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--:: Contents ::--
Preface
1. Syllabus for FA 4.

2. Lab Activities for10 marks.


1) FINDING THE CENTRE OF GRAVITY OF A BODY.
2) PROOF OF ARCHIMEDES PRINCIPLE USING VARIOUS LIQUIDS.
3) MEASURING THE FORCE OF BUOYANCY IN WATER.
4) CALCULATING THE POWER OF THE STUDENTS.

3. Project works 10 marks.


1) Collect information working process of air brakes
2) Applications of Pascal’s law.
3) Working principle of submarine- model making.
4) Verification of Archimedes principle.

4. Written Works - Note books for 10 marks.


1) How to allot marks for written works - note books.

5. Slip test for 20 marks.


1) Formative Assessment 4 Model Paper

_______________________________________________________________________
By
K V RAMANA & G V RAMA PRASAD
8008423323 & 7799884688

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_______________________________________________________________________
PREFACE

We (K V RAMANA & G V RAMA PRASAD) decided to prepare ALL IN ONE, A Complete


Book of Formative Assessments for the help of all Physical Science 4 Ever blog users. As a
part of that book we presently prepared this for “ALL IN ONE, Formative Assessment 4’’
book. We will try to give you a complete ALL IN ONE, A Complete Book of Formative
Assessments for the next academic year.

Working towards improving the children's learning through observing and recording
their performance, while they are participating in teaching learning processes like project
works, lab activities, slip tests, etc., is called Formative Assessment.

It is used by the teacher to continuous observe children's progress in a non-formal way


and in supportive environment. It gives regular descriptive feedback, rather than marks and
grades, which give a chance for the students to reflect on their performance, take advice and
improve upon it.

For class 10 formative assessments have to evaluate through four measures.


1) Lab Activities (10 marks)
2) Written works ( 10 marks)
3) Project works (10 marks)
4) Slip test (20 marks)

Teacher should conduct the above four tools for every formative assessment. Let us
know in detail inside pages.

We very much thankful to all the viewers of our physicalscience4ever blog for giving this
opportunity to help you in the view PHYSICAL SCIENCE, what we like. This book is only for
the private use. No one should use this for commercial proposes.

Yours,
K V RAMANA & G V RAMA PRASAD,
Srikakulam District.
8008423323 & 7799884688.

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1. Syllabus for FA 4

For 9th Class Formative Assessment Syllabus as follows.


1) Floating Bodies – Unit: 8
2) Work and energy – Unit: 9
Students should read thoroughly Floating bodies (Unit: 8) and Wrok and energy
(Unit: 9) hey must read the complete lesson and try to understand deeply, the
concepts in each lesion. They observe the figures given in the text book and ask
himself some questions about figures for easy answering CCE model questions.
_______________________________________________________________________
2. Lab Activities for10 marks
_______________________________________________________________________
In Formative Assessment Lab Activity is an important tool. Student should
participate in lab activity to perform activities which are mentioned in the text book
under the title of Lab Activity. Teacher should access student in Participate in Lab
Activities (Experiments) and Lab Record. Teacher should absorb students when they
are working individually, in groups, how they select and arrange apparatus,
observations and recordings. Student should write their lab record. Lab record is 200
pages notebook and is helpful for the student to observe how they did the experiment.
6 marks are awarded for this lab record and 4 marks for performance.

Items in Lab Record:


Aim: It explains why we perform the experiment.
Apparatus: Here we should mention required apparatus and materials, chemicals.
Precautions: We should mentioned the precautions that must fallow while performing
experiment.
Procedures: Here we should write the process.
Reporting: We should report our observations in the form of table, flowchart etc.
Result analysis: Analyze the above data.
Generalization: We come to certain conclusion based on the experiments.

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EXPERIMENT 1: FINDING THE CENTRE OF GRAVITY OF A BODY
Aim : Finding the centre of gravity of an irregular body.
Required material: irregular shaped plank, plumbline
Principle : The centre of gravity of any freely suspended object lies directly
beneath the point of suspension. The centre of gravity lies
somewhere along the vertical line.
Proceedure :
1) Put three holes in different places of a irregular plank. Name the holes as A,B & C.
2) Suspend the plank at the hole “A” from nail which inserted on the stand.
3) Suspend a plumbline from the same nail and mark the line on the plank.
4) Repeat this for other points of suspension.
5) Mark the point of intersection of the lines.
6) This point is called the “centre of gravity” of the body.

