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Production and Operations Management

Module 2: Product, Process and Service design

M a r k eting C usto me r

Pr o du ctio n and O pe rations

Pro du ct D e sign a n d De velop m e nt

Product Design • Products are designed to meet customer requirements , needs and expectations • Examples: Car, TV, Soap, Garments, perfumes, Apartments • Examples: Bank loans, course curriculum, postal services, Product design and Development stages 1. Design and development Inputs( eg. Features, safety, customer needs and expectations, Regulations) 2. Design and Development Outputs ( eg Specifications, Drawings ) 3. Design and development review ( with production, maintenance, QA for manufacturability and serviceability) 4. Design Verification ( eg. calculations, prototype and testing) 5. Design and development validation ( eg. Performance testing , field trials) Product design concepts 1. Research and development • Using state of knowledge on the subject for commercial applications ( Applied research) 2. Reverse Engineering • Dismantling and studying competitors products. Reduces development time. Provides opportunity to improve on the competitor’s product 3. Manufacturability • To ensure ease of manufacture and assembly. Using existing manufacturing capabilities such as machines, equipment, Skills of workers .

Robust design • Designing a product that is operational in varying environmental and other conditions of usage (eg.4. Concurrent Engineering • Involvement of other functional areas during early stages of design • Functions like Marketing. • Modular design refers to standardization of modules or sub-assembly of parts. • Faster time to market. purchase. vibration. dust. Standardization • Refers to use of less variety of parts to build a products. easy to transmit. Ease of maintenance and servicing. Computer-aided design • Use of computer soft ware for design • Three dimensional visualizations possible. easy to change. • Faster. easy to collaborate. accurate. over load ) 6. production. • Reduced cost. humidity. No holdups during production. • Example: use of indicator lamps. 7. temperature . servicing are involved for review and incorporation of any changes required. cost effective. Tool design. meters for various models of Motorcycles 5. • Links to computer aided manufacturing possible P r o d uc t d esi g n c o nc e pts • L ife C yc le o f pr o d uct Dem and M a t u ri t y D e cl i n e g ro wt h Incubati on Ti me . Faster time to market.

• Drilling and boring. Making of large circular cavities using boring tools • Milling. • Embossing or coining. Die forging. Strength of joint less than welding • . coloring. Eg.casting • Forging-Formed during plastic state by impact or force.pouring or forcing molten material into moulds of desired cavity.material is removed by a cutting tool in contact with rotating work piece. For very hard materials . Making of currency coins. Impacting in a press to obtain desired size and shape. intricately shaped parts. eg. Normally for hardened parts. • Electro –discharge machining( EDM). Eg. spot welding. Wire drawing • Stamping. Heat treatment • Heating .material is removed by linear motion of a cutting tool on work piece. upset forging.Erosion of material by sparking between electrode and work piece. seam welding. soaking and cooling of parts in furnace at determined levels to obtain desired mechanical properties 5. arc welding. tooling Assembly processes • Welding-joining of work pieces by fusion due to heat. • Shaping and planning.Manufacturing processes ( Production processes) Broad classification: 1. Finishing processes • Change the surface properties of parts. Gravity casting. For protective and decorative purposes. Medals Machining processes • Turning. Gas welding. Eg corrosion resistance.normally for thin sheets. roll forging • Extrusion. Eg.Stretching of metal in a closed die.making of flat surfaces on work piece using a milling cutter • Grinding.joining of metals using brazing alloys.making of holes using drill bit. laser welding • Brazing. Eg. Forming processes • Change shape of work piece without adding or removing material 2. Assembly processes • Joining or fastening of parts/ components 4. aesthetics Forming processes Casting. Machining processes • Change shape of work piece by removal of material in the form of chips or particles 3. pressure die.Finishing of circular parts or flat parts using a rotating grinding wheel. injection moulding.forcing the metal through to obtain desired cross section • Drawing -Pulling material through dies of desired cross section.

