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! !
" #
$ % & ' !
()

* " "& + *
!' + ! +,+ ++, ++
-. /+ 0

*+ 1+ " 2+ $ *3+
()

4 ' ++ /+ !
*/
+ * +1 " *+ 1 $ 3 3
() $
56 () 7 ! '
* *
π = π * *

* = ×
*

/+
* = ++ × = 3 3*
*/

8 9 *
× ++ = 3 3*:

3 & ' 6 !
; ! & ' , &
& ' , < ! & ' ! *
& ' % ;* 9 ; 9 *,

;*

*
;

<

+ " +/ $ + */
() "

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written permission.
/ &
, ' , '
" ' $ , '
()

= & !
8 8*
> ' ∆
8* 8 8* >
# # " # − $ ?
8 8* 8
()

1 % & ! , & '


0, & ' 0

*/

3/ /

+ +/ + " /+ $ ++
()

2 *+ , *++ *+ ,
' % =++ , ' ' ,
@
4A/ 1A+ " /2+ $ 4 =+
()
*
56 () B5 ' = %
*
* *
# *+ × + * *
%= = = +3 −
* *
*π * × π × =++
= = = =* 24 0
=+ =+
B 5= × + 3 × =* 24* = 1A+ @
*

A & ! C !D E
! ! 6 %
. 5 6
EC* EC* *EC* 3EC*
" $
*5% 5% 5% 5%

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written permission.
()
*
'
56 () 5% = E
6*
,
'
5% = E6 + "
6
,
*
E6
5% ' 9 + " 6 + "*
*
'
7 & ! 6 9 +, =+ F6 =+ ' =+
6
7 " = " = +, G

E6* EC*
'= H 6 ' 6 =
*5% *5%

+ 7 , !
! !
* " 3 $ 2
() "
3π*5%
56 () " 6 ! 9
C*
π*5%
" !
C*
8
G , =3
8 *

69+, ( 6 ) = 64 +
6 & &
" ' $
() $
56 ( ) ( 6 ) = 64 + 6 9 +,
& , &'
'

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written permission.
* 7 , 6* + '* + I* − , &

, ,+ & !'
* *

+ D − D " $ + D+
* * * * 4 4 4
()

56 ( ) J & 6* + '* + I* = , ,+
* *

& 6* + '* + I* − = + , ,+
* *

+ D+ + = + D
* * * *

+
G & = * * = + D
* *
* *
+
* *

4 E

8 "

> $ *

# 4 &

$ 3 " &

8)3, >) , #)*, )4 8)3, >) , #)4, )*


" 8) , >)*, #)3, )4 $ 8) , >)4, #)*, )3
()

3 % ! & D , ! II
, &
% '
$ '
" $ ,! !
$ % ,! !
() $

++ +3+
/ % ! ! ', I */ +++−+ + +

++ +4+
I */ +++++ +*+ 6 !'
3+ 4+ " *+ $ +

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written permission.
() "
E 6 9 6 I K I
9 */ +3+)*/ +*+ 9*+µ

= $ I ,

! &
" ! &
$
() "

1 *++ I ,
4
9+ +**/ /++ & +* 0
*
9A 2 0
= 2 + = " 2 ** $ *4* 4=
()
+*
+ +**/ × /++ × *

* Π × + **
C; 3
56 () G = = = = 2
* $ *×A 2 ×+ 3

2 7 L , ! & ' (α) , & ' ( τ) & ' (ρ)


!' L
α+ρ = τ ρ+α+τ=+ " α+ρ = $ α+ρ =+
() "

A ! ! ' '
4*/ + @0 & 6 / 8 L ' '
+A L & / 8
9**/ A3 @
0 9*/A2 4 @
0 & '
+ 0 B ' !
! E (
=/ 2A " A $ *1 +
()

56 () 8 = × − * = + × 4*/ − **/ A3 + + A × */A2 4 − **/ A3
= 2A++ B@0 = 2 A E

*+ (
J %( 8 2+ 6 4+M
J %%( 8 *+ 6
** /M
% 33+ ,
*++ A++ " 21/ $ 1*+
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written permission.
()
56 ( ) 7
ϕ 2+ 4+
; ' = = = *

* ϕ *+" ** /

* = 33+ × + =*/ = A++

* I
& ' ω α

( α) (ω)
* *
? α " + *
$ ω*

()

** !D %
!' : !' :,
,

+ " +2 $ * +*
() $
8
56 () G σ 9
*
8
' ' ! , , σ = + −
*

$ ! & L , ( )= & =++

= −+ +

σ
< ! , = + +*, ∴ ! *:
σ

*4 ! '96 ! ' = 6*
6)'
0
= 0
3 " 0
4 $ 0
*
()
56 () & & '96 ' 9 6* & * ,
G & 6 9 +, 6 9

=
+
(6 − 6 ) 6 *

6* 64
= − = −
* 4 * 4
+
+
= L
=

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written permission.
*3 " (6) = 6 & ) ≤6≤
69+, (6)
" ! ) !
" " ) ! $ !
() "
56 () J & 6 9N
6NO
N
6N 69+! !