Plumbline suspended vertical line at point “A” vertical line at point “B”
from point “A”
Observations :
1) The thread of the plumbline which suspended at any point showing the vertical
line at that point.
2) The centre of gravity of a body lies on the vertical line.

Result:
1) The centre of gravity is simply the average position of weight distribution.
2) The point where total weight apprars to act is called centre of gravity.
Precautions:
1) The plank shoud be supspended freely.
2) We should draw the vertical line on the tread accurately.

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EXPERIMENT 2 : PROOF OF ARCHIMEDES PRINCIPLE USING VARIOUS LIQUIDS.
Aim : To prove Archimedes principle using various liquids.
Required material : Overflow jar, stone, spring balance, beaker etc.,
Principle : A body immersed in a liquid losses weight by an amount equal to
the weight of the liquid displaced.
Weight of a solid in air – weight of solid when immersed in liquid = Loss in weight of the solid
Loss in weight of the solid = weight of the liquid displaced
Proceedure:
1) We take a stone and find the weight of the stone with spring balance.
2) Then we take water in the overflow jar.
3) We Dip the stone in the water and find the weight.
4) The weight of the stone decreased.
5) We find the loss in weight of the stone.
6) We find the weight of the water displaced in the beaker.
7) Clean the overflow jar and do the above experiment with kerosene.
Observations:
When stone dipped in the water:
Weight of the stone in air = 38.5 gm weight = 385 N
Weight of the stone when immersed in water =14.5 gm weight = 145 N
Loss of weight of stone = 385-145 = 240 N
Weight of the empty beaker = 28 gm weight = 280 N
Weight of the water displaced and beaker = 52 gm weight = 520 N
Weight of the water displaced = 520 – 280 = 240 N
Loss in weight of the stone = weight of the water displaced
( 240 N) = ( 240 N)
When stone dipped in the kerosene:
Weight of the stone in air = 38.5 gm weight = 385 N
Weight of the stone when immersed in water =19.3 gm weight = 193 N
Loss of weight of stone = 385-193 = 192 N
Weight of the empty beaker = 28 gm weight = 280 N
Weight of the water displaced and beaker = 47.2 gm weight = 472 N
Weight of the water displaced = 472 – 280 = 192 N
Loss in weight of the stone = weight of the kerosene displaced
( 192 N) = ( 192 N)

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Loss in weight of the stone Weght of the water
= 385 – 140 = 240 N displaced= 240 N

Result: A body immersed in a liquid losses weight by an amount equal to the weight
of the liquid displaced. If the density of the liquid increases, the buoyant force also
increases.

Precautions:
1) Dip the stone slowly in the overflow jar.
2) Note the readings without parallax error.
EXPERIMENT 3: MEASURING THE FORCE OF BUOYANCY IN WATER.
Aim : Measuring the force of buoyancy in water
Material required :Overflow jar, water, spring balance, three metallic cuboids with
same size.
Principle : A body will float if the weight of the body is equal to the weight of
the liquid displaced. A body immersed in a liquid losses weight by
an amount equal to the weight of the liquid displaced.
Procedure:
1) We take iron, aluminium and wooden blocks with same dimensions of 2.5 cm X
4 cm X 5 cm.
2) The volume of the each block is 50 cm3.
3) If each solid block immersed in the water the volume of the water displaced is
also 50gr.
4) We find the weights of the blocks in air with spring balance and also find the
weights, when immersed in water.

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300 gr
350 gr

Loss in weight of the stone Weght of the water


= 350
350––300
300==50
50Ngr displaced=
50 gr 50 N

Observations:
Weight of
Weight of object Weight of object Apparent loss
Type of water
in air or applied in water or of weight or
solid displaced or
force applied force applied force
applied force

Iron 350 gm = 3.5 N 300 gm = 3N 50 gm =0.5 N 50 gm =0.5 N

Aluminium 135 gm = 1.35 N 85 gm = 0.85 N 50 gm =0.5 N 50 gm =0.5 N

Wood 25 gm = 0.25 N 0 gm = 0 N 25 gm =0.25 N 50 gm =0.5 N

 A body will float if the weight of the body is equal to the weight of the liquid
displaced. So wooden block floats on the surface of the water.
 If the weight of the immersed body is more than the weight of the water displaced,
the body will sink. So the metallic blocks sinks in the water.

Result : A body will float if the weight of the body is equal to the weight of the liquid
displaced.
Precautions :
1) Dip the stone slowly in the overflow jar.
2) Note the readings without parallax error.

