the gene for a particular character is introduced in a plant cell, a transgenic
plant is produced. These transgenic plants exhibit characters governed by the newly-introduced gene.
For example, let us assume there is a wild plant that produces small fruits. If the gene responsible for
a larger fruit size is introduced in this plant, this plant becomes transgenic and starts producing larger
fruits. Similarly, genes for higher yield, disease resistance etc. can be introduced in any desired plant.
Therefore, gene manipulation plays an important role in agricultural practices. (3)
40. (i) Maximum refraction occurs – Cornea
(ii) Sharpest image formation takes place – Fovea
(iii) Curvature of lens is altered – Ciliary body
(iv) Focuses light rays – Lens
(v) Optic nerve emerges – Blind spot (4)



Ciliary body Blind spot

10 | OSWAAL Karnataka (SSLC), Science, Class – 10

41. (i) (a) A momentary deflection is shown by the galvanometer.

(b) A momentary deflection is shown by the galvanometer but in the opposite direction.
(ii) When key is closed or opened, the current in the coil I changes, therefore the magnetic field linked
with coil II changes and hence a current is induced in it.
(iii) Electromagnetic induction—The process by which a changing magnetic field in a conductor
induces current in another conductor.
(iv) Primary coil — coil I
Secondary coil — coil II
(v) Fleming’s Right Hand Rule : Stretch the first three fingers of the right hand mutually perpendicular
to each other such that the fore finger gives the direction of magnetic field and the thumb points
the direction of the motion of a conductor then, the middle finger will give the direction of the
induced current. (4)
Faraday wound a long copper wire, on a cardboard cylinder. Between the turns, he wound twine and
between the layers he placed calico-cloth. The ends of the wire were connected to a galvanometer.
Faraday thrust a pole of a bar magnet quickly into the coil. The galvanometer showed the presence of
an electric current. He pulled the magnet out of the coil. The pointer of the galvanometer deflected,
showing the presence of an electric current; but this time the pointer moved in the opposite direction.
The amount of deflection was found to increase with the increase in speed of the magnet. He found that
when the magnet was at rest inside the coil, no electricity was produced. He repeated the experiment
in a different way, moving the coil and keeping the magnet still. The result was the same. Thus, he
discovered how magnetism could produce electricity. Relative motion between the conductor and the
magnet produces electricity in the conductor. (4)
42. (a) Because alkanes have only single covalent bond.
(b) Because sodium hydroxide is not an organic compound. Here, hydroxyl group is not attached to
the hydrocarbon.
(c) Because alkenes and alkynes have double and triple bonds respectively, which on breaking can
add hydrogen atoms to satisfy the valency.
(d) Because ethanol has only one functional group i.e., C2H5—OH. (1 × 4)
Self Assessment__________________________________

Oswaal Karnataka (SSLC) Class -10, Examination Sample Question Paper

Time : 3 Hours Maximum Marks : 80

1. (d) ultra-violet.
2. (d) Increased skin cancer.
3. (a) Parenchyma.
4. (d) Protection.
5. (c) yields only neutrons and energy.
6. (c) Benzene.
7. (b) Three.
8. (b) v = fl
9. (b) Zinc and dilute Sulphuric acid.
10. (b) Genetic engineering. (1 × 10)
11. (1) - (ii)
(2) - (i)
(3) - (iv)
(4) - (iii) (1 × 4)
12. Silicion / gallium / silver. (any two) (½ + ½ )
13.   In pteridophyte, the female gametophytes are retained on the parent sporophyte for variable
periods. The development of the zygotes into young embryo takes place within the female
gametophyte. This is precursor to seed habit, which is an important event. (1)
14. Bacteria act as decomposers. They decompose the dead and decaying matter into soil and put
back the nutrients in the natural nutrient pool. Thus, also act as cleaning agents of nature. (1)
15. Thinking is a complex activity, so it is bound to involve complicated interactions of many
nerve impulses from many neurons. (1)
16. The passage of an electric current through a conducting solution causes chemical reactions. As
a result, bubbles of gas are formed, deposits of metal on electrodes may be seen and changes
in colour of solution may occur, depending on what solutions and electrodes are used. These

are some of the chemical effects of the electric current. (1)

17. The galaxies we see in all directions are moving away from the Earth, as evidenced by their
red shifts. Hubble’s law describes this expansion. (1)
18. The spectrum of a star like that of the sun, is a continuous spectrum crossed by dark absorption
lines. Analysis of these lines helps to identify the elements present in the stellar atmosphere.
12 | OSWAAL Karnataka (SSLC), Science, Class – 10

