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5.

2 DETERMINANT OF
MATRICES

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5.2 At the end of the lesson, students should
be able to :
(a) determine the determinant of a
2x2 matrix .
(b)define the minor mij and cofactor of aij
for mxm matrix.
(c) discuss the expansion of the cofactor
and find the determinant of a 3×3
matrix.

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N0TE Matrix A denoted as :
A   aij    aij 
Determinant of A denoted as :
A  det A
A  aij A   aij 
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Determinant of a 2x2
matrix
Consider A
a b 
,the determinant of A
= c d 
is
 
a b
A = = ad - bc
c d

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EXAMPLE 1
 2 5  3 2
Given A    and B    .
 3 8  5 2
SOLUTION
Find A , AB .
2 5 31 14
A= = 16 − 15 = 1 AB = = 682 − 686
49 22
3 8
=-4
 2 5  3 2  31 14 
AB =     = 
 3 8  5 2  49 22

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Minor and Cofactor
Let A be m x m
matrix , A=  aij 
mm
The minor, mij , is the determinant
of
(m -1)x(m -1) matrix obtained by
deleting the i th row and j th column
of A
The cofactor, c ij , of the element aij is

cij = (-1)i+j mij

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EXAMPLE 2

 1 2 -1 
Let A =  3 4 2
 ,
 
 1 4 3 
find the minors and cofactors
of a11 , a21 , a12 .

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 1 2 -1 

A 

3 4 2 

 
 1 4 3 
SOLUTION  

m11 , is the determinant of 2x2


matrix obtained by deleting the
first row and first column of A.
4 2
m11 = (4 x 3) – (4 x 2) 4
=
4 3 =

Minor of
a11
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 1 2 -1 

2 1 Minor of A 


3 4 2 


m21 = a21 

1 4 3 

4 3
= (2 x 3) – (-1 x 4) =10
3 2
m12 = 1 3 Minor of
a12
=mm
(312 x is3)
, is the

the determinant
(2 x = 7
determinant of 2x2
of 2x2
21 ,
matrix obtained by deleting the
1)matrix obtained by deleting the 2 nd 1st

row and 2 nd
columnofofA.A.
row and 1 column
st

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The cofactor, cij , of the element
aij
cij = (-1)
i+j
mij

cofactor of
c11 = (-1)1+1 a11 minor m =
11
m11= (-1)2 x 4 = 4 4

cofactor of
a21 m =
c21 = (-1)2+1 minor 21
10
m21= (-1)3 x 10 = -10

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cofactor of
a12
c12 = (-1)1+2
m12= (-1)3 x 7
minor m12 =
7
=-7

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note cij = (-1)i+j
mij
  m11 m12  m13 

cofactor matrix : C   m21  m22 m23  
  m31 m32  m33 

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Determinant of 3x3
matrix
Expansion of the cofactors

For any matrix A   aij  n n ,


A the is obtained by summing
up the product of each element of certain row or
column by its cofactor;
A =∑aij cij ;
i =1,2,..., n and j =1,2,..., n

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5.2 Determinant of Matrices

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LEARNING OUTCOMES

At the end of the lesson,


students should be able to
discuss the properties of
determinant.

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• If any row (or column) of a square matrix A
contain only zeroes, then A =0

1 2 3   1 0 3

A = 0 0 0 ,
 
A = 0 B 7 0 5 , B 0 
 
4 2 1   2 0 1 

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2. If a square matrix B is obtained from a
square matrix A by multiplying each
element of any row or column of A by some
B =k A
real number k, then

 2 3 2 3
A=  A= = −2
 4 5 4 5

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 4 6 2 3
B=  A  2
 4 5 4 5
4 6
B  20  24   4
4 5
2 3
B 2  2 A  2( 2)   4
4 5
B 2 A k=2

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EXAMPLE 2
Given the |A|=5.Hence find |B| , |C| and |D| by
using the determinant properties.
 1 2 3  5 10 15
A   2 3 5  B   2 3 5 
 3 4 2   3 4 5 