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EXPERIMENT 4: CALCULATING THE POWER OF THE STUDENTS.
Aim : To calculate the power of the students by moving a wooden block.
Required material: 1 Kg. Wooden block, metre scale, stop clock.
Principle : we can move an object at a certain distance with different speeds.
In the two cases the amount of work is same. But the time taken to
do this activity is different. The rate of work done is known as
power.
Proceedure :
1) We take a wooden block of 1 Kg.
2) Insert a hook to the wooden block and put it on a table.
3) Tie a tread to the hook.
4) Calculate the time taken for a student to pull the block for 1 metre.
5) Do the same experiment with the students in the group. Calculate the time
taken to do the same work. Note the values in the table.
Observations:
work Time Power Power in
Sl. Studen Weight of the Displace
(F x S) taken = watts
No. t name wooden block -ment
(t)
9.8 J 3s 9.8 3.3
1 A 1 Kg=9.8 N 1m =
3
9.8 J 5s 9.8 1.96
2 B 1 Kg=9.8 N 1m =
5
9.8 J 8s 9.8 1.2
3 C 1 Kg=9.8 N 1m =
8
9.8 J 10 s 9.8 0.98
4 D 1 Kg=9.8 N 1m =
10
By the above table we observe the power of student “A” is more.

Result : The rate of work done is known as power.


Precautions : We should measure the time in stop clock accurately.

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By
K VENKATA RAMANA
&
G V RAMA PRASAD

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3. Project works 10 marks

In Formative Assessment project work is another tool which contains 10 marks.


There are different types of projects in every lesson under the academic standards
information skills and projects. So teachers select any type of project from improve
your learning or from content. Based on the resources teachers has a choice to select
any other topics which is related to content. Projects are different types. Based on
members, project nature and procedure. (By interview, by collecting information, by
observing nature)
Steps in Project Report:
1. Name of the project: Write the name of the project which you select to do.
2. Objectives: Write what you learnt after completion of the project.
3. Tool: Required materials are written in this field.
4. Procedures: Write step by step procedure.
5. Table: Draw a table if the project has.
6. Conclusion: Write what you know from this project.
7. Resources: From where you get the relevant material.
8. Thanks giving: Give thanks for supporters.
Project Report Assessment:
Preparation, conducting project - 3 marks
Project report - 5 marks
Discussion on project - 2 marks

_______________________________________________________________________
By
K V RAMANA & G V RAMA PRASAD
8008423323 & 7799884688
_______________________________________________________________________

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Project Work 1: COLLECT INFORMATION ABOUT WORKING PROCESS OF
AIR BRAKES.
Title of the project : Collect information about working process of air brakes.
Aim of the project : To know the importance of air brakes in long vehicles.
Hypothesis : Air has the pressure. This pressure used in the braking system in vehicles.
Material required : Internet, science magazines etc.,
Methods followed: We collected information about to Air brake system in internet. we
observe the braking system of some vehicles in our surroundings. We collected the
information of various types of brakes and their efforts to the vehicles.
BRAKES : A Brake is a mechanical device that inhibits motion by absorbing energy from a
moving system. It is used for slowing or stopping a moving vehicle, wheel, axle, or to prevent
its motion, most often accomplished by means of friction. Brakes may be broadly described as
using friction, pumping, or electromagnetic.

Band brake used in bicycle A drum brake at the rear wheel of a


Motorbike Kawasaki w800

Disc brake in the motor vehicle Hydraulic brakes


Air Brakes:
An air brake or, more formally, a compressed air brake system, is a type of friction brake for
vehicles in which compressed air pressing on a piston is used to apply the pressure to
the brake pad needed to stop the vehicle. Air brakes are used in large heavy vehicles,

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particularly those having multiple trailers which must be linked into the brake system, such
as trucks, buses, trailers, and semi-trailers in addition to their use in railroad trains. George
Westinghouse first developed air brakes for use in railway service. after its advantages were
proven in railway use, it was adopted by manufacturers of trucks and heavy road vehicles.

