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08/07/1436

By Dr. Hussein Mahmoud

DESIGN OF
MAT or RAFT FOUNDATION

1 Dr. Hussein Mahmoud 26‐Apr‐15

Raft  rests  directly  on  the  soil  or  beneath  them  but  in 
some cases they may be supported by piles.
2 Dr. Hussein Mahmoud 26‐Apr‐15

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Types of Raft Foundation

1. Flat slab types


2 Flat slab thickened under columns.
2. columns
3. Flat slab thickened under columns with heavy loads.
4. Beam-slab type raft.
5. Box structures

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Flat slab

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Uses of Raft Foundations

1. Low soil bearing capacity,


2. Spread footing cover about 70% of structure area,
3. High structure loads,
4. For structures like chimneys, silos, tanks, and large
machines.
5. Structures and equipment sensitive to differential
settlement.

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Uses of Raft Foundations

6. Soft pockets or cavities of in the Soil to unknown


extent raft.
7. Watertight construction under basements below
ground water table.
8. Highly compressible soil and extents to a great
depth.

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Df

B B

Fig. 1 Width and Depth of isolated footings and Raft 
fo ndation for str ct res ha ing basements
foundation for structures having basements

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Compensated Foundation

The compensated foundation technique is based on


increasing the embodiment depth of foundation which
in turn decrease the not pressure increase on the soil
and thus reduce the soil settlement.

q  (Q/A)  γD f  q na

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For no increase of the net soil pressure; fully


compensated raft q

0  (Q/A)  γD f
D f  Q / Aγ
For partial compensation,
compensation

D f  Q / Aγ
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Design Methods of Raft Foundation

1 C
1. Conventional (Rigid) Method.
ti l (Ri id) M th d
2. Simplified Elastic (Flat Slab) Method.
3. Finite Element Method.

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Conventional (Rigid) Method


Procedure:
1. Strips
‫ف‬ ‫الشرائح ففى نت‬
‫منتصف‬ ‫نھايةة الش ائ‬
‫نن ا‬ ‫على أن تك‬
‫تكون‬ ‫وعرضيةة عل‬
‫طوليةة ع ض‬
‫شرائح ط ل‬
‫شة إلإلى ش ائ‬ ‫نقسم الل‬
‫اللبشة‬ ‫نق‬
‫المسافة بين األعمدة‬

11 Dr. Hussein Mahmoud 26‐Apr‐15

2. Calculate eccentricity
Ptot = P1 + P2 + P3 + ... + Pn
Location of resultant X X’ & YY’.

@ moment about the axes Y, X find the eccentricity ex


and ey of resultant.
X' = Pi xi /Ptot & Y' = Pi yi /Ptot

ex = L/2 - X' & ey = S/2 - Y'

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3. Calculate pressure distribution on the soil at different


locations under the raft
f = (Ptot/A) + (My/Iy) x + (Mx/Ix) y < qna
A=B B.L
L = Area of raft,
raft
Mx = Ptot ey = Moment @ x axis
My= Ptot ex = Moment @ y axis,
Ix = LB3/12 = Moment of inertia @ x
Iy = BL3/12 = Moment of inertia @ y
x & y is the distance of a point form y and xx-axis
axis respectively
respectively.
‫النقاط المحسوب عندھا ھى متوسط الشريحة‬

13 Dr. Hussein Mahmoud 26‐Apr‐15

4. Divide the raft into a series of continuous beams


centered at column rows .

5. Draw the bending moment, shear force diagrams for


each beam in x, y dir.

6. Depth of the beam raft, check the shear stress. Note


that the Raft depth should constant.

7. Design the raft in the other direction knowing the


depth.
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Example 1
Design a raft foundation by the conventional (rigid) method to
support the columns shown in Figure. All columns are 40 x 40
cm. The net allowable soil pressure is 5 t/m2.
Given fcu= 25 N/mm2, fy= 360 N/mm2. Design by USD method.

All loads 
are in tons.