Electroplating. Boiler • Fastening-joining using screws. Polythene etc to prevent rusting for tanks. Technical specifications . Phosphating. Product standards etc.Soldering. enamels • Inorganic finishes. Drawing. rubber. pipelines etc • Organic finishes. Output Quantity requirements greatly influences the process planning and design Process planning consists of two areas: • Process design • Operations design . oil. Normally for electrical connections • increase hardness in surface only leaving the core tough. Making of PCBs. Soldering of wires. varnishes. Nylon. shoes. Distortion is less.joining of metals using soldering alloys. rust before and after finishing operations • Metallic coatings.joining of overlapped plates by upsetting rivets in holes . toys Heat treatment processes • Annealing. anodizing ( for aluminum) • Plastic coating. Finishing processes cleaning is done to remove dirt.normally follows hardening. Hot dipping.softening to improve machinablity • Normalizing-to improve grain structure and relive internal stresses • Hardening. A Production process is a series of manufacturing operations performed at work stations to achieve the design specifications at planned output. Highly wear resistant • Process planning • • Process planning deals with methods of converting Input materials into finished increase hardness which improves wear properties.used for metals. Eg. porcelain enamels. • Tempering. Eg furniture. Types of processes – Continuous process – Semi-continuous – Batch process – Job shop – Project Starting point for process design is the outputs from product design.ceramic coatings. wood. Tin coating. • Cyaniding-immersion of steel in molten bath of carburizing salt followed by quenching. To decrease brittleness • Case hardening.Paints. Eg. plastics. scale.PVC. nut and bolts • Assembly using adhesives. Galvanizing ( zinc coating). These may be product specification.

Process design covers the overall conversion/ transformation process 1. Layout of plant 4. 1. Facilities ( handling. Tooling ( devices required to produce a particular product. Existing Infrastructure 1. Inspection and testing stages and methods 7. equipment. Design of individual operations in a process 2. special tools) 6. storage) 3. Machine and equipments 2.commercial tools. facilities) Output requirements Manpower availability Selection of type of processes ( forming. Economics 4. Input materials required 2. machining etc) Make or buy decisions Equipment studies Production sequence Tooling studies Inspection and testing studies . Work standards The Basic objective of Process planning and design is to: • Produce products that consistently meet design specifications • Produce products at the lowest cost • Produce products with proven production technology System approach to process planning and design Input Process Output Inputs • • • • Process • • • • • • Product information Resources ( machines. Quantities to be produced Operation design: Covers how individual operation are to be. Man-machine relation ship 3. Sequence of operations 3.

Travel distances are more. Economic analysis • Process which gives lowest cost per unit is the best • Processes to have the same capability. with symbols. this gives the advantage of product focused system to batch production. o Machines re lined up to process each family .gives a graphical representation of what worker will be doing and machine will be doing over time. • Group Technology ( Cellular manufacturing) o Products are grouped into families based on processing requirements . This is to effectively use workers time when machine is operating pictorially step by step assembly sequence and what items to be assembled till finished product is produced Process charts: Operation process chart. This is to increase productivity.Out puts • • • • • • Production sequence and equipments Raw material specifications Layout of machines Tooling requirements Inspection stages and equipments Process planning aids: Assembly charts. Types of process designs • Product focused production system o All production processes or organized an a continuous flow. machine to be used. storage requirements. if there are any limitations . Delays. Man-machine chart. forming etc). Transport operations. manufacturing operations. Required machines are lined up to make the product • Process focused production system o Machines/ equipments are grouped according to process ( machining. products flow from one location to another depending on the process. Increase production by rejection percentage and add raw material cost to your calculation • Take into consideration the total number of products to be made . Otherwise we may have to take cost of rejections into calculations. These are also called “ROUTING SHEETS” Flow process charts-gives graphically. inspection stages. tooling needed. Products are stored without processing for want of machine. inspection the sequence of operations.

