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)

Volume 85 – No 12, January 2014

**Model based Controller Design for Conical Tank
**

System

D.Angeline K.Vivetha, K.Gandhimathi, T.Praveena,

Vijula, M.E., Ph.D UG Student, UG Student, UG Student,

Associate Department of EIE, Department of EIE, Department of EIE,

Professor, Sri Ramakrishna Sri Ramakrishna Sri Ramakrishna

Department of EIE, Engineering Engineering Engineering

Sri Ramakrishna College, College, College,

Engineering Coimbatore Coimbatore Coimbatore

College,

Coimbatore

**ABSTRACT methods is internal model control (IMC). The model of the
**

The control of liquid level is mandatory in process process is run in parallel with the actual process. The IMC

industries. But the control of nonlinear process is complex. design procedure is exactly same as the open loop control

Many process industries use conical tanks because of its design procedure. Unlike, the open loop control the IMC

non linear shape which contributes better drainage for solid structure compensates for disturbances and model

mixtures, slurries and viscous liquids. So, level control of uncertainty. The fuzzy control scheme can also be

conical tank presents a challenging task due to its non- employed to stabilize the non-linearity [3].

linearity and constantly changing cross-section. The main The section two deals with the experimental setup of the

objective is to implement the suitable controller design for conical tank system. The section three explains the

conical tank system to maintain the desired level. In this mathematical modelling of the system. The section four

paper it is proposed to obtain the mathematical modelling deals with the PID controller. The servo and regulatory

of a conical tank system and to design model based response is obtained for the conical tank. IMC based

controller (Internal Model Control) for controlling the tuning is explained in the section five. The results are

level in it. The controller will be simulated using obtained and the comparison is done in the section six. The

MATLAB SIMULINK. By using the advanced control section seven gives the conclusion and future

scheme it is expected to have better closed loop enhancements.

performance and robustness when compared to PID

controller. 2. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP

The system used is a conical tank and is highly nonlinear

Keywords due to the variation in area of cross section of the level

Non Linear Process, Internal Model control, conical tank. system with height. The controlling variable is inflow rate

of the tank. The controlled variable is level of the conical

1. INTRODUCTION tank. Level sensor is used to sense the level in the process

Conical tank is non-linear in nature because of its varying tank and fed into the signal conditioning unit which makes

cross sectional area. For industries using non linear the required signal for further processing.

processes the controller design is a challenging task,

because majority of the control theory deals with linear The process is interfaced with the personal computer

process. Many industries use proportional controller (PI) using DAQ card. The personal computer acts as a

and proportional integral derivative controller because of controller. The output from the personal computer is fed to

its simple structure and easy tuning [2]. They are perfect the drive circuit. The drive circuit consist of power

control for linear process. Tuning of the controller is electronic devices like SCR, TRIAC, etc. Then the control

setting the proportional, integral and derivative constant to action can be taken by using the final control element. The

get the best control of the process. The conical tank is controlling variable is inflow rate of the tank and thus the

highly non linear. But stability of the system may be desired level can be maintained.

affected [7]. So model based controller design is

Specification of conical tank system

implemented to maintain the desired level [5], [6].

The proposed work’s objective is to implement model Height, H : 70cm

based controller design which uses model of the process to Steady state value, h : 10cm

calculate the controller setting, but the structure of the Bottom radius, r : 2cm

model has not been explicitly involved in the controller Top radius, R : 17.6cm

design. There are several alternative controller design Material : Stainless steel

methods that make more explicit use of a process model.

Model reference adaptive controller arises some stability

problem during real time implementation [1].One of the

8

2 in which liquid level is maintained at a (2) constant rate by controlling the inflow of the tank Q. the manipulated variable. (3) Where and are parameters defined by. Q) =Qh-2 proceeds as follows. (6) According to mass balaance equation. . Fig2: Conical tank The linearization of f (h. The process model has two types of nonlinear functions: Qh-2.Now introduce Accumulation = Input. These two functions have to be linearised. Under steady state condition. Q is the inlet flow rate. The approximate linear model is obtained as. The mathematical modelling of the system should be obtained. The most popular technique for obtaining the linear approximation is based on Taylor series expansions of the nonlinear aspects of the process model. MATHEMATICAL MODELLING The process considered here is the conical tank system as shown in figure. This process model has two types of nonlinear functions: Qh-2. International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887) Volume 85 – No 12. a product of two functions. So that the tank model becomes. and h-3/2. Linearization is the process by which a nonlinear system is approximated to a linear process model. a product of two functions and h-3/2. Using the process parameters.Output the variables y= (h-hs) and u=(Q-Qs). (4) (5) Here. January 2014 Fig 1: Block diagram of conical tank system (1) 3. (7) 9 . Q Flow rate of the inlet stream Qo Flow rate of the outlet stream R Maximum radius of the conical tank r Radius of the conical tank at steady state H Maximum height of the conical tank h Height of the conical tank at steady state Ignore the higher order terms.