All 
dimensions 
are in 
meters.

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Ptot = 2x42.5 + 4x165 + 2x55 + 45 + 48.5 + 2x125 = 1198.5 t


Area of the raft A = 22.4 x 12.8 =286.72 m2
Pressure on soil fn = 1198.5 / 286.72 = 4.18 t/m2 < 5 t/m2 ok
Find ex by taking moment along line through left columns
1198.5 X’ = 7.2(165+165+125) + 14.4(165+165+125) + 
21.6(42.5+55+48.5) = 12981.6
X’ =12981.6/1198.5
/ = 10.832m
ex = L/2 - X'
ex = 21.6/2 ‐ 10.832 = ‐0.032 m (east of centre)

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Find ey by taking moment along line through bottom


columns
1198.5 Y’ = 6(55+165+165+55) + 12(42.5+165+165+42.5)
= 7620 t
Y’ = 7620 / 1198.5 = 6.358 m
ey = S/2 - Y'
ey = 6 ‐ 6.358 = ‐0.358 m ( north of centre)

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The soil pressure is computed at selected points beneath 
the raft by the following Equation:

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point P/A 0.11y 0.003x q (t/m2)


A
B
C
D
E
F

+ = compression     
+ compression
‐ = tension

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In the long direction the the raft will be divided into 3
equivalent beams (strips) as following :

AB with a width B = 3.4 m and soil pressure of q = 4.91 
t/m2 (using the maximum soil pressure along the strip).

EF with a width B =6 m and soil pressure of
q = 0.5 (4.91 + 4.21) = 4.56 t/m2

DC with a width B = 3.4 m and soil pressure of
p
q = 0.5 (3.51+ 4.21) = 3.86 t/m2

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Bending moment will be computed using coefficient of 1/10 
(0.1). The positive moment (hogging upward) and negative 
moment (sagging downward) are will be taken as equal.

For strip AB :
Max. moment Mmax = 0.1(4.91x7.22) = 25.5 m.t /m

For strip EF :
Mmax = 0.1(4.56x7.22) = 23.6 m.t /m

For strip DC :
Mmax = 0.1(3.85x7.22) = 19.8 m.t /m

21 Dr. Hussein Mahmoud 26‐Apr‐15

Depth

1.5M max 1.5 * 25.5 *107


dm  C 4  495mm  0.5m
fcu *1m 25 *1000

Punching shear:
The maximum punching shear will occur at one of 165 t side
columns.
bo = 4 (0.4 + 0.5) = 3.6 m
Qup = 165 – 4.85(0.4+0.5)2 = 161 ton
qup = 1610 / [3.6x 0.5] = 894 kN/m2 = 0.9 N/mm2
<  qcup = 1.29 N/mm2 OK

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Reinforcement:
From (C1 – j) chart, ………… get  j = 0.807
Mu 25.5 x107
As    1755 mm2  17.6 cm2
j d f y 0.807 x 500 x 360

Asmin = 0.15% Bd 
= 0.15/100 x 100 x 50 = 7.5 cm2
Use 9 φ 16 mm, 
As = 9 x 2.0 = 18 cm2 / m
‫ علوى وسفلى‬AB ‫يوزع ھذا الحديد على الشريحة‬

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‐ Complete as a same for strips EF & DC

‐ Run 50% of the steel continuous both bottom and top


through the length of the raft. The other 50% is placed at the
location of maximum bending moment, at top between
columns and at bottom under the columns.

‐The shown raft is reinforced by 8 φ 22 mm (top & bottom).

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Design of Flat Slab Raft Foundation

The system of the flat slab raft foundation is exactly the


same as an inverted slab roof.
roof The problem is to find out
the raft dimensions and the pressure distribution under
the raft then the design should follows the same way as
done in a simple roof.

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1. Assume depth d = Span/10


2. Column width = bcol + 2d (center) or = bcol + d (edge)
3. Calculate stress between columns
fn = Loads from columns /Astrip
4. Design long and short
directions for Col Strips.

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