19. A rocket is a means of propulsion defined by having entirely self-contained propellant (unlike a jet
engine, that burns fuel using air from the atmosphere). We could use it for various purposes (firework,
spacecraft, weapon, etc.
A missile is specifically a weapon (which may or may not be driven by a rocket - for instance, the WW2
V2 ballistic missile was driven by a rocket, but its precursor the V1 was powered by a jet engine). (1)
20.   Smog is a visible indication of air pollution. It is a combination of various suspended particles with
water vapour and dust. These suspended particles are unburnt carbon particles called hydrocarbons,
produced due to combustion of fossil fuels. Ground-level ozone, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and
carbon monoxide are harmful for senior citizens, children and people with heart and lung problems
such as asthma. Smog hampers the visibility and harms the environment. (2)
21. By far, Silicon (Si) is the most widely used material in semiconductor devices. Its combination of low
raw material cost, relatively simple processing, and a useful temperature range make it currently the
best compromise among the various competing materials. Germanium (Ge) was a widely used early
semiconductor material but its thermal sensitivity makes it less useful than silicon. (2)

Axon Nerve ending

23. Given speed (v) = 339 ms–1 l = 0.0015 m, v = ?
Since v = l × v Þ v = v/l = 339/0.0015 = 22600 Hz. (2)
24. The limitations of external combustion engines led to the development of internal combustion engines.
Internal combustion engines are used in almost all transport vehicles such as scooters, motor cycles,
cars, buses, trucks and trains. In an internal combustion engine combustion of fuel takes place inside
the cylinder itself.
Internal combustion engines are classified into two types depending upon the fuel used.
They are (i) perol engine (ii) diesel engines. (2)
Intake Valve Open Fuel Injection


Intake Power
(1 + 1)
Sample Question Papers | 13

26. Each fission releases two neutrons. In the second stage, we get four neutrons. In the third stage, each
of these four neutrons will release two neutrons each. Therefore, in the third stage, we will have eight
neutrons. (2)
27. (a) Water in earthen pot is cooler because of continuous evaporation of water through pores while it
will not get cooled in porcelain container due to absence of holes.
(b) Ceramic jars are non-porous and resistant to acids and other chemicals while earthen jars are
porous, and can react with acids and other chemicals. (1 + 1)
28. (a) To make the evaporation smooth and to obtain sugar at a lower temperature.
(b) Because grape fruits have water content in them. (1 + 1)
29. (a) Because sound after reflection reaches the target audience.
(b) Because the frequency of vibration of wings of bees is in the audible range but frequency of
vibrations of pendulum is below 20 Hz & hence not heard. (1 + 1)
30. (a) Sodium is a highly reactive metal. It can catch fire if kept in open. Hence, to protect it and prevent
accidental fire, it is stored under oil.
(b) Due to high reactivity of aluminium a thin layer of aluminium oxide is formed on it. This protective
layer of aluminium oxide prevents the metal from further corrosion. Hence, aluminium can be
used for making utensils. This process is anodizing. (1 + 1)
31. (1.0 atm)(1.2 × 105 L)/(288 K) = (150 atm)(x L)/(276 K)
x = 767 L. (2)
32. Transgenic animals are useful in many ways :
(a) These are useful in the production of pharmaceutically-important drugs and proteins.
(b) Studying various aspects of cloning and effect of biochemical in mice.
(c) Producing human cell lines for curing genetic disorders. (any 2) (1 + 1)
33. The conduction of electricity in the two cases is different. Metals conduct electricity due to the free
electrons present on their surfaces whereas ionic compounds conduct electricity due to the movement
of ions either in molten state or in aqueous solution. Ionic solids do not conduct electricity because
ions do not move in solid state. (2)
34. (a) Cranial capacity was about 700 cc.
(b) The limb bones resembled almost those of modern man. (1 + 1)
35.  Fluorine is a smaller atom compared to chlorine. The 7 valence electrons in fluorine are accommodated
in a smaller volume compared to chlorine. On accepting an electron, there are 8 electrons in the valence
shell. This leads to increased electron repulsion in fluorine compared to the bigger atom chlorine.
Hence tendency to accept electrons i. e., electron affinity is lesser in fluorine than in chlorine. (3)
The main advantages of modern periodic table are :
l Easy to remember and reproduce –Because the elements are arranged in increasing orders.
l Positions of isotopes – All isotopes of an element have the same atomic number. So, they can be
placed at one place in the same group.
l Easy prediction of properties of elements – The position of elements are linked to their electronic
configuration. So, it is possible to predict the property of an element by looking at its position.
l Anamalous position of some pairs of elements has been justified– Elements are arranged in
their increasing order of their atomic numbers.
l Uncertainity in prediction of new elements has been removed– Because, atomic numbers
increase by one in going from one element to the next. Therefore the number of new elements
to be discovered in between any two known elements is equal to the difference in their atomic
numbers. (1 + 1 + 1)
36. Precautionary measures :
(a) Sexual contact with the persons affected by HIV should be totally avoided.
(b) The syringe used by the AIDS patient should not be used by others.
14 | OSWAAL Karnataka (SSLC), Science, Class – 10

