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56 Welding Technology and Design

AWS A 5.21 1980 Composite surfacing welding rods and electrodes

AWS A 5.22 1980 Flux cored Cr and Cr-Ni steel electrodes
AWS A 5.23 1990 Low alloy steel electrodes and fluxes for submerged arc
AWS A 5.24 1990 Zr and Zr alloy filler metal.
AWS A 5.25 1991 Flux wire combinations used for electroslag welding of
carbon and high strength low alloy steels.
AWS A 5.26 1978 Consumables used for electro-slag welding of carbon and
high strength alloy steels.
AWS A 5.28 1979 Bare solid wire of low alloy steel for use with TIG, MIG
and PAW processes.
AWS A 29 1980 Low alloy steel electrodes for flux covered arc welding.
Matching electrodes must be used for alloy steels and stainless steels. For
corrosion resistant base metals the electrode must also be corrosion resistant.
Chromium-nickel steel electrodes are classified on the basis of chemical
composition of the filler metal. AWS - A5.5--69 and AWS A5.5-69 specifications
give the composition for stainless steel electrodes.
Hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen can be present in mild and low alloy steel weld
deposits; all are detrimental even in small amounts.
Hydrogen lowers the ductility and notch ductility of weld deposits. It is believed
to cause fissuring (Micro-cracking) in non-hardenable weld deposits and cold
(underbead) cracking in the heat affected zones of hardenable steels. It can also
cause porosity. Hydrogen is considered to affect notch ductility and cracking in
amounts above 0.0087 per cent.
Oxygen can lead to poor notch impact performance possibly by acting as a
catalyst for precipitation reactions such as strain ageing. In larger amounts it can
react with carbon to give carbon-monoxide and hence porosity.
Nitrogen is believed to contribute to weld metal fissuring and in larger amounts
it leads to reduced ductility and the formation of hard needles of iron nitride. It can
have a deleterious influence of creep behaviour, and in larger amounts cause
Basic covered electrodes give weld deposits low in hydrogen, oxygen and
nitrogen. Cellulosic electrodes also give deposits with good mechanical properties
and weld metal low in oxygen and nitrogen.
Some electrodes are compounded to deposit weld metal that solidifies rapidly
after being melted by the arc, and are thus used specifically for welding in the
vertical and overhead positions. They are known as Fast Freeze Electrodes.
Commonly used Fast Freeze Electrodes in the welding of steel are E 6010, E 6011,
E 7010-A and E 7010-G. The deposition rates are not very high with these
electrodes. These electrodes provide deep penetration and maxium admixture. Slag
formation is light and the arc is easy to control.
There are electrodes which are compounded to deposit metal rapidly in the heat
of the arc, and are thus well suited to high speed welding on horizontal surface.
These electrodes are known as Fast-Fill Electrodes. The weld metal solidifies
somewhat slowly and so these electrodes are not suitable for out-of-position