Air braking system George Westinghouse


For a larger vehicles even a vacuum boosted hydraulic brake system could not give the
braking effort required to stop the vehicle. A hydraulic braking system works well for cars and
other light vehicles. But the greater braking effort required to bring a large vehicle to a
controlled stop leads to air braking systems generally being fitted to heavy and commercial
vehicles.
Working process:
1) The air braking system begins with an air
compressor. This is driven by the engine and
provides the system with the required air under
pressure.
2) To store the compressed air we have reservoirs.
3) The compressor and the reservoirs make up the charging part of a circuit.
4) To operate the braking system the driver has two main controls. The first is the foot pedal
which the driver uses to control the service brakes, known in air braking braking system
as a foot control valve. The second is the hand operated lever , and has a similar
operation to a hand brake in a car. The driver uses this to control the secondary air that
is required to overcome the power spring holding the brakes on. This control is known as
the hand control valve. The foot control valve and the hand control valve make up the
control part of the circuit. Finally we have the actuators and the brakes. The actuators
use the air from the controls to the actuate and release the brakes as required by the
driver. At rest with no air supplied to the actuators, a powerful spring provides a
considerable force to actuators, keeping the brakes applied.
5) When the drier moves the HCV to the off position, pressure is sent to the actuator to
compress the power spring, releasing the brakes. This pressure remains the secondary

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portion of the actuator all the while the HCV is in the off position. When the driver
pushes the pedal on the FCV, it sends the air to the actuator to make the application of
the service brakes. When the pedal is released, the service air is exhausted and the
brakes are released. When the driver applies the part brake with the HCV , the secondary
air is exhausted from the actuator allowing the power spring to re-apply the brakes.

If the brakes do not apply by foot control valve brake actuation closed

If the brakes applied by foot control valve the brake actuation open

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Working process of air brakes:

Difference between air brakes and hydraulic brakes:


The main difference between the two types of brakes is the mechanism by which they
cause the vehicle to come to a stand-still. The hydraulic brakes are usually more effective, but
the air brakes don’t require fluid. All in all, the end result is the same, but the process from
going at high speeds to coming to a halt is the main difference in the two types of brakes.
Uses of Air Brakes:
Air brakes are used as an alternative to hydraulic brakes which are used on lighter
vehicles such as automobiles. Hydraulic brakes use a liquid (hydraulic fluid) to transfer
pressure from the brake pedal to the brake shoe to stop the vehicle. Air brakes have several
advantages for large multitrailer vehicles:
 The supply of air is unlimited, so the brake system can never run out of its operating fluid,
as hydraulic brakes can. Minor leaks do not result in brake failures.
 Air line couplings are easier to attach and detach than hydraulic lines eliminating the risk
of air getting into hydraulic fluid since there is no hydraulic fluid. Air brake circuits on
trailers can be easily attached and removed by operators with appropriate training.

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 Air not only serves as a fluid for transmission of force, but also stores potential energy. So
it can serve to control the force applied. Air brake systems include an air tank that stores
sufficient energy to stop the vehicle if the compressor fails.
 Air brakes are effective even with considerable leakage, so an air brake system can be
designed with sufficient "fail-safe" capacity to stop the vehicle safely even when leaking.
Interpretation of the student: we know the various types of brake systems which are used in
automobiles. We observed the braking systems of many vehicles like bicycles, motor bykes,
cars and other big vehicles. We know the advantages of the braking systems of various
vehicles. We collected the data of air brakes and their advantages in internet.
Conclusion :
We know about the types braking systems of vehicles. We know the braking system of air
brakes and working process. We also learn the advantages of air brakes.
References:
 www.en.wikipedia.org
 Science Magazine

PROJECT REPORT
Title of the Project : Collect information about working process of air brakes.
Class : 9 th
Subject : Physics
School :
Time frame : 5 days
Material/Sources used tools: Internet, News paper clippings, Science books, etc.,
Details of procedure follwed:
We collected information about to Air brake system in internet. we observe the braking
system of some vehicles in our surroundings. We collected the information of various types of
brakes and their efforts to the vehicles
Finding Observations:
know the various types of brake systems which are used in automobiles. We observed the
braking systems of many vehicles like bicycles, motor bykes, cars and other big vehicles. We
know the advantages of the braking systems of various vehicles. We collected the data of air
brakes and their advantages in internet.
Experiences faced: With help of our teachers we collected the information of methods which
used in braking system in vehicles. We collect some pictures about various brake systmes in
internet.
Project outcome :
We know about the types braking systems of vehicles. We know the braking system of air
brakes and working process. We also learn the advantages of air brakes.

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Name of the group members and work allotment:
Name of the team
Sl.No Work allotment
member
1
2
3
4
5
Date of Submission : Signatures

PROJECT WORK 2 : Applications of Pascal’s principle in our daily life.

Title of the project : Applications of Pascal’s principle in our daily life.


Objectives : To know the working principle of pascal’s principle.
Material required : internet, science magazines, text book etc.,
Required procedure: we collect information of applications of pascal’s principle in our daily
life. We collect some pictures and information of some apparatus which
works on the pascal’s principle.
PASCAL’S PRINCIPLE:
A change in pressure at any point in an enclosed fluid at rest is transmitted
undiminished to all points in the fluid.
Pascal’s principle states that external pressure applied to a enclosed body of fluid is
transmitted equally in all directions throughout the fluid volume and the walls of the
containing vessel.