(c) Before donating or receiving blood one should make sure that the person has no HIV.
(d) A mother affected by AIDS should not breast feed her child.
(e) One must not become a drug addict. Injection of sedative drugs by needles can cause AIDS
disease. (3)
37. (a) Silver sulphide, copper carbonate.
(b) Galvanization is a method of protecting steel and iron from rusting by coating them with a thin
layer of zinc. The galvanized article is protected against rusting even if the zinc coating is broken.
(c) Alloy is a homogenous mixture of two or more metals or a metal and non-metal. (1 + 1 + 1)
38. A transistor prepared by sandwiching one n-type semiconductor between two p-type semiconductor
materials is called a p-n-p transistor.
l A transistor prepared by sandwiching one p-type semiconductor between two n-type
semiconductor materials is called an n-p-n transistor.
(a) n-p-n Transistor (b) p-n-p Transistor

n p n p n p


(1+ 1 + 1)
39. The appearance of all Tall plants in the F1 generation shows that tall is the dominant character while
short is the recessive character.
Parents TT (tall) × tt (Short)
Gametes T t
F1 Tt (Tall)

T t
(Tall) (Tall)
t Tt Tt
(Tall) (Short)

The ratio of Tall to Short in F2 generation is 3 : 1. (3)

The animals formed by introduction of new desired genes in them are called transgenic animals.
Example :
(a) Introducing certain human gene sequences into cattle, goat and sheep for enhanced growth, meat
and milk production.
(b) Bacterial gene introduced into sheep has resulted in improved wool output. (1 + 1 + 1)
40. (a) Adrenaline Hormone
(b) Ram’s brother looked pale because whenever there is a secretion of adrenaline in the blood flow
during any type of stressed condition, the blood supply to the skin and digestive system is reduced
due to contraction of muscles around small arteries of these organs in order to divert blood to our
skeletal muscles.
Sample Question Papers | 15

S.No. Nervous Control Hormonal Control
1. Control and maintains the body internal Affects bodily activities by releasing
environment by impulses passing through chemical messengers called hormones into
neurons. blood streams.
2. Sends message to specific cells. Endocrine system as a whole sends
messages to cells in any part of the body.
3. Action is immediate as neurons tend to act Action is slower as hormones can take
within a few milliseconds. hours or even days to produce their
4. Effects of nervous system is brief or short Effects produced by hormones are more
term. lasting, even permanent at times.
(1 + 1 + 2)
41. (i)
Step-down transformer

Many turns Few turns

high voltage low voltage Load
low current high current


Bus Bars
Radiator and
Cooling Fans


Primary Coil Secondary Coil


(2 + 2)
Rectangular Rotation of coil
coil anticlockwise
magnet M



N Motion
R2 Commutator

+ – B2
Shaft Carbon brush

16 | OSWAAL Karnataka (SSLC), Science, Class – 10

42. (a) HC º CH – Ethyne

H3C—C º CH – Propyne
H3C—CH2— C º CH – Butyne
H3C—CH2—CH2—C º CH – Pentyne
H3C—CH2—CH2—CH2—C º CH – Hexyne
(b) H2C=CH2 – Ethene
H3C—CH=CH2 – Propene
H3C—CH2—CH=CH2 – Butene
H3C—CH2—CH2—CH=CH2 – Pentene
H3C—CH2—CH2—CH2—CH=CH2 – Hexene (2 + 2)
Self Assessment__________________________________

