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journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/ijhmt

of porous media

C. Yang a,b, A. Nakayama a,c,*

a

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johoku, Hamamatsu 432-8561, Japan

b

School of Energy and Power Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074, China

c

Department of Civil Engineering, Wuhan Polytechnic University, Wuhan, Hubei 430023, China

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: Effects of tortuosity and dispersion on the effective thermal conductivity of ﬂuid-saturated porous media

Received 7 October 2009 are investigated analytically with help of a volume averaging theory. Firstly, a general expression for the

Received in revised form 19 January 2010 effective stagnant thermal conductivity has been derived using a unit cell model, which consists of rect-

Accepted 19 February 2010

angular solids with connecting arms in an in-line arrangement. The validity of the expression for the stag-

Available online 26 March 2010

nant thermal conductivity has been conﬁrmed comparing the present results with available experimental

and theoretical data for packed beds, porous foams and wire screens. Secondly, an general expression for

Keywords:

the thermal dispersion conductivity has been sought with help of the two energy equations for solid and

Effective thermal conductivity

Porous media

ﬂuid phases, derived on the basis of a volume averaging theory. It has been shown that the interstitial

Tortuosity heat transfer between the solid and ﬂuid phases is closely associated with the thermal dispersion. The

Dispersion resulting expressions for the longitudinal and transverse thermal dispersion conductivities agree well

with available experimental data and empirical correlations.

Ó 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

tion in porous media is based largely on the lumped mixture

An effective thermal conductivity of a ﬂuid-saturated porous model under the assumption of local thermal equilibrium condi-

medium is composed of stagnant thermal conductivity and ther- tion. In this treatment, the problem reduces to the construction

mal dispersion conductivity. For the case of pure heat conduction, of an appropriate composite model for the estimation of effective

the thermal dispersion conductivity is absent. In such heat conduc- stagnant thermal conductivity. Such attempts include Rayleigh

tion case, it is crucial to estimate the effects of tortuosity on the [2], Deissler and Boegli [3], Kunii and Smith [4], Zehner and Schlun-

stagnant thermal conductivity, since the thermal conductivity of der [5], Nozad et al. [6], Sahraouni and Kaviany [7] and Hsu et al.

the solid phase is generally much higher than that of the ﬂuid [8,9]. Hsu et al. [9] introduced a one-dimensional conduction mod-

phase, and thus, whether the solid is connected or not inﬂuences el based on in-line touching cubes, and carried out an elegant anal-

the heat conduction mode signiﬁcantly. Thermal dispersion, on ysis to show good agreement with the experimental data for the

the other hand, is the spreading of heat caused by variations in case of packed beds. As for consolidated porous media, Calmid

ﬂuid velocity about the mean velocity. In addition to the molecular and Mahajan [10,11] conducted a comprehensive study on the

thermal diffusion, there is signiﬁcant mechanical dispersion in heat effective thermal conductivity of high porosity ﬁbrous metal

and ﬂuid ﬂow in a ﬂuid-saturated porous medium, as a result of foams, introducing a one-dimensional heat conduction model.

hydrodynamic mixing of the ﬂuid particles passing through pores. They found that their analysis agrees fairly well with the experi-

This thermal dispersion causes additional heat transfer, which mental data. Chang [12], on the other hand, developed a compara-

arises further complications in dealing with transport processes tively simple theoretical model based on combined series and

in ﬂuid-saturated porous media. parallel conduction within ﬂuid saturated wire screens. He con-

Accurate estimation of effective stagnant thermal conductivity cluded that his analytical model provides better accuracy than

of porous media has been continuously investigated since the pio- the existing correlations. Excellent reviews on this topic may be

found in Kaviany [13] and Hsu [14].

In the ﬁrst part of this paper, we shall consider macroscopic

* Corresponding author. Address: Department of Mechanical Engineering,

Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johoku, Hamamatsu 432-8561, Japan. Tel./fax: +81 53

heat conduction in porous media in a somewhat more general

478 1049. way by appealing to a volume averaging procedure [15–17]. We

E-mail address: tmanaka@ipc.shizuoka.ac.jp (A. Nakayama). shall introduce a unit cell model, which consists of rectangular sol-

0017-9310/$ - see front matter Ó 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2010.03.004

