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TROJAN HORSE URL: http://searchsecurity.techtarget.com/sDefinition/0,,sid14_gci213221,00.

html DEFINITION: In computers, a Trojan horse is a program in which malicious or harmful code is contained inside apparently harmless programming or data in such a way that it can get control and do its chosen form of damage, such as ruining the file allocation table on your hard disk. In one celebrated case, a Trojan horse was a program that was supposed to find and destroy computer viruses. A Trojan horse may be widely redistributed as part of a computer virus. The term comes from Greek mythology about the Trojan War, as told in the Aeneid by Virgil and mentioned in the Odyssey by Homer. According to legend, the Greeks presented the citizens of Troy with a large wooden horse in which they had secretly hidden their warriors. During the night, the warriors emerged from the wooden horse and overran the city. URL: http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/T/Trojan_horse.html DEFINITION: A destructive program that masquerades as a benign application. Unlike viruses, Trojan horses do not replicate themselves but they can be just as destructive. One of the most insidious types of Trojan horse is a program that claims to rid your computer of viruses but instead introduces viruses onto your computer. The term comes from the a Greek story of the Trojan War, in which the Greeks give a giant wooden horse to their foes, the Trojans, ostensibly as a peace offering. But after the Trojans drag the horse inside their city walls, Greek soldiers sneak out of the horse's hollow belly and open the city gates, allowing their compatriots to pour in and capture Troy. Trojan horses are broken down in classification based on how they breach systems and the damage they cause. The seven main types of Trojan horses are:
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Remote Access Trojans Data Sending Trojans Destructive Trojans Proxy Trojans FTP Trojans security software disabler Trojans denial-of-service attack (DoS) Trojans

Remote Access Trojans Abbreviated as RATs, a Remote Access Trojan is one of seven major types of Trojan horse designed to provide the attacker with complete control of the victim's system. Attackers usually hide these Trojan horses in games and other small programs that unsuspecting users then execute on their PCs.

including the possibility of conducting credit card fraud and other illegal activities.g. a type of attack on a network that is designed to bring the network to its knees by flooding it with useless traffic. Security software disabler Trojans A type of Trojan horse designed stop or kill security programs such as an antivirus program or firewall without the user knowing. This gives the attacker the opportunity to do everything from your computer. But..Data Sending Trojans A type of a Trojan horse that is designed to provide the attacker with sensitive data such as passwords. or even to use your system to launch malicious attacks against other networks FTP Trojans A type of Trojan horse designed to open port 21 (the port for FTP transfer) and lets the attacker connect to your computer using File Transfer Protocol (FTP). credit card information. This Trojan type is normally combined with another type of Trojan as a payload. and is more like a virus than any other Trojan. there are software fixes that system administrators can install to limit the damage caused by the attacks. e-mail address or IM contact lists. It can often go undetected by antivirus software. Proxy Trojans A type of Trojan horse designed to use the victim's computer as a proxy server. Destructive Trojans A type of Trojan horse designed to destroy and delete files. Many DoS attacks. or they could install a keylogger and send all recorded keystrokes back to the attacker. just credit card information or passwords). These Trojans can look for specific pre-defined data (e. such as the Ping of Death and Teardrop attacks. like viruses. . Denial-of-service attack (DoS) Trojans Short for denial-of-service attack. exploit limitations in the TCP/IP protocols. For all known DoS attacks. new DoS attacks are constantly being dreamed up by hackers. log files.

(eg.wikipedia. URL: http://www. As the Trojans slept.URL: http://en. . the King of Ithica.tech-faq.com/trojan-horse-virus. which has been set up to take the connections. Once a connection is made to the server. with NAT infrastructure being very common. the client can then send commands to the server. In order for an attacker to connect to the server they must have the IP Address of the computer where the server is being run. Today. a Client and a Server.shtml HISTORY OF THE TERM TROJAN HORSE: The original trojan horse was built by Odysseus. Therefore many trojans now connect to the computer of the attacker. most computers cannot be reached by their external ip address. including Odysseus and Menelaus. Some trojans have the IP Address of the computer they are running on sent to the attacker via email or another form or communication. When the server is run on a machine it will listen on a specific port or multiple ports for connections from a Client. Many trojans nowadays also bypass many personal firewall installed on the victims computer. This is called a 'reverse-connect' trojan. Odysseus had a large wooden horse built and left as a "gift" outside the walls of the city of Troy. the server will then execute these commands on the victim's machine. Poison-Ivy) Trojans are extremely simple to create in many programming languages.org/wiki/Trojan_horse_(computing) HOW TROJANS WORK: Trojans usually consist of two parts. during the legendary Trojan Wars. Instead. instead of the attacker connecting to his or her victim. the Greek army sailed back to Troy and the soldiers hiding in the wooden horse snuck out and opened the gates of the city for them. the horse was filled with Greek warriors. A simple Trojan in Visual Basic or C# using Visual Studio can be achieved in 10 lines of code or under. The Greeks were losing the siege of the city of Troy. The server is run on the victim's machine and listens for connections from a Client which is used by the attacker. He then ordered the Greek army to sail away. The Trojans believed the horse to be a peace offering from Odysseus.