Oswaal Karnataka (SSLC) Class -10, Examination Sample Question Paper

Time : 3 Hours Maximum Marks : 80

1. (b) butane.
2. (b) increased agricultural productivity worldwide.
3. (d) sclerenchyma.
4. (d) Xylem.
5. (c) Graphite.
6. (a) Six atoms.
7. (c) —CHO.
8. (b) 0.05 s
9. (d) Aluminium oxide.
10. (d) Alleles. (1 × 10)
11. (i) – (c)
(ii) – (d)
(iii) – (b)
(iv) – (a) (1 × 4)
12. Jatropha and Pongamia pinnata. (½ × ½ )
13. The gymnosperms are plants that bear ovules which are not covered by any ovary wall &
remain exposed. The seeds of gymnosperms are not covered that is they are naked but in the
Angiosperm, the seeds remain closed inside the fruit so these are classified separately. (1)
14. Bread is a bakery product and needs to be fluffy and kept for 2-3 days. Yeast makes the dough
fluffy by producing CO2. Chapathi is used instantly, so yeast is not used in it. (1)
15.   The person is suffering from hypothyroidism. (1)
16. The process is depositing a layer of any desired metal on another metallic object by means of
electricity is called electroplating. It is one of the common applications of chemical effects of
electric current. (1)
17. This is a large bright star with a cool surface. It is formed during the later stages of the
evolution of a star like the Sun, as it runs out of hydrogen fuel at its centre. Red giants have

diameter’s between 10 and 100 times that of the Sun. They are very bright because they are so
large, although their surface temperature is lower than that of the Sun, about 2000-30000C.
18. Cosmology is the study of the universe. It deals especially with the search for suitable theories
to understand the observed universe, its origin and its future. (1)
19. The Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle, PSLV-C5, placed the heaviest ever satellite into orbit on
17th October 2003. The satellite weighing 1380 kg was put into orbit at a height of 821 km
18 | OSWAAL Karnataka (SSLC), Science, Class – 10

from Sri Harikota range. The satellite is IRS-P6 (Indian Remote Sensing Satellite). The launch vehicle
PSLV-C5 is dependable and can be used in all weather conditions. (2)
20. If all the waste generated would be biodegradable this will also create problem as the process of
decomposition is quite slow, so waste will start accumulating.
Biodegradable waste would affect the environment in the following two ways :
(i) Some biodegradable substances like cow dung blocks the sewage pipes and foul smell thus
pollutes surrounding environment.
(ii) Some biodegradable substance is like fruit and vegetable wastes serve the breeding site of flies
and mosquitoes which spread various diseases in surrounding environment. (1 + 1)
S. No. Amorphous Crystalline
1. It is a brown powder. It is a dark grey, crystalline solid. It is roughly
resembles the structure of diamond.
2. It does not conduct electricity at low Slightly conducts electricity.
3. It is more reactive than the crystalline. It is less reactive than the amorphous
4. When heated in air, it oxidizes at the surface It does not burn in the air even when heated.
level and it catches fire.
(½ × 4)
Intercalated disks Cross-striations Myocytes

Function : Beating of heart (label any two) (1 +1)

23. Given : Distance between a crest and next trough = 10 cm
So, l = 10 × 2 = 20 cm = 0.20 m
Velocity = u × l
= 12 × 0.0 = 2.40 m/s. (2)
24. Both Valve
Closed Intake Valve

Compression Exhaust

(1 +1)
Sample Question Papers | 19

25. (1) Intake stroke : The piston moves outwards away from the cylinder head. This results in low
pressure inside the cylinder and the inlet valve opens. The fuel mixture from the carburettor
enters the cylinder. The outlet valve remains closed.
(2) Compression stroke : Both the inlet and outlet valves are closed and the mixture is compressed
by the piston moving towards head. (1 +1)
26. During a nuclear reaction, the sum of the masses of the products is slightly lower than the sum of
the masses of the reactant particles. This means a small amount of mass ‘disappear’ during a nuclear
reaction. This is called mass defect. This difference in mass is changed into energy in accordance with
Einstein’s mass-energy relation. This is the source of nuclear energy. (2)
27. (a) Borosilicate glass is used to manufacture laboratory wares. This is because borosilicate glass can
withstand high fluctuations in temperature.
(b) Lead glass is used to make lenses. This is because lead glass is highly transparent and has high
refractive index. (1 + 1)
28. (a) Ethanol is an alternative fuel to fossil fuel. Ethanol gives more heat energy than fossil fuels.
(d) Many micro-organisms can be used to make preparations of many food items like idli, dosa, curds
etc. (1 + 1)
29. (a) Because when distance covered by sound from point of generation to the reflecting surface and
back is at least 34.4 m. (as sound persists for 0.1 s)
(b) Because hearing loss may occur due to accident or listening of loud sounds/biologically.
Hearing aids amplifies the signals and makes it easier to be heard. (1 +1)
30. (i) 4Al + 3O2 ¾® 2Al2O3, Aluminium oxide
(ii) 3Fe + 4H2O ¾® Fe3O4 + 4H2, Ferric oxide (1 + 1)
31. Smell of hot food reaches faster because of faster rate of diffusion. While smell particles of cold food
diffuse slowly. So, we have to reach the food to detect the aroma. (1 +1)
32. Advantages of rood top gardening :
(a) It increases access to safe outdoor green space.
(b) It provides habitat for butterflies and birds.
(c) It becomes a source of recreation.
(d) It encourages urban food production. (½ × 4)
S. No. Metallic conduction Electrolytic conduction
1. Physical change Chemical change
2. Only electrons conduct electricity Positive as well as negative ions conduct
3. All metals and metallic alloys show metallic Electrolytic condition in electrolytic
conduction. condition in aqueous solution.
(any 2) (1 +1)
34. About 15 million years ago, the ancestors of apes and humans probably evolved along separate lives.
Both are said to have evolved from a semi-erect terrestrial form of primates, which has been named
as Proconsul. The ancestors of apes had strong muscular arms that were longer than the legs. These
ancestral forms have been named as Dryopithecus. (2)
35. The ionization potential of an atom depends on its atomic size and nuclear charge. The atomic size
of sodium is greater than that of chlorine. The nuclear attraction exerted on the valence electrons of
sodium is lesser and so its valence electrons can be lost easily. The nuclear charge also increases from
Na to Cl, making the valence electrons to be firmly bound in Cl, hence the ionization potential values
increases from Na to Cl. (3)
(a) Since each element contains the same number of valence electrons (n) in the outermost shells of
their atoms, Therefore X, Y and Z, belong to the same group.
20 | OSWAAL Karnataka (SSLC), Science, Class – 10