C. Yang, A. Nakayama / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 53 (2010) 3222–3230 3223

Nomenclature

Aint interface between the ﬂuid and solid (m2) V representative elementary volume (m3)

af speciﬁc surface area (1/m) xi Cartesian coordinates (m)

c speciﬁc heat (J/kg K) x, y, z Cartesian coordinates (m)

cp speciﬁc heat at constant pressure (J/kg K) e porosity (–)

C size of the touching arm (m) g dimensionless vertical coordinate (–)

D size of the solid (m) q density (kg/m3)

F, f, g proﬁle functions (–)

H size of the cell (m) Special symbols

hf interfacial heat transfer coefﬁcient (W/m2 K) ~

/ deviation from intrinsic average

k thermal conductivity (W/m K) h/i Darcian average

L external scale (m) h/if ;s intrinsic average

nj unit vector pointing outward from the ﬂuid side to solid

side (–) Subscripts and superscripts

Pr Prandtl number (–) f ﬂuid

q heat ﬂux (W/m2) s solid

Ra;b;c;f ;s thermal resistances

ids with connecting arms in an in-line arrangement. This general 2. Macroscopic energy equations

model allows us to represent most homogeneous porous media,

which may or may not have directional dependence. Packed beds, We shall consider the energy equation for the ﬂuid phase and

porous foams and wire screens may easily be described by setting that for the solid matrix phase as follows:

geometrical parameters in the model accordingly. The terms asso-

ciated with the tortuosity in porous media are evaluated, by faith- For the ﬂuid phase:

fully carrying out surface integrations with respect to the local @T @ @ @T

temperature over the interface between the solid and ﬂuid phases. qf cpf þ q f c pf uj T ¼ kf ð1Þ

@t @xj @xj @xj

In the second part of this paper, we shall investigate the thermal

dispersion conductivity, which becomes predominant for convec- For the matrix phase:

tive ﬂows in porous media. According to Wakao and Kaguei [18], @T @ @T

Yagi et al. [19] were the ﬁrst to measure the effective longitudinal qs cs ¼ ks ð2Þ

@t @xj @xj

thermal conductivities of packed bed, taking full account of the ef-

fect of thermal dispersion, and eventually found the longitudinal where the subscripts f and s stand for the ﬂuid phase and solid

component of the dispersion coefﬁcient much greater than its phase, respectively. In order to obtain the macroscopic energy equa-

transverse component. Since the famous analytical treatment in a tion for ﬂuid-saturated porous media, we take a control volume V

tube by Taylor [20], a number of theoretical and experimental ef- within in the medium, whose length scale V 1=3 is much smaller than

forts (e.g. Aris [21], Koch and Brady [22], Han et al. [23] and Vort- the macroscopic characteristic length, but, at the same time, much

meyer [24]) were made to establish useful correlations for greater than the structural characteristic length (see e.g. Nakayama

estimating the effective thermal conductivities due to thermal dis- [15]). Under this condition, the volume average of a certain variable

persion (see Kaviany [13]). Furthermore, a series of numerical / in the ﬂuid phase is deﬁned as

experiments were conducted by Kuwahara et al. [25] and Kuwaha- Z

1

ra and Nakayama [26], assuming a macroscopically uniform ﬂow h/if / dV ð3Þ

Vf Vf

through a lattice of rods, so as to elucidate the effects of micro-

scopic velocity and temperature ﬁelds on the thermal dispersion. where V f is the volume space which the ﬂuid phase occupies. The

It is also worthwhile to mention that Nakayama et al. [27] derived porosity e V f =V is the volume fraction of the ﬂuid space. Follow-

a thermal dispersion heat ﬂux transport equation from the volume ing Nakayama [15], Cheng [16], Quintard and Whitaker [17] and

averaged version of Navier–Stokes and energy equations and many others, we decompose a variable / into its intrinsic average

showed that it naturally reduces to an algebraic expression for and the spatial deviation from it:

the effective thermal conductivity based on a gradient-type diffu-

sion hypothesis. / ¼ h/if þ /

~ ð4Þ

In this paper, we shall revisit the volume average version of the We shall exploit the following spatial average relationships:

two energy equations for solid and ﬂuid phases, derived on the ba-

sis of the volume averaging theory [28]. We shall follow the deﬁni- h/1 /2 if ¼ h/1 if h/2 if þ h/ ~ 2 if

