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V. V. Goryushin, V. N. Glushchenko, UDC 621.785.532.062.5

N. E. Duka, and G. A. Kondrashova

Cylinder liners for ZIL, GAZ, and UAZ automobile petrol engines are currently manufactured
as follows: The whole liner is cast in gray cast iron SCh24-44, and into its upper part most
susceptible to wear a Niresist insert is pressed providing the required wear resistance.
Niresist is a high wear-resistant cast iron of the austenitic class with 16% Ni, 8% Cu, and
3% Cr, which is expensive and difficult to machine. The cost of the insert is up to 25-40%
of the overall cost of the composite liner. In addition, with an insert there is an increase
in liner deformation and worsening of operating conditions for piston rings during sliding in
the contact zone of the liner with the insert [i].
With the aim of improving the economics and processing of linear manufacture work was
carried out on the creation of monolithic cylinder liners having the same life as liners with
a Niresist insert. This work was carried out in the direction of developing wear-resistant
cast iron with satisfactory machinability, and also using different heat and chemicothermal
treatments to strengthen it [2-4].
Nitriding is an efficient method for increasing the wear resistance of the working sur-
faces of cylinder liners. For example, nitriding is used successfully for treatment of diesel
engine cast iron liners at the V. V. Kuibyshev Kolomensk Diesel Engine Factory. The high
wear resistance of liners is governed by the diffusion zone of a nitrided layer of signifi-
cant thickness with a hardness of about HRC 40. For this purpose use is made of high-
strength cast iron alloyed with nickel and molybdenum and prolonged (about 90 h) gas ni-
triding in an ammonia atmosphere providing formation of a hardened layer 0.7-0.9 mm thick.
After nitriding during final machining the coarse nitride phase is removed from the inner
working surface of the liner.
However, in mass production use of alloyed materials and prolonged nitriding is unsuit-
able. Only development of short-duration methods of nitriding (Tenifer-process, carbonitrid-
ing, low-temperature nitriding) has made it possible to use this method for hardening articles
in automobile factories. Articles subjected to short-duration nitriding exhibit high wear
resistance as a result of forming carbonitride phase in the nitrided layer which has suf-
ficient ductility and becomes the working element of the hardened layer. In addition, this
made it possible to use simple gray cast iron and unalloyed steel for the manufacture of
liners since the carbonitride phase formed at the surface of unalloyed and alloyed materials
has the practically the same wear resistance.
Results of the first experiments for using short-duration liquid nitriding of cylinder
liners for ZIL-130 engines made of gray cast iron SCh24-44 were promising. Using the Tenifer
process for strengthening a test batch of liners a layer was obtained with a carbonitride
phase thickness of 3-7 ~m and an overall diffusion layer thickness of 0.i mm. Results of
road tests for liners in engines showed that automobile running of 120,000-160,000 km wear
for nitrided liners was less by a factor of 1.9 than that for liners with a Niresist insert.
Piston ring wear was also reduced as much. During subsequent testing the overall engine
life with nitrided liners was 350,000 km.
Considering the promising nature of liquid nitriding, as a result of its low technolo-
gical effectiveness in mass production and also the impossibility of obtaining a layer of
the required thickness, work was carried out on proving short-duration gas nitriding for
increasing the wear resistance of ZIL cylinder block liners made of gray cast iron.
Nitriding was carried out on specimens 20 mm in diameter and i0 mm long made of cast
iron SCh24-44 in an atmosphere of ammonia (50%) and carbon-containing (natural) gas (50%)
I. A. Likhachov Moscow Automobile Plant, Production Union. Scientific-Research Insti-
tute of Automobile Industry Technology. Translated from Metallovedenie i Termicheskaya
Obrabotka Metallov, No. 7, pp. 34-37, July, 1984.

524 0026-0673/84/0708-0524508.50 © 1985 Plenum Publishing Corporation