− 6
*/ *
6 →+ 6
0
3 0
* " $ *
()
* 6 * 6
6 *
− * *
56 () = =* = *× =
6 →+ 6* 6 →+ 6* 6 →+ 6* 3 *
×3
*

*= " I , !
& ! (
I ! */
*
# ! + +=
$ + +/
*3 24 *3 2A " */ + $ */ 1
()
56 () $ 9$ K*6 )
= */ − * × + += − + +/ = *3 24

*1 % 3 + ,
3+ 2 +:
!
+ ++= + +4 " + +=* $ + =++
() "
56 () ∆G = $ ( − α)
∆G + ×2
α= − = −
$ 3 +
α = 4 /1
π
α = 4 /1 ×
2+
α = + +=*

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written permission.
*2 % $" , & ) !
; = *+ + / & ! / 1 G
; & ; & 3++
/++ , &
(
3/;, 3/+ 1/;, //+ " A/;, A/+ $ /+;, /++
() "
56 () ; = *+ + /
=/ , ; = 3/ ;

=1 , ; = // ;

;+
; = ;+ − % ;+ &
%
%

;+
3/ = ;+ − × /++
%
;+
// = ;+ − × 3++
%

< & *
; = A/ &

% = A/+

*A II ! &
, * 4 ! ,
& ' (

* ρ*

4 ρ4

ρ ρ*
* + + *
* ( + + )
ρ4 ρ4
4 * 4
4 4

ρ + ρ* * + ρ4 4 ρ * 4 + ρ* 4 + ρ4 *
" * $ *
ρ + ρ* + ρ4 ρ + ρ* * + ρ4 4

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written permission. !
()
56 () ' P L , 6 ,
8 ;* 8 ;**
+ I+ = * + I* +
ρ4 * ρ4 *

? = ?* , ; = + F 8* = 8

G
8 ;*
= *
ρ4 *

*8
;* =
ρ4

8 = ρ + ρ* * + ρ4 4

< ! ,

ρ ρ*
;* = * 4 + + *
ρ* 4 ρ4 4

4+ (" =3 2 @0 ⋅ B ) 2+M" 6
+/ 0 (" = @0 ⋅ B ) 4+M"
* +A 0 % & 6 + 2, CE $
M"
3+ *+ " + $ /
() "
" −
56 () ε= × *

" −

3 2 × + / 2+ − *
+2= ×
* +A × 2+ − 4+

*
= 3+ "
− *
= *

+ /× 3 2 × 3+ = * +A × × *
− 4+

*
= 1+ "
θ = θ* = + " ∴ CE $ = + "

4 ! 6
' !' ∆ % α, . P
5 8 P &, &
!
α (∆ )5 *α ( ∆ )5 4α ( ∆ )5 α (∆ )5
− − " − $ −
( − *&) ( − *&) ( − *&) 4 ( − *&)

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written permission. "
()
4* ! L /+ %
! 3+E8 , '
*, !
2 = " *3 $ 4*
()
56 () 9 /+ K Hτ ! = 3+E8

τ
= *H τ = !
= 1+E8

, = τ
?8
4
π 4 =
?8 = =
= πτ

= × /+ × +4
=
π × 1+
= / 42 ≈ =

44 3++ ! +/ ! !
' , 2+M %
! ! + */, ! L
,
3++

++ = /3 3 " ** $ /1
()
56 () , ! F *
!

F = µθ
= + */×π
=* A = 3++
*

* = 2* 41/

L 9 ( − * ) *

= /3 3 −

43 ! 6 3 ! = ! ! ! '
! 6 ! ! '
! ! !
4
" $
*+ * + *

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written permission. #
() $
#
56 () J & ,
3 =
! # # #
3 = /
8 ! ! ' # 9 × ×
+ A 2
= / 3
8 ! ! ' #9 × ×
+ A 2
= 3 /
8 ! ! ' # 9 × ×
+ A 2
8 # 9 9 ! & ! ! 9+/

*
' '
4/ " L 6* +6 − 3' = + ! '
6* 6
' (+ ) = + '( )=
L
π6 6 π6 −6 π6
6* " $
* * *
()
*
' '
56 () 6* *
+6 − 3' = + ' (+ ) = +
6 6
'( )=
" 'P $ 5
*
' '
' = 6* = *6 =*
6 6*
' = 6 −* ' = − *6 −4 ' = +=6 −3
6 6*
' = 6 −* ' = − *6 −4 ' = +=6 −3
6 6*

6* = ( 6 ) + ( −* 6 ) − 3 ( 6 ) = +
3 4 *

* *
3=+ =3
= ±*
∴ L " 6* + "* 6* + "* 6*
G 6*

4= ' ! L & !
6 + *' + I= 3
*6 + ' + *I= /
6 − ' + I=
L 69 , '9 I9
' 69 , '9 I9 69*, '9 I9+
" % !