~ 1/ ð5Þ

tion of thermal dispersion heat ﬂux to evaluate the longitudinal f Z

@/ 1 @ eh/if 1

and transverse components of the thermal dispersion conductivity, ¼ þ /ni dA ð6Þ

@xi e @xi V f Aint

exploiting the derived two energy equations. It will be shown that

the interstitial heat transfer is closely linked with the thermal dis- where Aint is the local interfacial area between the ﬂuid and solid

persion phenomena. A general expression will be derived using the matrix, while ni is the unit vector pointing outward from the ﬂuid

inter-relationship found between the interstitial heat transfer and side to solid side. Similar relationships hold for the solid phase,

thermal dispersion. The validity of general expressions for both whose intrinsic average is deﬁned as

stagnant thermal conductivity and thermal dispersion conductivity Z

1

will be conﬁrmed comparing the present results with available h/is / dV ð7Þ

Vs Vs

experimental and theoretical data.

3224 C. Yang, A. Nakayama / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 53 (2010) 3222–3230

Upon integrating Eqs. (1) and (2) over the local control volume with parallel model, namely, ðekf þ ð1 eÞks Þdij . Thus, it is the tortuosity

help of the foregoing relationships, we obtain the volume averaged term (i.e. the second term) that adjusts the level of the effective

set of the energy equations as follows [28]: stagnant thermal conductivity from its upper bound to a correct

one.

For the ﬂuid phase:

qf cpf e þ q f c pf e 3. Unit cell model and effective stagnant thermal conductivity

@t @xj

Z !

@ @hTif kf ~ f The present unit cell model of rectangular solid is illustrated in

¼ ekf þ Tnj dA qf cpf ehuTi

~

Fig. 1. We assume that an inﬁnite number of these rectangular sol-

@xj @xj V Aint

Z ids are arranged in a regular fashion. The dimensions of the unit

1 @T

þ kf nj dA ð8Þ cell and rectangular solid are indicated as ðHx ; Hy ; Hz Þ and

V Aint @xj ðDx ; Dy ; Dz Þ, respectively, while the sizes of touching arms of

For the solid matrix phase: square crosssection are denoted by ðC x ; C y ; C z Þ, respectively.

! We shall apply Eq. (13) to this unit model so as to ﬁnd out the

Z

@hTis @ @hTis ks effective stagnant thermal conductivity. The axial component of

qs cs ð1 eÞ ¼ ð1 eÞks Tnj dA

the surface integral term in the second term in the rightmost

@t @xj @xj V Aint

Z expression in Eq. (13) may be estimated as follows:

1 @T

kf nj dA ð9Þ * Z + !

V Aint @xj Z H z Z Hy Z Hx Z

~i 1 Tni dA ¼~i

1 1

Tni dA dxdydz

where hTif is the intrinsic average of the ﬂuid temperature, while V Aint H x Hy H z 0 0 0 Vðx;y;zÞ Aint

Z

hTis is the intrinsic average of the solid matrix temperature. Obvi- H x Dx

¼ Tjx¼Dx Tjx¼Dx dA

ously, the parenthetical terms on the right hand side of Eq. (8) de- Dy Dz C 2x 2 2 C:V:1 H2 Hy H z

x

note the diffusive heat transfer, while the last term describes the Z

Dx

interfacial heat transfer between the solid and ﬂuid phases. We Tjx¼Dx Tjx¼Dx þHx dA

Dy Dz C 2x 2 2 C:V:2 H2 Hy H z

x

combine the foregoing two energy equations to obtain a single mac- Z

Hx C y

roscopic equation as follows: þ Tjx¼Cy Tjx¼Cy dA

2

C y ðHy Dy Þ 2 2

C:V:1 H Hy Hz

Z x

@ðeqf cpf hTif þ ð1 eÞqs cs hTis Þ @huj if hTif Cy

þ eqf cpf Tjx¼Cy Tjx¼Cy þH dA 2

C:V:2 H x H y Hz

x

@t @xj C y ðHy Dy Þ 2 2

! Z

f s Z Hx C z

@ @hTi @hTi kf ks e f þ Tjx¼Cz Tjx¼Cz dA

¼ ekf þ ð1 eÞks þ Tnj dA eqf cpf hu T i

~ C z ðHz Dz Þ 2 2 C:V:1 H2 Hy H z

x

@xj @xj @xj V Aint Z

Cz

ð10Þ Tjx¼Cz Tjx¼Cz þHx dA ð14Þ

C z ðHz Dz Þ 2 2 C:V:2 H2 Hy Hz

x

Upon noting that ni is the unit vector pointing outward from the

the interface. Further assuming that the local thermal equilibrium

ﬂuid side to solid side, we considered the two distinctive control

condition holds between both phases, namely, hTif ¼ hTis ¼ hTi,

volumes, namely, C.V.1 and C.V.2, as shown in Fig. 2, with their cor-

the equation reduces to

responding weights, to evaluate the volume average of the surface

@hTi @huj ihTi integral term associated with the interfacial temperatures.