(b) The atomic radii increases from X to Y to Z, so metallic character increases from X towards Z.
(c) X, Y and Z have melting points above 25°C (room temperature). Therefore X, Y and Z are solid at
room temperature.
(d) The ionization potential decreases from X to Y to Z because they belong to the same group in the
descending order. (1+ ½ + ½ +1)
36. l Aedes mosquito breeds in water collections in and around human living areas such as water
storage containers (drums and barrels, earthen pots and jars), desert coolers, unused tyres, open
overhead tanks, open cement tanks, rain barrels, potted plant trays, and birdbaths. Drain all the
potential sources of water where the mosquito can breed.
l Ensure that drainage is either closed or use chemicals to kill mosquito larvae (larvicides) in the
open drains.
l In water bodies such as a pond which contains stagnant water or use biological methods such as
fish varieties in the pond which will eat the mosquito larvae.
Most importantly patients with chikungunya fever should avoid getting bitten by mosquitoes to
prevent transmission of infection to others. (1 + 1 + 1)
37. (i) 4Al + 3O2 ¾® 2Al2O3, Aluminium oxide
(ii) 3Fe + 4H2O ¾® Fe3O4 + 4H2, Ferric oxide
(iii) Ca + 2H2O ¾® Ca(OH)2 + H2, because hydrogen sticks to calcium. (1 + 1 + 1)
38. Microphone converts sound waves into electrical waves of the same frequency called audio frequency.
AF amplifier strengthens the audio frequency.
RF oscillator produces radio waves of suitable frequency, which serve as carrier waves.
RF amplifier amplifies the modulated signals.
Modulator superposes the amplified audio signals on the carrier waves.
Antenna transmits the modulated signals into the surroundings.
Mixer in a radio transmitter modulates audio frequencies and radio frequencies. (½ × 6)
39. (i) Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with the study of heredity and variations.
(ii) Gregor Johann Mendel, garden pea.
(iii) Garden pea plants were easily available/they grow in one season/fertilization was easy. (any
two) (1 + 1 + 1)
40. (a)
White matter Dorsal horn Dorsal root