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written permission.
$ !
() "
56 () & L
6 + *' + I= 3 −( )
*6 + ' + *I= / − (* )
6 + ' + I= − (4)

5 F * , &
'9 ) 3
5 6 * F 4 , &
'9 ) /
C 3 /
G & L

41

+ / +
= / *+ +
+ + − +

& E8 < & E ' ,


& ' , E8
A /+ = +1 " *2 /* $ 3A 3
()

56 () σ L=
*
{( σ − σ** ) + ( σ
*
− σ** ) + = σ** + σ*4
* *
+ σ*4 }
, σ = +, σ** = *+,

σ44 = − +Hσ * = /Hσ*4 = σ 4 =+

∴ σ L= *1 24A E8

σ L
' τ' = = = +1 E8
4

42 $ & !
" +3
< +=
# Q +M
" */ 0
E ' I */
)

+ 12 × +/ + 11/3 × +/

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written permission.
" + +3 × +/ $ 3 4A1 × +/
() "
56 () =+3
=+=
α= +
;" = * / 0
= */µ
α
φ= = + 3*44 φ = ** A
− α
;" α * /× +
9 = 9 + +3 × +/ 0
(φ − α) × * A × */ × +−=

4A % , / !
/+ $ /++ ,
+* 0 & 2M *
6 ,
4/ 4* 3 " 4 * $ 4+
()
C + + +"
56 () =

$ β
C = /+ H = =* H" = = 1 /× /A = 3 /
* *
= /++ H =+* 0 &
= + /2/ 4/

3+ " ' !
% $ $* !
& ', & 7** & !'

$* $ $
− ? " $ −
$ $* $*
() $
$
56 () 7** = − 7* = − = −
$*

3 ! & I
! ' ' # ' !
+++ % & ' !' 3,
! ' ' , !

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written permission.
3 * " +/ $ + */
() "

56 () ' ' (δ) α


#

# α ; δ α
;
% & ' !' 3 ! ' '
!'

3* 4/ ' +/ &
++ 8 */M" & ' J&
*/M" 4 1 8 , & '

=1: //: " 24: $ 1 :


() $

34 ) D !D & 7
+ I 4+ %
! A3E8 ,
, 6 ! &

7 7

3 33 1 A* " A A4 $ ** =
() "
56 () 8 = + 1+1 τ !

8 = + 1+1 × + × 4+ × A3 = AA41 3
8= A A43 E

33 *C
I L ! !'
7 & ' &! ,
, L ' ' (

"
*
3
$
C C

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written permission.
() $
3/
σ66 = 3+E8 Hσ'' = ++E8 τ6' = 3+E8
E P & E8
3+ /+ " =+ $ ++
()
56 () σ66 = 3+ E8 H σ'' = ++ E8 , τ6' = 3+E8

*
σ66 − σ''
# E P 9 + τ*6' = 4+* + 3+* = /+ E8
*

3= & C 7( )= & !'


( + )
( )= ( )= −
" ( )= −
$ ( )= − −

() $

56 () C− = −
( + ) +

C− − = − −
+

/ 4
31 7 6 = , 5 I & &
4

4
* * + /
" $
4 − − *
* * + /

()
/−λ 4
56 () − λ% = + =+ (/ − λ ) ( 4 − λ ) = 4 = +
4−λ

λ* − 2λ + / − 4 = + λ* − 2λ + * = + λ = *, λ = =

( − *%) × - = +
, λ=*
4 4 6 + 6 + 6* = +
= H
6* + 6 = 6*

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written permission.
G L & *

*
$$ % & ' !( "

! " ", &


*
++ , !D I 7
D

3/M "
7
=+M

32 6 7 ! " 6
' ! $ 5 6 ++E8
2 1 / " 3 3 $ ** 4+
()
56 ( ) 7 C P ,
7 7 7
= =
+/ *+ 4/
7 = + 2A=/7 H7 = + 14* 7
7
∴ 6 7 = = ++E8