other variable cost is Rs 30/ pc . 000 + 50 X + 30 X = 100 X X = 50000 / 20 =2500. Material cost is Rs. power . cost Cost/piece 4000 Rs 300 10 20 4000/10=400 400 X 20=8000 300+8000=8300 8300/4000=2. Insurance. Example Fixed cost is Rs 50 000 per year. Process A Components / setup Setup cost Production rate / hr Operating cost /`hr Operating hrs /setup Operating cost Total mfg. Direct labour costs etc) Break even analysis is done to determine quantity to be produced to cover the production cost. administration etc) • Variable costs ( material. Producing less than break even quantity results in loss to the company. Production Technology . Then 50. the selling price is Rs 100 / pc .057 Process B 3000 Rs 1500 15 20 3000/15=200 200 X 20=4000 1500+4000=5500 5500/3000=1. consumables. power etc) Production costs • Fixed costs (Depreciation.• Manufacturing cost per unit may include • Setup cost • Tooling cost • Fixture cost • Operating cost ( labour. 50/ pc. What is the break even point? Let X be the break even Quantity.833 Comparing processes to determine which is the best.

Lathes. Quick change tooling. power operated holding devices. Tool magazine . • Automated inspection devices – Vision systems. Grinding attachments on lathe.built inspection system • Machine attachments – Attachments to make the machine more versatile. Eg. oil refineries. Eg. Can pick and place. storage . Automation. chemical plants • Automated storage and retrieval systems (ASRS) – Taking orders . eg bar code systems. collecting materials from locations in ware house and delivery to dispatch section or to production areas. multi-axis controls. Good for single part produced in very large quantities • Flexible manufacturing systems . smart cards. biometrics • Automated process controls – Continuous checking of performance and automatic correction/ adjustment of process parameters.Mechanisation. eg. strip feeders • Numerically controlled machines – Machine movements controlled by servo motors . strip feeders. copying attachments . conveyors .deals with replacement of hard manual muscle power by using devices like power lifts. in. hardware • Automated lines – Machines linked together by automatic raw material feeders. Computerized measuring machines • Automated Identification systems – Automatic acquisition of information. Power stations. weld. tool wear detection and correction. Can work in hazardous areas. which includes: o Production activities o Planning and procurement activities o Inspection activities o Integration of design with production ( CAD/CAM) o handling. Can tend many with all activities in production operations and service operations to make them faster. Hard automation. paint . milling machines • Robots – Programmable devices . tools. on –line inspection devices. with minimum human intervention and cheaper at high production volumes Production technology deals with automation all aspects of manufacturing. Load and unload components with in its reach. Automatic tool changers. transport Automation levels/`areas • Automated machines – Machines with pallet changers. digital readouts. transport equipments. accurate. hydraulic and pneumatic devices etc. stepper motors (closed loop or open loop). RFID. Garments.

Normally used for a family of similar components. 20. 2. Cost of material shortages/ breakdowns are high 5.30 . Reduced total cost per unit 4.00.000 1. Improved and uniform Quality 3. 90.50 FMS 1. Heavy capital investment 2. Reduced demand is disastrous. 000 Rs 27. On the basis of economic analysis .000 3. Displacement of Labour 3. If 1. Fewer accidents Disadvantages of automation ( constraints) 1. Tighter input material specification may be needed.00 units are to be produced in a year. Highly programmable and hence flexible.00. Cost of 3 manufacturing methods are as below: 1.00. Dangerous and unpleasant tasks can be easily handled 6. rate the three alternatives.000 Annual fixed costs Variable cost per unit Rs 90.000 Rs 28. Problem An automotive component manufacturer wants to improve competitiveness.50.000 Rs 29. Enhanced productivity 2. Set up times are less and hence can handle very small batch quantities economically. Advantages of automation 1. Better production control 5. 4.– CNC Machines linked together by AGVs( automatic guided vehicles). what would be the most desirable and least desirable alternative? CM Annual production( units) 1.40 CNC 1.