Spinal ganglion

Spinal nerve

Gray matter Ventral root

Central canal Ventral horn

Sample Question Papers | 21


Inter neuron Receptors

in skin


Efferent neuron

(2 + 2)
41. (a) (1) It behaves like a magnet when electric current flows through it. Thus, it sets up a magnetic
field which further helps in the setting up of magnetic couple.
(2) It intensifies the magnetic field set up by the coil and hence helps in setting up strong magnetic
(3) Split ring commutator helps in altering the direction of the current in the coil after every 180°.
This in turn helps in the rotation of the coil in the same direction.
(4) They rub against split rings and hence provide continuous current to the coil.
(b) (1) At 0° and 180°, the deflecting couple is maximum.
(2) At 90° and 270°, the deflecting couple is zero.
(c) The jerky motion of the coil is converted into smooth circular motion by winding number of coils
on the same soft iron core, such that when deflecting couple decreases in one coil, it becomes
maximum in the following coil.
(d) (1) By increasing number of turns in the coil.
(2) By increasing area of cross-section of the coil.
(3) By increasing the strength of radial magnetic field. (1 × 4)
(i) Galvanometer will show momentary deflection towards one side.
(ii) Galvanometer will show momentary deflection but in direction opposite to the previous one.
(iii) Galvanometer will not show any deflection.
(iv) Phenomenon is electromagnetic induction.
It’s a process by which a changing magnetic field in a conductor induces a current in another conductor
near it.
Name of the Rule : Fleming’s Right Hand Rule. (1 × 4)
42. (i) CH3—CH2—CH2—CH—CH3
(ii) CH3—CH—CH3
(iii) CH3CH2CH2CHO
(iv) HC=C—CH2—CH2—CH2—CH3 (1 × 4)
Self Assessment__________________________________
Oswaal Karnataka (SSLC) Class -10, Examination Sample Question Paper

Time : 3 Hours Maximum Marks : 80

1. (d) fuel.
2. (a) producing hydroelectric power.
3. (d) Carrying out gaseous exchange.
4. (a) respiratory tract.
5. (b) Graphite and heavy water.
6. (b) C2H2.
7. (c) It is used in making dyes and medicines.
8. (b) Wavelength.
9. (b) Metallic containers react with the acid of lemon.
10. (c) DNA. (1 × 10)
11. (i) – (c)
(ii) – (d)
(iii) – (b)
(iv) – (a) (1 × 4)
12. A panel which is made up of many solar cells is known as a solar panel. (1)
13. The plant body of Marchantia is completely differentiated into stem and leaf like structure.
There is no specialised organ for the conduction of water and other substances from one part
of the body to another and there life cycle completes in both water and land, i.e. the plants are
amphibian. This is the reason Marchantia is placed in the kingdom Bryophyta. (1)
14. Milk turning into curds, the batter of idli and dosa rising up, the spoilage of cooked wet food
items. (1)
15.  Oxytocin is secreted at the time of parturition and it causes uterine contractions which are
necessary for expulsion of the foetus. (1)
16. It means 0.0006812 g of gold is deposited when 1 ampere current is made to flow in a solution
for 1 second. (1)
17. Chief features of Big Bang theory are :

All points that comprise our universe was confined to a single point of infinite temperature,
infinite density and known laws of physics does not hold at that point.
An explosion occurred at that point about 13.75 billion years ago and point began to expand,
real time started. It can be thought as small marks on balloon being inflated. (1)
18. A single rocket cannot by itself lift a heavy load. The load increases (mass of propellants
increases) for greater heights. Several rockets are joined together one on top of the other, to
provide the necessary power. Rockets built in this way are called multistage rockets. (1)
Sample Question Papers | 23

19. Multistage rockets are used to launch artificial earth satellites. At start the rocket must be given
sufficient velocity to rise to the desired height. When it has ascended the required height, the satellite
(last stage) is placed in to orbit with sufficient horizontal velocity. If the velocity is greater, the satellite
moves into a larger orbit or escapes from earth’s gravity. If the velocity is lesser than the proper value,
the satellite falls back to the earth. (2)
20.   Greenhouse effect, global warming and climate change are often used to depict the same problem.
Greenhouse effect is the cause and global warming and climate change are the consequences. The
greenhouse effect causes an increase of temperature in the earth’s atmosphere. The global climate must
adjust with that extra accumulation of heat, which results in global warming and climate changes.
Global warming results from an increase in the temperature of the earth’s lower atmosphere and
climate changes result from changes to regional climatic events such as rainfall patterns, evaporation
and cloud formation. (2)
21. During the preparation of silicon, magnesium acts as a reducing agent. It reduces silicon dioxide to
silicon forming magnesium oxide. HCl helps to separate silicon from magnesium oxide. (1 + 1)
22. (a) Sclerenchyma tissues have cell wall thickened due to lignin.
(b) Branches of a tree have collenchyma which provides them flexibility.
(c) Husk of coconut is composed of sclerenchyma and these fibres are closely packed. (½ + ½ + 1)
23. Where, l = wavelength, c = speed of light in vacuum and v = frequency = 5 × 10 Hz (given)  
Substituting the given values in the above equation we get,
3  108
l= = 6 × 10–12 m. (2)
5  1010
24. (1) Power stroke : The compressed mixture is ignited by the spark produced by the spark plug. A lot
of heat is released. The product of combustion consisting of carbon dioxide and water vapours
expands suddenly. The piston is pushed outwards with the great force.
Exhaust stroke : The exhaust valve opens. The piston moves back. The waste gases are pushed out
of the cylinder through the exhaust valve.
The above cycle is repeated. Piston moves to and fro quickly. The movement of the piston pushes the
crankshaft and makes it rotate rapidly. It is interesting to note that the initial kinetic energy needed to
start the cycle is provided by self -starter or kick starter. (1 +1)
25. The four cycles of the diesel engine are :
(1) The piston is moved away from the cylinder head by the crankshaft, drawing only air into the
(2) The piston moves towards the cylinder head, compressing the air. At the end of the stroke
vaporized fuel is injected into the cylinder and is ignited by the high temperature of the air.
(3) The piston is forced away from the cylinder head by the gas, expanding after the ignition of the
(4) The exhaust valve is opened and the piston moves towards the cylinder head, driving the exhaust
gases from the cylinder. (½ × 4)