 5 10 15   5 10 15 
C   10 15 25 D   10 15 25
 3 4 2   15 20 10 

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SOLUTION
 5 10 15

B 2 3 5 
Given |A| = 5
 3 4 5 

5 10 15 1 2 3
B 2 3 5
52 3 5 = 5|A| = 25
3 4 5
3 4 2
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SOLUTION
 5 10 15 

C   10 15 25 
 3 4 2 

5 10 15
1 2 3
C  10 15 25  5.5 2 3 5 = 5.5|A|
3 4 5
3 4 2 = 125

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SOLUTION
 5 10 15 

D   10 15 25 
 15 20 10 
1 2 3
D = 5.5.5 2 3 5  625
3 4 2
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NOTE
kA = k A n

- A is a square matrix (n x n)

- k is a constant

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3. If any two rows (or columns) of a
square matrix A are identical, then
A =0

3 4 1  3 4 1
 
A =  4 2 2 A = 4 2 2 =0
3 4 1  3 4 1
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EXAMPLE 3
3 6 9
 
Find the determinant of B = 1 2 3
0 − 1 1
SOLUTION

3 6 9 1 2 3
B =1 2 3 =3 1 2 3 = 3(0) = 0
0 −1 1 0 −1 1

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4. If a square matrix B is obtained from a
square matrix A by interchanging any
two rows (columns),then B =−A

 2 3 2 3
A=   A  8  3  11
 − 1 4 1 4

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 2 3
A=  
 − 1 4
 − 1 4 Row 1 and 2
B= 
 2 3 are interchanged

B = −3 − 8 = −11 A  11
B =− A

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T
5. If A is a square matrix, then A= A
3 − 1 4 

A = 1 − 2 7 
 A = −28
 5 − 1 10

3 1 5 A = −28
T
 
A =  − 1 − 2 − 1
T

 4 7 10  A= A T
= −28

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6. If A and B are square matrices, then

AB = A B

 2 1 1 4  5 6 
A=  ,B =   AB = 
− 3 4 3 − 2 
9 − 20
A = 11 B = −14 AB = −154
A B = (11)(−14) = −154 AB = A B

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7. The determinant of an upper (or lower)
triangular matrix is the product of its
diagonal entries.
2 0 0   3 1 2
   
B =  0 − 1 4
A = 0 3 0 
 0 0 − 1  0 0 1
A = (2)(3)(−1) B = (3)(−1)(1)
= −6 = −1

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8. If a square matrix B is obtained
from a square matrix A by
adding k times the elements in
the i th row of A to j th row of A,
then
B = A

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 − 1 4  − 1 4
A=  B= 
 2 1  0 9

(2)4+1=9
(2)(-1)+2=0

A = −9 = B

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9. If A is a square matrix then

A k  Ak

where k is a scalar

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Example

Given |AB| = |A| |B|

Then find |A10|

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Solution
Given |AB|=|A||B|

Therefore |AA =|A||A|


Then |A10| = |A| |A| |A| . . . |A|

10 times

|A10| =|A|10

Therefore; |Ak|=|A|k

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CONCLUSIONS

• If any row (or column) of a square matrix A


contain only zeroes, then A =0

• If a square matrix B is obtained from a square


matrix A by multiplying each
element of any row or column of A by some real
number k, then B =k A

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3. If any two rows (or columns) of a square matrix
A are identical, then A =0

4. If a square matrix B is obtained from a square


matrix A by interchanging any two rows columns),
then
B =− A

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5. If A is a square matrix, then A = AT

6. If A and B are square matrices, then AB = A B

7. The determinant of an upper (or lower)


triangular matrix is the product of its
diagonal entries.

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8. If a square matrix B is obtained from a
square matrix A by adding k times the elements in
the i th row of A to j th row of A,
then
B = A

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9. If A is a square matrix then

k  Ak
A
where k is a scalar

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Exercices
 1 0 1 
 
1. If B 7 3 x  2 , and |B| =4 , find
 2 x  1 2 

(a)The value of x (b) | BT | (c) | B4 |

Answer: (a)3 (b)4 (c)256

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