ðeqf cpf þ ð1 eÞqs cs Þ þ qf cpf

@t @xj The temperature differences between the opposing interfaces

Z ! may be estimated considering the heat currents, namely,

@ @hTi kf ks e f

¼ ðekf þ ð1 eÞks Þ þ Tnj dA eqf cpf hu

~j T i

@xj @xj V Aint

ð11Þ

where

Z

1

h/i / dV ð12Þ

V V

is the Darcian average of the variable / such that huj i ¼ ehuj if is the

Darcian velocity vector. Thus, we ﬁnd the macroscopic heat ﬂux

vector qj and its corresponding total effective thermal conductivity

tensor ktotalij as follows:

@hTi

qi ¼ ktotalij

@xj

* Z +

@hTi 1

¼ ðekf þ ð1 eÞks Þ ðkf ks Þ ~ i Te if

Tni dA þ eqf cpf hu

@xi V Aint

ð13Þ

The last term in the rightmost expression describes the thermal dis-

persion term, while the second associated with the surface integral

describes the effects of the tortuosity on the macroscopic heat ﬂux.

Note that the ﬁrst term in the expression corresponds to the upper

bound of the effective stagnant thermal conductivity based on the Fig. 1. Unit cell model.

C. Yang, A. Nakayama / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 53 (2010) 3222–3230 3225

Q ax Dx

Tjx¼Dx Tjx¼Dx ¼ @hTi ekf þ ð1 eÞks @hTi

qx ¼ kstagxx ¼

Cy

2 2 ðDy Dz C 2x Þks @x 1

ðkf ks Þ2 Rax ð1HDxx ÞHDxx þRb1x 1Hy

C

þR 1 ð 1Hz ÞHz @x

C C

x Hx cx x x

1 1þ 1 þ 1 þ 1 þ 1 þ 1

Rax

qx Hy Hz Dx ks kf

Rax Rsx Rb

x

Rc x Rf

x

¼ ð15Þ

1

þ R1s þ R1 þ R1c þ R1 ðDy Dz C 2x Þks ð19Þ

Rax x bx x fx

ekf þ ð1 eÞks

H x Dx Dx 1 kstagxx ¼

ð20aÞ

Rax ¼ þ ð16aÞ 1

ð1HDxx ÞHDxx þRb1x

C

Cy

1Hyþ 1 ð1HCzx ÞHCzx

kf ks Dy Dz C 2x ðkf ks Þ2 Rax x H x Rc x

1þ ks kf 1 þ 1 þ 1 þ 1 þ 1

Hx Rax Rsx Rb

x

Rc x Rf

x

Rsx ¼ ð16bÞ

ks C 2x Likewise,

Hx C y C y 1

Rbx ¼ þ ð16cÞ

ekf þ

ð1 eÞks

kf ks C y ðHy Dy Þ kstagyy ¼ ð20bÞ

1 1H

Dy Dy C

þ 1 1Hz Hz þR 1

C

1HC x Cx

Hx C z C z 1 1þ

ðkf ks Þ2 Ray y H y Rb

y y y cy y Hy

Rc x ¼ þ ð16dÞ ks kf 1 þ 1 þ 1 þ 1 þ 1

kf ks C z ðHz Dz Þ Ray Rsy Rb

y

Rc y Rf

y

Hx 1 ekf þ ð1 eÞks

Rfx ¼ ð16eÞ kstagzz ¼

Cy ð20cÞ

kf Hy Hz Dy Dz C y ðHy Dy Þ C z ðHz Dz Þ 1

ðkf ks Þ2 Raz ð1HDzz ÞHDzz þRb1z ð1HCxz ÞHCxz þR1cz

C

1Hy

z Hz

1þ ks kf 1 þ 1 þ 1 þ 1 þ 1

The other temperature differences may be evaluated likewise. Raz Rsz Rb

z

Rc z Rf

z

Substituting these temperature differences into Eq. (14), we The set of Eq. (16) should be used with cyclic permutation to obtain