Control Rods
Nuclear Fuel Steam

Concrete Shield Heat


Steel Vessel Water


24 | OSWAAL Karnataka (SSLC), Science, Class – 10

27. (a) Safety glass is used to make windshields of vehicles. This is because safety glass can withstand
high stress and hence, sharp edges are not formed when it breaks.
(b) Fibre glass is used to make fire-proof curtains. This is because fibre glass is light, strong and fire-
proof. (1 + 1)
28. Molasses is diluted with water and acidified by adding dilute sulphuric acid. Yeast is added to the
solution and the container is closed. The temperature is maintained around 300 K. Fermentation takes
place in about a week. The fermented matter is called wort and it contains about 6–10% alcohol. It is
fractionally distilled to obtain 95% alcohol.
Glucose or fructose ® Ethanol + Carbon dioxide. (1 + 1)
29. (a) Doppler effect in sound can be used to determine the velocity of submarines.
(b) Traffic control authorities use Doppler effect to detect vehicles crossing speed limit. Radio waves
are used for the purpose. Radio waves are sent in the direction of the speeding vehicle and the
reflected waves are received. The change in frequency of the waves is used to determine the speed
of the vehicle. The instrument used for the purpose is called Radar gun.
(c) Doppler effect is used in tracking the artificial satellites.
(d) Doppler effect in light has many applications in astrophysics. It is used in the study of binary stars,
Saturn rings, galaxies. Doppler effect is also used to estimate speeds of stars, galaxies, rotation of
sun’s disc. (any 2) (1 + 1)
30. (a) Copper is less reactive than hydrogen. This is why copper does not displace hydrogen from dilute
mineral acids.
(b) Copper is less reactive than hydrogen and hence, does not displace hydrogen from dilute mineral
acids. Hence, copper is not used to prepare hydrogen in the laboratory. (1 + 1)
31. When kerosene is burnt only few molecules diffuses with air after combustion. On ceasing the fire the
unburnt hot vapours of kerosene enters into air and strong smell is felt. (1 + 1)
32. (a) Because they help in developing special kinds of foods for astronauts. It is because a mist is easier
to handle in zero-gravity situations than a liquid.
(b) Because they increase the shelf life and nature of food. (1 + 1)
33. The solution of ionic compound has free ions that can migrate to cathode and anode, and discharge.
Thus, a solution of ionic compound is a good conductor of electricity and hence, is an electrolyte.
However, a solution of covalent compound consists of only molecules and does not have any free ions,
that could migrate to cathode or anode. Hence, it is a non-electrolyte. (2)
34. (a) He had a large stature.
(b) He was active and intelligent.
(c) He used finely chiseled stone arrows and spear points.
(d) He carved tools and ornaments from ivory. (½ × 4)
35. Lanthanides have properties which are very much similar to those of Lanthanum, a Group-3 period-6
element. The groups contain elements with more or less similar properties. Since all 14 elements
cannot be placed inside the same block (Group-3 period-6) therefore these elements were kept outside
the Table, and named Lanthanides ,after Lanthanum, the element which has similar properties. (3)
An element belonging to the 16th group will have 6 valence electrons.
Therefore, valency of X = 8 – no. of valence electrons = 8 – 6 = 2
Electronic configuration of X = (2, 8, 2) (since the element belongs to the 3rd period.)
The element will be a non-metal since elements containing 4 to 7 electrons in their valence shell are
non-metals. (3)
36. (a) Because HIV virus has DNA which is similar to the host cell. This is due to the presence of reverse
transcriptase which helps the HIV cells produce DNA similar to the host cell. So, HIV virus cannot
be identified.
(b) HIV will not transmit by touching, sharing common toilet, playing together or by eating food
together. Hence school should not deny admission. (3)
Sample Question Papers | 25