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 The application of Pascal’s principle results
in a large upward force (thrust) on the right
position when a small downward force in
applied on the left position
 This principle is used in the design and
working of hydraulic jacks/lifts which we
see in the automobile workshops.

APPLICATIONS OF PASCAL’S PRINCIPLE:


1) Hydraulic Jacks: Hydraulic jacks are used to lift a heavy load such as when changing a car
tyre. When the handle is pressed down, a valve closes and the small piston forces hydraulic
fluid through another valve to the larger cylinder. The pressure transmitted results in a
large force on the load. Hydraulic jacks tend to be stronger and can lift heavier loads higher,
and include bottle jacks and floor jacks.

2) Hydraulic lift: Hydraulic lifts are used to raise cars in a motor workshop. The machine
is equipped with a small cylinder connected to a large cylinder. Both cylinders are filled
with oil. Compressed air is introduced into the small cylinder in which the compressed
air exerts a pressure on the surface of the oil. This pressure is transmitted by the oil to
the large cylinder where the pressure acts on a large piston to produce a force which is
large enough to lift a car.

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3) Hydraulic goods lift: it is a lift which lifting of the material from one floor to another at
different levels. They are in various shape, size and capacity as per our requirement.

4) Hydraulic press: A hydraulic press is a device using a hydraulic cylinder to generate a


compressive force. It uses the hydraulic equivalent of a mechanical lever, and was also
known as a Bramah press after the inventor, Joseph Bramah, of England.

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5) Hydraulic brake : The hydraulic brake is an arrangement of braking mechanism which
uses brake fluid, typically containing ethylene glycol, to transfer pressure from the
controlling mechanism to the braking mechanism.

6) Artesian aquifer: An artesian aquifer is a confined aquifer containing ground water


under positive pressure. This causes the water level in a well to rise to a point
where hydrostatic equilibrium has been reached. A well drilled into such an aquifer is
called an artesian well. If water reaches the ground surface under the natural pressure
of the aquifer, the well is called a flowing artesian well.

7) Hydraulic arm: A hydraulic arm works by using high fluid pressure, created by a
pump, to force a piston in a cylinder to move. As a valve is opened one way, the fluid is
allowed to enter the cylinder and force the piston to move. These arms are used to
assembly lines of mega factories to assemble the various parts of product and also to
paint vehicles. They are also used in earth movers to pickup heavy weight and keep
them where required. The principle being used in JCBs, Automobiles and lifters.

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LEARNING OUTCOME: We understand the applications of pascal’s priniciple.
Conclusion :
We collect the data about the applications of Pascal’s principle in internet and some articles in
the science magazines. Pascal’s principle used in many sectors.
References :
 Internet articles.
 Science Magazine
 www.physicalscience4ever.blogspot.in

PROJECT REPORT
Title of the Project : Applications of pascal’s principle in our daily life.
Class : 9 th
Subject : Physics
School :
Time frame : 5 days
Material/Sources used tools: internet, science magazines etc.,
Details of procedure follwed:
1) We collected the required information from different source like science text books,
magazines and science blogs.
2) We collected pictures in various websites.
Finding Observations:
 We made working model of hydraulic arm with cringes.
 We understood the working principle of hydraulic jack and hydraulic lift.
 We understood about the artesian aquifer.
Experiences faced: Previous versions of physical science text books give valuable information
regarding this experiment. We collected information in internet.
Project outcome :
We understood the law of pascal.
We understood the working principle of hydraulic jack and hydraulic lift.
We understood working principle involved in artesian aquifer.
Name of the group members and work allotment:

