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Welding Processes 63

(a) Single fillet welded joint is employed in Lap, Tee and Corner joints. The
strength of these joint depends on the size of the fillet. If loading is not
severe, these joints are suitable upto 12 mm of plate thickness. In fatigue
or bending the joint will be weak.
(b) Double fillet welded joint is used for Tee, lap and corner joints. It develops
full strength of the base metal and hence can be used for fatigue type of
loading also.
(c) Combined groove and fillet joint may be used in certain applications to
improve the stress distribution within the joint, specially in Tee and corner
joints.
1.4.2.5 Comparison of joints
In general butt joint is preferable to the single and double fillet or lap joint
when
(a) the joint undergoes appreciable tension, bending and shock or fatigue
stresses.
(b) overlapping parts would decrease thermal conductivity where this is a most
important factor.
(c) there is a possibility of corrosion between the overlapping structures.
(d) a maximum saving in weight is desired.
The main disadvantages of the butt joint are :
(a) Greater cost of preparation.
(b) Higher assembly cost in some of the products.
(c) Lack of design flexibility in weld size.
(d) Greater skill required.
(e) Use of smaller electrodes or filler rods and lower currents for the root layers.
(f) Greater shrinkage and higher residual stresses.
1.4.3 Welding symbols
The welding symbols denote the type of weld to be applied to a particular weldment.
These symbols will indicate to the designer, draftsman and the welder the exact
welding details established for each joint or connection to satisfy all conditions of
material strength and service required.
Figure 1.28 (a) shows the different weld joints and the symbols used to represent
them.
Figure 1.28 (b) shows the practical application of these symbols to various
typical joints.
The welding symbols are indicated in conjunction with an arrow connected at
an angle to a reference line. This reference line is usually drawn parallel to the
bottom base plate. If the weld symbol is placed below the reference line, the weld
face is on the other side of the joint. If the symbol is above the reference line, the
weld face is on the other side of the joint. A circle where the arrow line meets the
reference line indicates that it should be a peripheral (around) weld. A numerical
figure before the symbol for a fillet weld indicates the leg length. A fork at the end
of the reference line with a number in it, indicates the welding process to be
employed. For example 111 is metal arc welding with covered electrode; 121 for