+ 2A=/7
= ++E8 7= /3 32 /B
++

3A % 7= , & &
B
+ =4 + 4* " *= $ 3=
()
& # =7 4+ = + =447
7 = B ∴# = + =44B

$$ % & ' #(

! *+ 8 2++ 8 &
' #) 43

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written permission.
& & L
+* 0 8 #) 43
(

#) 43

8( 8 ) M" ( @0 ) ( @0 ) ( @0 ⋅ B )
( @0 ⋅ B )

*+ )** 4* ** / *41 + +A4 + A/

2++ 4 4 A/ / *=1 4 + 4/3 +A 2

#) 43

8( 8 ) M" ( @0 ) ( @0 ⋅ B )

2++ 3+ *1= 3/ + A/

/+ L

/ A3 24 " 1A $ 4A /

() "
56 ()
*

8 L = ( * − )
= + * × (*1= 3/ − *41 ) = 1 A

/ 6 @
0

*2 4 3* A " 43 3 $ 3=

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written permission.
()
56 () # 6 = ( − 3 )
= + * ( *41 − A/ /) = *2 4

) $ * +, & ' (

7 D , & !
& 6 ! !
&' 8 $ '
) 4
3
" /
$ 3
5 ! *
7 A
J =
G , *

/* D
)!) ) ) ) ) ) " ) )) $ )!) ) )
() "
56 () *
5
3 = =
4
" J
2 A
* / 3 =
4 G
+
$
; / 1
3 7
5 J G− 1 '
A
" JG − = '
$7 G − 2 ' H
∴ $7 G

/4 % &' A + ' ,
" D
A '
" D
" " ! D

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written permission. !
$ " D
1 '
()
56 () % &' 7 + ' ,
D A '
) $ * +, & ' (

! II 4++ 8 , /++B & ' + 0 % &


*
II ++ 8 & ' 2+ 0 2+
" ++2@
0 B

/3 6
/ =B /4*B " 323B $ 3=2B
() "
56 () Q &* 0* 9 * Q &** 0*

&** )&*
= − * =" − *
*
2+* − +*
= ++2 × /++ − *
*
* = 323B

*
// 6 II
A+ /= 4 " 33 $ *A
() $
56 () 7 ' L ,
ρ ; = ρ* * ;*
8 8* 8 ;
× ; = × * ;* * = *
× ×
# # * 8* ;*
4++ × 323 +
= × × 2+ = * A *

/++ × ++
*
2+

/= & !' /L* , L


# /+
! ! !'
6 I
/ + " / $ */
(
56 () 8 = /+L− /L*

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written permission. "
*
= /+ − +L
H <+
L L*
∴ 6 /+ − +L= + , L= /
5

/1 " & & !


(
P RRRRRRRR
" $
(

/2 " ' -- (
' & ' ! & G

'S 6
" ' 7 ' C , !

$ 'S 6 & '


( $

/A &
!
.
$ $& " $ $ $
(

=+ " & & !


(
$ & RRRRRRRRRR &

! " $
(

= ', 8 ) 7 % &
& # L ( G
) , ! & ! $ ', 5& '
, 6 !
! ! & &
J ) '
- !
" &

© All rights reserved by Gateforum Educational Services Pvt. Ltd. No part of this booklet may be reproduced or utilized in any form without the
written permission. #
$ ) '
( "
56 () J & '

=* J& L , $ "J 7B @
8, 6
; " 8; $ 8
(
56 () +* +4 +3 +/

$ , "J , 7B , @
8 , ;

+4 +3 +/ +=

=4 " ##5"
8( 1 ' 1
>( 1 ' 1 &
#( $ ! ' !
( $ ! ' & &
8, > >, # " 8, # $ #,
( "
56 () 8 # '
5 T , *, 4, 3U '

=3 ! ! ' ! ! - .
- =+: . 3+: ! ! ! !
!D L ' L ' !
-S ! ! , A=: ! .S ! ! , 1*: !
! ! ' ' ! ! , ! ! ,
!' .
+ *22 + 443 " + ==1 $ + 1*+
(
56 () 6 '
' =+: 3+:
# ! A=: 1*:
& + /1= + *22
+ *22
∴ 8 (6) = = + 443
+ /1= + + *22

=/ '
& ! L ' = *6 − + 6*
' 6 !

2 + " * $ 3
(
56 () ' = *6 − + 6*

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written permission.
'
= * − + *6
6
*
'
<+∴' 6 * − + *6 = +
6*
6= +
∴ ' = *+ − + = +

© All rights reserved by Gateforum Educational Services Pvt. Ltd. No part of this booklet may be reproduced or utilized in any form without the
written permission.