Sl.No Name of the team member Work allotment

1
2
3
4
5

Date of Submission : Signatures

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PROJECT WORK 3 : VERIFICATION OF ARCHEMEDES PRINCIPLE
Title of the project: Verification of Archimedes principle
Objectives: To establish the relationship between the loss in weight of a solid and weight of
water displaced when the solid is fully immersed in liquid. This can be done by using at least
two different solids in the experiment.
Hypothesis: A body immersed in a liquid losses weight.
Assessment: Experimental verification
Material required: Salt water(brine solution), drinking water, beaker, overflow jar, spring
balance, Weighing machine, solid blocks, eggs, glasses etc.,
PROCEDURE: Archimedes principle states that “A body immersed in a liquid losses weight by
an amount equal to the weight of the liquid displaced”.
INTRODUCTION:
When a metallic block is immersed in water (or any other liquid), four vertical forces act
upon the block below the surface of water. These forces can be grouped into two types of
forces.
1. Downward forces
a. The weight of the block.
b. The downward thrust by the lower surface of the block on the water surface.
2. Upward forces
a. The tension of the spring, which measures the apparent weight.
b. The upward thrust due to liquid present on the lower surface of the block. This
upward thrust is known as Buoyancy.
BUOYANCY: Water exerts an upward force called the buoyant force on the submerged object.
This is why things feel lighter in water. Buoyant force acts in the opposite direction as gravity.
If the object’s weight greater than the buoyant force the object will sink.

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ARCHEMEDES PRINCIPLE:
The buoyant force acting on a submerged object is equal to the weight of the fluid
the object displaces.
The Principle states that: “A body immersed in a liquid losses weight by an amount equal to
the weight of the liquid displaced.”
Archimedes principle also states that: “When a body is immersed in a liquid, an upward
thrust, equal to the weight of the liquid displaced, acts on it.”
Thus, when a solid is fully immersed in a liquid, it losses weight which is equal to the
weight of the liquid it displaces.
Weight of a solid in air – weight of solid when immersed in liquid = Loss in weight of the solid
Loss in weight of the solid = weight of the liquid displaced
The more the density of liquid in which the solid is immersed, the less is the weight of the
liquid displaced on immersing the solid.
Experiment: we take a stone. We find the weight of the stone with spring balance. Then we
take water in the overflow jar. We Dip the stone in the water and find the weight. The weight
of the stone decreased. We find the loss in weight of the stone. We find the weight of the water
displaced in the beaker.

Observations:
Weight of the stone in air = 10 gm weight = 100 N
Weight of the stone when immersed in water = 3 gm weight = 30 N
Loss of weight of stone = 100-30 = 70 N
Weight of the empty beaker = 15 gm weight = 150 N
Weight of the water displaced and beaker = 22 gm weight = 220 N
Weight of the water displaced = 220 – 150 = 70 N
Loss in weight of the stone = weight of the water displaced

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FLOATING BODIES:
Some bodies, if dropped in water, sink, such as a stone or a metallic needle. On the other
hand, some bodies, even of the same weight as that of those that sink, float on water. This
can be proved through the Laws of Flotation.
Law of flotation:
 A body will float if the weight of the body is equal to the weight of the liquid displaced.
 If the weight of the immersed body is more than the weight of the water displaced, the
body will sink.
Experiment: we take iron, aluminium and wooden blocks with same dimensions 2.5 cm X 4
cm X 5 cm. The volume of the each block is 50 cm3. If each solid block immersed in the water
the volume of the water displaced is also 50gr. We find the weights of the blocks in air with
spring balance and also find the weights of the weights when immersed in water.
Density Weight of the
Type of Volume weight of the body weight of body in
(d) Water displaced
solid (V) in air water
gr/cm3 the body

iorn 7 50 cm3 350 gm = 3.5 N 300 gm = 3N 50 gm =0.5 N

aluminium 2.7 50 cm3 135 gm = 1.35 N 85 gm = 0.85 N 50 gm =0.5 N

wood 0.5 50 cm3 25 gm = 0.25 N 0 gm = 0 N 25 gm =0.25 N

Observations:
 A body will float if the weight of the body is equal to the weight of the liquid displaced. So
wooden block floats on the surface of the water.
 If the weight of the immersed body is more than the weight of the water displaced, the
body will sink. So the metallic blocks sinks in the water.
SOME EXAMPLES:
1) If we take two balloons with carbon dioxide and helium gas respectively. The carbon
dioxide filled balloon falls to the ground shows that carbon dioxide is more denser than
the air around it. Helium balloon floats proves that helium is less denser than the air
around it
2) We take two cups of water and filled with drinking water and salt water respectively.
The egg in the drinking water sinks and the egg in salt water floats. An egg
floats in saltwater if the water is denser than the egg.
3) A Solid block of steel sinks when placed in water. A steel ship with the same weight
floats on the water.