the sendmail and OpenSSH packages were both used to hide trojan horses. A trojan horse virus is a virus which spreads by fooling an unsuspecting user into executing it. The trojan horse virus infects like a trojan horse. A similar technique for spreading trojan horses is to send files to unsuspecting users over chat systems like IRC. the trojan horse could just send data to the attacker. Trojan horses must be spread by other mechanisms. This was done by an attacker who broke into the distribution sites for these software packages and replaced the original distributions with his own packages. but a sophisticated trojan horse could also be programmed to look for items such as credit card numbers. ICQ. A more common method of spreading a trojan horse is to send it via e-mail. or Yahoo Messenger. One way to spread a trojan horse is to hide it inside a distribution of normal software. EFFECTS OF TROJAN HORSE: The victim running the trojan horse will usually give the attacker some degree of control over the victim's machine. . An example of a trojan horse virus would be a virus which required a user to open an e-mail attachment in Microsoft Outlook to activate.THE COMPUTER TROJAN HORSE: A computer trojan horse is a program which appears to be something good. AIM. but actually conceals something bad. but spreads like a virus. Alternatively.exe. Data commonly targeted by trojan horses includes usernames and passwords. or to run commands with all of the victim's privileges. Once activated. The attacker will send the victim an e-mail with an attachment called something like "prettygirls. where the victims machine is used to attack other victims. The trojan horse could make the victim's machine part of a Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) network." When the victim opens the attachment to see the pretty girls. THE TROJAN HORSE VIRUS: Unlike viruses. trojan horses do not normally spread themselves. This control may allow the attacker to remotely access the victim's machine. In 2002. the trojan horse virus would send copies of itself to people in the Microsoft Outlook address book. the trojan horse will infect his system. MSN.

The best defense against a trojan horse is to never run a program that is sent to you. These trojan horse programs will not be detected by anti-virus software. . Email and chat systems are not safe methods of software distribution. However.PROTECTING AGAINST A TROJAN HORSE: Anti-virus programs detect known trojan horses. trojan horse programs are easier to create than viruses and many are created in small volumes.

2. They can be hidden in illicit software or other files or programs you might download. Viruses are most easily spread by attachments in e-mail messages or instant messaging messages.com/protect/computer/basics/virus.microsoft. A virus might corrupt or delete data on your computer.mspx WHAT IS COMPUTER VIRUS: Computer viruses are small software programs that are designed to spread from one computer to another and to interfere with computer operation. greeting cards. use your e-mail program to spread itself to other computers. macro viruses network viruses logic bombs companion viruses boot sector viruses multipartite viruses .COMPUTER VIRUS URL: http://www. 4. That is why it is essential that you never open e-mail attachments unless you know who it's from and you are expecting it. Viruses also spread through downloads on the Internet. 6. TYPE OF VIRUSES: 1. or audio and video files. 3. 5. Viruses can be disguised as attachments of funny images. or even erase everything on your hard disk.

[6] Either way.org/wiki/Salami_slicing#Salami_slicing_attacks DEFINITION a salami attack is a series of minor attacks that together results in a larger attack. [5] Another definition states is the creation of a larger entity comprised of many smaller scraps similar to the contents of salami. .all. URL: http://www.wikipedia.net/CID/Attack/papers/Salami.html DEFINITION: The origin of the terminology has a double meaning and both definitions accurately describe the methodology of a salami attack. The idea of 'salami slicing' where a small piece is cut off the end with no noticeable difference in the overall length of the original is one way of looking at it. Computers are ideally suited to automating this type of attack.SALAMI ATTACK URL: http://en. salami attacks are looked at as when negligible amounts are removed and accumulated into something larger.