ﬁnd the resistances Ray to Rfz in Eqs. (20b) and (20c). Moreover, the

* Z + Z Hz Z Hy Z H x Z !

porosity of the unit cell of rectangular solid may be evaluated from

~i 1 Tni dA ¼~i

1 1

Tni dA dxdydz

V Aint Hx Hy Hx 0 0 0 Vðx;y;zÞ Aint Hx Hy Hz Dx Dy Dz C 2x ðHx Dx Þ C 2y ðHy Dy Þ C 2z ðHz Dz Þ

1 e¼

Ra x 1 1 ðHx Dx ÞDx Hx Hy Hz

¼ 1 1 1 1

q

1 x k

Rax

þ Rs þ R þ Rc þ R

x bx x fx

s kf H2x ð21Þ

1

Rb x 1 1 ðHx C y ÞC y

þ 1 1 1 1

q

1 x k

Ra x

þ Rs þ R þ Rc þ R

x bx x fx

s kf H2x 4. Validation of the expression for stagnant thermal

1 conductivity

Rc x 1 1 ðHx C z ÞC z

þ 1 1 1 1

q

1 x k

ð17Þ

Ra x

þ Rs þ R þ Rc þ R s kf H2x

x bx x fx

In order to examine the generality acquired in our mathemati-

The foregoing expressions are substituted into the deﬁnition of the cal model for estimating the effective stagnant thermal conductiv-

macroscopic heat ﬂux, namely, Eq. (13) without the dispersion ity, we shall apply our model to evaluate the effective stagnant

term, to ﬁnd thermal conductivities of various porous media, such as packed

beds, metal foams and wire screens.

@hTi

@hTi ðkf ks Þ k1s k1 qx

f

qx ¼ kstagxx ¼ ekf þ ð1 eÞks 4.1. Packed beds

@x @x 1

þ 1

þ 1

þ 1

þ 1

Rax R sx Rb Rc x Rfx

x

1 Dx Dx 1 Cy Cy 1 Cz Cz Hsu et al. [9] introduced a unit cell model of touching cubes in a

1 þ 1 þ 1

Rax Hx Hx Rbx Hx Hx Rcx Hx Hx regular arrangement and carried out a lumped mixture model

ð18Þ analysis and predicted the effective stagnant thermal conductivity

of the packed beds. They showed that their model of cubes in a reg-

Upon solving for the macroscopic heat ﬂux qx , we have ular arrangement is a rational model to describe heat transfer in

3226 C. Yang, A. Nakayama / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 53 (2010) 3222–3230

the packed beds. Albeit the difference in its appearance, our gen- our general model to high porosity metal foams, by setting the geo-

eral expression based on the volume averaging theory, when ap- metrical parameters as

plied to their geometry, turns out to be mathematically identical

Hx ¼ Hy ¼ Hz ¼ H; Dx ¼ Dy ¼ Dz ¼ C x ¼ C y ¼ C z ¼ D ð24aÞ

to their expression based on the lumped mixture model. Thus, as 2 3

for the ﬁrst example, we shall predict the effective stagnant ther- D D

e¼13 þ2 ð24bÞ

mal conductivity of the packed beds. The geometrical parameters H H

for the packed beds may be set following Hsu et al. [9]:

Note that the metal foam structure was approximated by a unit cu-

Hx ¼ Hy ¼ Hz ¼ H; Dx ¼ Dy ¼ Dz ¼ D; bic cell structure according to Eq. (24a), and that the porosity was

C x ¼ C y ¼ C z ¼ C ¼ 0:13D ð22aÞ set equal to that of the corresponding metal form. Eq. (24b) for

3 2 the porosity of the unit cubic cell may readily be derived as we sub-

D D D tract the square rod volume per unit ð3ðH DÞD2 þ D3 Þ from the

e¼1 3 0:132 1 ¼ 0:36 ð22bÞ

H H H unit volume H3 to obtain the space occupied by the ﬂuid per unit

cell, then divided it by H3 .