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CO2 balloon Helium balloon Egg floats in salt water, sinks in water

LEARNING OUTCOME: The results obtained confirm Archimedes' Principle. They prove that:
1. When a body is partly or completely immersed in water, it losses weight.
2. A body losses its maximum weight when it is completely immersed in water.
3. When a body is partly or completely in water then:
Loss in weight of the body = Weight of water displaced by the body
= Buoyant Force or up-thrust exerted by water on the body.
Volume of the water displaced = Volume of the body immersed in water.
4. The body losses its weight completely then it floats on the surface of the liquid.
Conclusion :
We know the Archimedes principle by experiments. We know about the floating bodies.
References :
 Internet articles.
 Science Magazine
 www.physicalscience4ever.blogspot.in

PROJECT REPORT
Title of the Project : Verification of Archimedes principle.
Class : 9 th
Subject : Physics
School :
Time frame : 5 days
Material/Sources used tools: water, drinking water, beaker, overflow jar, spring balance,
Weighing machine, solid blocks, eggs, glasses etc.
Details of procedure follwed:
Archimedes principle states that “A body immersed in a liquid losses weight by an
amount equal to the weight of the liquid displaced”.

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Finding Observations:
 A body will float if the weight of the body is equal to the weight of the liquid displaced. So
wooden block floats on the surface of the water.
 If the weight of the immersed body is more than the weight of the water displaced, the
body will sink. So the metallic blocks sinks in the water.
Experiences faced: Previous versions of physical science text books give valuable information
regarding this experiment.
Project outcome :
The results obtained confirm Archimedes' Principle. They prove that:
1. When a body is partly or completely immersed in water, it losses weight.
2. A body losses its maximum weight when it is completely immersed in water.
3. The body losses its weight completely then it floats on the surface of the liquid.
Name of the group members and work allotment:
Name of the team
Sl.No Work allotment
member
1
2
3
4
5

Date of Submission: Signatures

PROJECT WORK 4 :WORKING PRINCIPLE OF SUBMARINE - MODEL MAKING

Title of the project : Working principle of submarine


Objectives : To know the working principle of submarine.
Assessment : Model making
Material required : water bottle, bottom part of the other water bottle rubber bands,
two paper clips.
Required procedure: laws of flotation
 The weight of the floating body is equal to the weight of the liquid displaced by it.
 The centre of gravity of the floating body and the centre of gravity of the liquid displaced
(centre of buoyancy) are in the same vertical line. By using the laws of floatation and the
given materials make a model of a submarine.

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INTRODUCTION:
A submarine is a watercraft capable of independent operation underwater. The first
submersible of whose construction there exists reliable information was designed and built in
1620 by Cornelis Drebbel. A submarine is submerged by allowing water into the main ballast
tanks so that its total weight is equal to the weight of the water displaced, hence it attains
neutral buoyancy. To bring back the submarine to the surface, the water in the main ballast
tanks is blown out by air and the submarine gains positive buoyancy. The main ballast tanks
however are either full (when submerged) or empty (when the vessel is on the water surface).

SUBMARINE CORNELIS DREBBEL


PREPARATION OF MODEL :

1) we take an empty water bottle. We cut the bottom part of an other water bottle and
prepare like a wheel like the above figure.
2) Make holes to the bottle at the centre of the cap and the bottom. Take a paper clip and
tie the rubber band to the clip and insert clip into the bottle and fix it at the bottom of
the bottle.

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3) Other paper clip inserted in the cap and inserts the wheel shaped bottom part of the
other bottle to the cap.

4) Pull the rubber band from the bottle and tie the paper clip which is inserted to the cap.
And close the bottle cap tightly. Finally we tie a wooden stick to the bottle with a rubber
band.

5) Fill the bottle with water. We rotate the wheel many times in clockwise direction and
put the bottle in the water. By the property of elasticity the wheel rotates in anti-
clockwise direction and the bottle moves in the water as a submarine.

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LEARNING OUTCOME: We understand the working principle of submarine.
Conclusion :
We know the working process of submarine. We prepare a model submarine with available
local material.
References :
 Internet articles.
 Science Magazine

PROJECT REPORT
Title of the Project : Working principle of submarine
Class : 9 th
Subject : Physics
School :
Time frame : 5 days
Material/Sources used tools: water bottle, bottom part of the other water bottle rubber
bands, two paper clips.
Details of procedure follwed:
3) We collected the required information from different source like science text books,
magazines and science blogs.
4) We made model as per the procedure with available material.
Finding Observations:
 We made working model of submarine by using laws of flotation.
 We understood the working principle of submarine.
 When an object immersed in a fluid it appears to lose weight because of buoyancy verified
experimentally.
Experiences faced: Previous versions of physical science text books give valuable information
regarding this experiment.
Project outcome :
We understood laws of flotation.
We understood centre of buoyancy.
We understood working principle of submarine.
Name of the group members and work allotment:
Sl.No Name of the team member Work allotment
1
2
3
4
5
Date of Submission : Signatures