and time constant associated Derivate action is to make the process variable to settle with this approximate linear model. The process model is directly used and the process control inputs. quickly after the disturbance. Table 1: Cohen and Coon tuning formulae Type Kp Ti Td P . If the reset time is too small. function S(s) to make physically realizable is Integral control is used to eliminate the offset. This method is very effective for utilising process model as a The controller attempts to minimize the error by adjusting feedback control. Process model embedded in the controller. The system transfer function is Applying the values for all the parameters and taking (11) Laplace transform. But increasing the proportional gain value makes the system unstable and the The best way to select the closed loop servo transfer response oscillates continuously.Once the transfer function is obtained. IMCs are much easier to tune than other controllers in a standard feedback control structure. process. 4. are given by. (15) 10 . the closed loop response is controller can be designed for the conical tank process. the conical tank transfer function is obtained. This can be mainly used for slow process. Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) controller And is used to obtain the closed loop response of the conical tank (9) system. implicitly or explicitly some representation of the process to be controlled. the system will take long time to settle out. obtained. - PI - Fig 3: Basic structure of Internal Model Control PID The open loop transfer function of the process is (12) Using the above formulae the gain values can be obtained. Once the open loop response is obtained the required values are noted. In order to obtain the required gain values of the PID controller the following tabulation can be used. The PID controller is simple and hence reduces the on-line computation. The IMC controller transfer function is The proportional control will make the system to be stable (13) but there exists an offset error. the response oscillates continuously. The derivative control also reduces the peak overshoot. A PID controller calculates an error value as the difference between a measured process variable and a desired set point. The Coon method or Ziegler Nichol’s method [4]. PID CONTROLLER A proportional-integral-derivative controller (PID controller) The internal model principle states that control can be is a generic control loop feedback mechanism (controller) achieved only if the control system encapsulates. Process model that robust and hence widely used in most of the process receives the same manipulated variable signal as the actual industries. If the (14) reset time is too long. either widely used in many control systems. January 2014 Where the steady-state gain. INTERNAL MODEL CONTROL process The basic idea of IMC is to use a model of the open loop process transfer function in such a way that the selection of the specified closed loop response yields a physically (10) realisable controller. International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887) Volume 85 – No 12. Cohen and disturbances entering into the system should be taken in Coon method is commonly referred to as open loop response consideration.then the Using this transfer function. It corrects the offset overtime by shifting the proportional band. Then subtract the difference between the process output (actually measured) and the process model output The controller parameters can be tuned using Cohen and (model predicted) to determine the model error. The system transfer function is obtained as first order 5. (8) Therefore. method for tuning the parameters of conventional controllers.

3. 9.121-124.(2011) ‘Simple used to obtain better performance. pp.org 11 . proceedings of International Journal of Simulation. Balasubramanian. Vol. (2012) ‘Design of Ziegler Nichols Tuning controller for a Non- linear System’. proceedings of Advances in Engineering. 57-62. No.R.2. (2012) ‘Design of controllers based on MPC for a conical tank system’. Electronics and time.. P. No. No. Controller action various parameters such as rise time. the performance of the system may regulator operations are obtained. Science and Technology.. The Model Based controller is designed in such a way that 6. response. By solving. V.(2012) ‘Controller design based on Model Predictive Control Fig 5: Simulation Result of Internal Control Model for a nonlinear process’. T. pp. N.. S. Aswin. S.. the Predictive control better performance and robustness can be disturbances can be corrected automatically and desired obtained. Since it is a non-linear system Internal Model Control is [7] Anand. 7. International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887) Volume 85 – No 12. Both servo and regulator operations are obtained [3] Sowmyal. The Internal Model Control is used to obtain the closed loop 242-245. P. proceedings of International Journal on Theoretical and Applied Research in Mechanical Engineering. Sivakumaran. A4. and Anantharaman. In the regulator operation. Srivignesh. pp. [2] Abhishek Sharma and Nithya Venkatesan (2013) ‘Comparing PI controller Performance for Non Linear Fig 4: Simulation result of closed loop response Process Model’. The settling time is also reduced in IMC which means it gives the faster response. (2008) ‘Model based controller controllers for conical tank system design for a spherical tank process in real time’. Vol. proceedings of International Conference on Computing and Control Engineering. To Compare the tuned adaptive PI controller for conical tank process’. [4] Marshiana. N.1. pp. 683-687. But due to the The closed loop response is obtained. Both the servo and presence of dead time. 1 – 6. N. N. S.ijcaonline.4 . proceedings of International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology. [6] Venkatesan. REFERENCES [1] Anna Joseph and Samson Isaac. Sivakumaran. pp. S. 30 (Tuning) IJCATM : www. proceedings of Mechatronics and its Applications. and Table 2: Comparative results of different Anantharaman. January 2014 (16) As shown in table. peak Recent Advancements in Electrical.267. (2013) ‘Real Time Implementation of Model Reference Adaptive Controller for a Conical Tank’. Control Engineering.. Using advanced control schemes such as Model only setpoint tracking is done. SIMULATION RESULTS the system is robust and physically realizable. and Thirusakthimurugan. level is obtained. G. Balasubramanian.. J. N. and as shown in the figure 5.2 the peak overshoot is reduced in IMC when compared to the PID controller. In the servo operation be affected. S. (sec) (sec) (sec) PID 30 50 30% 300 IMC 22 . IEEE transactions on International Conference On Advanced Engineering Science and Management . . CONCLUSION AND FUTURE (17) ENHANCEMENTS The controlling of nonlinear process is a challenging task. [5] Warier.R. [8] Nithya. (2012) ‘A Fuzzy Control Scheme for Nonlinear Process’. pp. D. Vol. and Kumar. 8. Vol. 263 . Venkatesh. pp. The PID controller is normally used for all the systems. the IMC controller equation can be obtained. pp. Science and Management.4. controller Rise Peak Peak Settling Systems. 309-313. type Time Time overshoot time 247-252. N. the feedback controller. peak overshoot and settling time are taken.

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