37. (i) Self reduction

2HgO + Heat ¾® 2Hg + O2

2CuO + Cu2S + Heat ¾® 4Cu + SO2
(ii) Reduction using carbon
ZnO + C ¾® Zn + CO
Sometimes, some highly reactive metals are used as reducing agents.
e.g. 3MnO2 + 4Al ¾® 3Mn + 2Al2O3 + heat
or Fe2O3 + 2Al ¾® 2Fe + Al2O3 + heat
(iii) Electrolytic reduction
e.g. Na, Mg, Ca are obtained by electrolysis of their molten chlorides. (1 + 1 + 1)
38. When a donor impurity is added to one side and an acceptor impurity to the other side of a pure
semiconductor, the first side becomes n-type and the other side becomes a p-type. The middle region
of such a conductor is called p-n junction. The n-side of the junction has excess electrons and the p-side
has excess holes. At the junction, the excess electrons from the n-side and excess holes on the p-side
drift in opposite directions and combine to create a ‘depletion region’ at the junction where there are
neither holes nor electrons to carry the charge. At equilibrium, this establishes a potential difference
across the p-n junction. The n-side of the junction is at a slightly higher potential than the p-side of the
junction. This develops a small potential difference across the ends. This is called junction potential.
The voltage, thus, developed is, however, very small. (3)
39. Human males produce two types of gametes i.e., 50% X and 50% Y chromosomes. Human females
produce one type of gametes i.e. all with X chromosomes.
Fertilization of an ovum with a sperm carrying X chromosome gives rise to a female child while its
fertilization with a sperm carrying Y chromosome gives rise to a male child. Thus genetically the sex
of the child is determined by the father and not by the mother. (3)
40. (a) White matter : White matter is one of the two components of the central nervous system and
consists mostly of myelinated axons. White matter appears white due to the presence of large
amounts of myelin, a fatty protein that serves an insulation function for signal transmission.
Grey matter : Grey matter is a major component of the central nervous system, consisting of
neuronal cell bodies. Grey matter appears grey-brown due to the presence of neuronal cell bodies
and capillaries, as well as the relative lack of myelin.
(b) Spinal nerve : The term spinal nerve generally refers to a mixed spinal nerve, which carries motor,
sensory, and autonomic signals between the spinal cord and the body. Humans have 31 left-right
pairs of spinal nerves, each roughly corresponding to a segment of the vertebral column.
Cranial nerve : Cranial nerves are nerves that emerge directly from the brain, in contrast to spinal
nerves, which emerge from segments of the spinal cord. In humans, there are traditionally twelve
pairs of cranial nerves. (2 + 2)
41. (i)


Brush Slip-Rings
26 | OSWAAL Karnataka (SSLC), Science, Class – 10

Rotation of loop









Brush Brush

Split ring commutator

DC power supply

(2 + 2)
(a) The ammeter will record the maximum value of current very slowly. It means that the needle of
ammeter will slowly move over the scale till it records maximum value.
(b) When the current flows into the coil of motor, an induced current due to self- induction flows
in the opposite direction. It is on account of this reverse current that the needle of this ammeter
moves slowly.
(c) The coil will rotate in the anticlockwise direction.
(d) Fleming’s Left Hand Rule : It tells the direction of motion of conductor carrying current in a
magnetic field. It states :
Stretch the thumb, the forefinger and the middle finger of left hand, such that forefinger points in
the direction of the magnetic field; middle finger points in the direction of the current. Then, the
thumb points in the direction of the motion of the conductor. (1 × 4)
42. (a) Ethene (C2H6).
(b) Homologous series: A series of compounds in which the same functional group substitutes
hydrogen in a carbon chain, is called a homologous series.
C4H10 : Butane
C2H5OH : Ethanol
(c) Being tetravalent, carbon atom is neither capable of losing all of its four valence electrons nor it
can easily accept four electrons to complete its octet. If carbon were to gain or lose electrons :
(i) It could gain four electrons forming C4– (anion). But it would be difficult for the nucleus with
six protons to hold on to ten electrons, that is, four extra electrons.
(ii) It could lose four electrons forming C4+ (cation). But it would require a large amount of energy
to remove four electrons leaving behind a carbon cation with six protons in its nucleus holding
on to just two electrons. Carbon overcomes this problem by sharing its valence electrons with
other atoms of carbon or with atoms of other elements. That is why carbon forms compounds
mainly by covalent bonding. (1 + 1 + 2)