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August 20, 2010

Parkinson's disease is a progressive, neurodegenerative disorder that affects movement, muscle control, and balance as well as numerous other functions. It is part of a group of conditions known as motor systems disorders. Parkinson's disease was named for James Parkinson, a general practitioner in London during the 19th century who first described the symptoms of the disease. Symptoms describing Parkinson's disease are mentioned in the writings of medicine in India dating back to 5,000 BCE as well as in Chinese writings dating back approximately 2500 years. Parkinson's disease is the most common movement disorder and the second most common neurodegenerative disorder, the most common being Alzheimer's disease. What is Parkinson's Disease? Parkinson's disease is a progressive, neurodegenerative disorder that affects movement, muscle control, and balance as well as numerous other functions. It is part of a group of conditions known as motor systems disorders. Parkinson's disease was named for James Parkinson, a general practitioner in London during the 19th century who first described the symptoms of the disease. Symptoms describing Parkinson's disease are mentioned in the writings of medicine in India dating back to 5,000 BCE as well as in Chinese writings dating back approximately 2500 years. Parkinson's disease is the most common movement disorder and the second most common neurodegenerative disorder, the most common being Alzheimer's disease. The hallmark symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) are asymmetric tremors at rest, rigidity, and bradykinesia (slowness in movement). There is currently no cure for Parkinson's disease; it is always chronic and progressive, meaning that the symptoms always exist and always worsen over time. The rate of progression varies from person to person, as does the intensity of the symptoms. Parkinson's disease itself is not a fatal disease and many people live into their older years. Mortality of Parkinson's disease patients is usually related to secondary complications, such as pneumonia or falling-related injuries. There are three types of Parkinson's disease and they are grouped by age of onset:

bradykinesia and postural instability. PD traditionally has been considered a non-genetic disorder. While many forms of parkinsonism are idiopathic.5 million people in the U.S. or other medical disorders. rigidity.This is the most common type of Parkinson's disease. PD is the most common cause of chronic progressive parkinsonism. Incidence is the number of new cases per unit of person time at risk (usually number of new cases per thousand person years).000 new cases are diagnosed in the U.. PD is also called "primary parkinsonism" or "idiopathic PD" (classically meaning having no known cause). That number is expected to rise as the general population in the U.S. The incidence of PD ranges from 8. The incidence of Juvenile Parkinson's Disease is very rare. with estimates ranging from 5-10% of cases diagnosed. The disease is named after English apothecary James Parkinson. "secondary" cases may result from toxicity most notably of drugs. If not treated motor symptoms have an aggressive advance at the beginning of the disease with an slower advance later on the disease course: untreated patients are expected to lose independent ambulation after 8 years and be bedridden after 10 years Two main measures are used in epidemiological studies: incidence and prevalence.The age of onset is between 21-40 years old. Young-Onset Parkinson's Disease . a term which refers to the syndrome of tremor.y y y Adult-Onset Parkinson's Disease . Approximately 50. According to the American Parkinson's Disease Association.[3] At least between 5 and 10% of the patients are now known to have monogenic forms of the disease.000 people. Though the incidence of Young-Onset Parkinson's Disease is very high in Japan (approximately 40% of cases diagnosed with Parkinson's disease). however around 15% of patients have a first-degree relative who also has the disease. Onset of Parkinson's disease before the age of 40 is rare.[7] Other genes act as risk factors for sporadic cases of the disease. there are approximately 1.6-19 per 100. The incidence of adult onset PD rises noticeably as people advance in age into their 70's and 80's. it is still relatively uncommon in the U.S. while prevalence is the total number of cases of the disease in the population at a given . who suffer from Parkinson's disease . Juvenile Parkinson's Disease . who made a detailed description of the disease in his essay: "An Essay on the Shaking Palsy" (1817). All races and ethnic groups are affected. ages.S. annually. The average age of onset is approximately 60 years old. head trauma.approximately 1-2% of people over the age of 60 and 3-5% of the population over age 85.The age of onset is before the age of 21. PD progresses with time.

However. plateaus.time. rising to 1% in those over 60 years of age and to 4% of the population over 80. Philippines 317. obscuring the relationship between PD and advanced age. PD is the most common neurodegenerative disorder after Alzheimer's disease. although 5-10% of cases are considered of young onset as begin between the age of 20 and 50.3 The majority of prior studies have combined those aged 80 or 85 years and older together because of low numbers of participants in that age group. Accurate predictions of the future population burden of PD depend on whether its incidence continues to increase.[34] Studies on incidence report that it is between 8 and 18 per 100.2 Age is the strongest risk factor for PD.065 WARNING! (Details) 86. or declines in those aged 80 years and older. although results are controversial.1 People aged 85 years and older are currently the fastest growing segment of the US population.000 person-years.241.[34] Mean age of onset is around 60 years. with a nearly exponential increase in incidence between ages 55 and 79 years. The burden of Parkinson disease (PD) in developing nations is expected to double over the next generation as the result of increasing life expectancy. the incidence of PD in advanced age remains controversial.[3] Parkinson's disease might less prevalent in those of African and Asian ancestry.[34] Some studies have also proposed that PD is more common in men than women while others did not found any differences between the two groups.[34] The prevalence is estimated at being 0.3 in the whole population in industrialized countries.6972 2004 .