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4. Written Works - Note books for 10 marks

For every student writing skill is very important to express what he


has understood in his own words. For these notebooks helps a lot, because of
this creativity, writing by thinking on their own they develop their scientific
knowledge. They have to work on writing with their own vocabulary, by using
their experiences of what they learnt. After classroom discussions ask them to
write explanation for those words according to their understanding. It helps to
content understanding and after that to write the answers on their own. Ask
them to write answers on their own for the questions under let's improve
learning for every unit.
How to evaluate the written work?
There are 10 marks for written work in constructive evaluation.
Written work should not be the copy from the book but it should be on his/her
own. Draw the diagrams wherever necessary. Words, sentences should be
meaningful without mistakes.

Slip test for 20 marks

As a part of constructive evaluation teacher should estimate the


student's understanding after teaching every lesson. Testing the student's
understanding at anytime but not in a specified time and making the students
that they are writing an exam is said to be a slip test. It is not like a unit test.
How to conduct the slip test?
Conduct the test without prior declaration after teaching the lesson.
20 marks for slip test. As part of constructive evaluation at FA times slip should
be conducted in any period of 45 minutes duration. Questions in the slip test
should some of the academic standards and they should write answers on their
own. Keep 200 page long notebook for slip tests. Four formative slip tests in an
academic year should be written in this text book only. Basing on the answers,
discuss with the children how they are in each academic standard. This is the
key issue in constructive evaluation and compulsory one too. Enroll the slip
tests grades in the register.

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FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT - 4
TIME: 45 MINUTES PHYSICAL SCIENCE MAX.MARKS: 20
NAME:………………………………… CLASS: 9th Rol No.:…… School:.............................................
I. Answer the following questions. 2X4=8
1) Observe the figure and answer the following questions:
a) What are the material used in the experiment?
b) How much does the weight of the stone appear to be
decreased when it dip in the water?
c) What is the weight of the displaced volume of water?
d) What is the relation between apparent loss of weight of the
immersed stone and the weight of water displaced? Which
principle explains this relation?
2) An object of mass 20 kg is dropped from a height of 4m.
calculate the potential and kinetic energy in each case given in
the following table and write the values in respective column of
the table. (g = 10 m/s2)
Height at
which Velocity of object Potential energy Kinetic energy Total energy
object at different height Ep = mgh Ek=½mv2 (Ep + Ek)
located (in m/s) (in Jouls) (in Jouls) (in Jouls)
(in meters)
4.00 0 0
3.55 3 710
What do you say about total energy of system of freely falling body? Which law obeys in this
system?
II. Answer the following questions: 2X2=4
3) Why do we get tired after standing up for long time without doing any work?
4) Explain the terms in the equation of P0 = ρgh.
III. Answer the following questions: 2X1=2
5) Which principle used in the working of hydraulic jacks?
6) The SI unit of work is N-m. which is the another form of this unit?
IV. Choose the correct answer and write in the given bracket: 6X1=6
7) Which energy explained by this figures? ( )
a) Potential energy b) Kinetic energy c) heat energy d) internal energy
8) Choose the correct statements. ( )
i) The denser object is heavy. ii) The denser object is “light”
iii) the less dense object is heavy iv) the less dense object is “light”
a) (i) b) (ii) c) (i), (iv) d) (ii), (iii)
9) Which of the following has same units? ( )
a) work, energy b) energy, force c) force, acceleration d) acceleration, mass
10) Match the following: ( )
Situation of energy conversion Appliances used for
energy conversion
1. Electrical energy into mechanical energy 1. battery
2. Mechanical energy into electrical energy 2. fan
3. Chemical energy into electrical energy 3. generator

11) The place at which potential and kinetic energies are equal for the freely falling body from height
“h” ( )
a) Initial point b) on the path c) final point d) none of these
12) The normal atmospheric pressure at sea level is ( )
a) 76 cm b) 1 atmosphere c) (a) and (b) d) none of these

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About This Book

This book provides you all information for Formative Assessment 4


for Class IX. We think this book helps to all the physical science learners. We
request to all the students try to write some more other Lab Activities and
Projects in the FA 4 syllabus.

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About Us

K V RAMANA, G V RAMA PRASAD,


SA, PHYSICAL SCIENCE, PGT, PHYSICAL SCIENCE, CRT,
SRIKAKULAM, SRIKAKULAM,
SRIKAKULAM Dt., SRIKAKULAM Dt.,
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