We have approximated the collection of the spherical particles in

In Fig. 5, our prediction based on Eq. (20a) is shown along with

the packed bed by the collection of the cubes with touching arms

Calmid–Mahajan expression based their hexagonal model [10] for

of square cross section. Note that its porosity ðe ¼ 0:36Þ is set to

ks =kf ¼ 357 and 8226, over the porosity range from 0.90 to 0.98. As

the same as that of their packed beds. Eq. (22a) together with

can be seen from the ﬁgure, both predictions agree with the exper-

(22b) gives

imental data very well.

D=H ¼ 0:86 and C=H ¼ 0:11 ð23Þ

4.3. Wire screens

As we substitute foregoing values into Eq. (20a), the ratio of the

effective stagnant thermal conductivity kstagxx =kf may readily be

As for the third example, we shall consider wire screens and ap-

evaluated for each value of the solid to ﬂuid thermal conductivity

ply our general model to estimate their effective stagnant thermal

ratio, ks =kf . Such a curve showing kstagxx =kf is generated from Eq.

conductivities. A multiple layer of square-mesh standard wire

(20a) and plotted in Fig. 4 along with the experimental data of Noz-

screens is depicted in Fig. 6.

ad et al. [6] for the case of the packed beds. The prediction follows

The multiple layers of wire screens of this kind are often used

the experimental data closely over a wide range of the thermal con-

for heat pipe applications. Thus, it is essential to estimate the effec-

ductivity ratio. Note that the size ratio of the touching arm to the

tive thermal conductivity of wire screens, as we use them for

rectangular solid, namely, C/D, accounts for the contact resistance

various heat transfer applications. Chang [12] proposed a compar-

between the particles. Naturally, the resulting stagnant thermal

atively simple theoretical model based on combined series and

conductivity is fairly sensitive to the ratio C/D. Empirical informa-

parallel conduction and showed that his equation gives fairly good

tion on the contact resistance is needed to set the ratio.

agreement with available experimental data. Our general Eq. (20a)

may also be applied for this case, in order to estimate the effective

4.2. Metal foams thermal conductivity of the multiple layers of wire screens. A care-

ful observation of the cross section of the wire screen, as shown in

Our general set of Eqs. (20) can also be used for evaluating the Fig. 6 prompts us to set the geometrical parameters as follows:

effective stagnant thermal conductivities of high porosity metal

foams. In reality, the structure of metal foams is quite complex. Hx ¼ Hy ¼ Hz ¼ H; Dx =2 ¼ Dy ¼ Dz ¼ D;

Therefore, it may not be practical to describe all details of the C x ¼ 0:032D; C y ¼ D; C z ¼ D ð25aÞ

structure accurately. Calmid and Mahajan [10] approximated such 3 2 2

D D D D D

a complex structure, introducing a hexagonal structure of metal e¼12 0:0322 12 2 1 ¼ 0:70

H H H H H

foam matrix. In this way, they were able to obtain the expression

for the effective stagnant thermal conductivity exploiting a one- ð25bÞ

dimensional heat conduction concept. Their prediction agrees very such that D=H ¼ 0:39. We estimated the touching area as

well with available experimental data. Alternatively, we may apply C x ¼ 0:032D for a multiple layers of wire screens.

Fig. 4. Effective stagnant thermal conductivity of packed beds. Fig. 5. Effective stagnant thermal conductivity of metal foams.

C. Yang, A. Nakayama / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 53 (2010) 3222–3230 3227

qf cpf e þ q f c pf ¼ ðejk kf þ ekdisjk Þ

@t @xj @xj @xk

f s

af hf hTi hTi ð26Þ

@hTis @ @hTis

qf cpf ð1 eÞ ¼ ðdjk ejk Þks af hf ðhTis hTif Þ

Fig. 6. Schematic views of wire screens.

@t @xj @xk

ð27Þ

where the effective porosity tensor is deﬁned as

Note that the wire screen structure was approximated by a unit

cell structure of a rectangular prism 2D D D with four thick ðekf þ ð1 eÞks Þdjk kstagjk

arms D D ðH DÞ=2 and two thin arms 0:032D 0:032D

ejk ¼ edjk þ ð28Þ

ks kf

ðH 2DÞ=2 as given by Eq. (25a), and that the porosity was set

equal to that of the corresponding wire screens. Eq. (25b) for the such that ejk kf þ ðdjk ejk Þks ¼ kstagjk , while the dispersion thermal

porosity of the unit cell may be derived as we subtract the solid conductivity tensor is deﬁned by

volume per unit 2D3 þ 0:0322 D2 ðH 2DÞ þ 2D2 ðH DÞ from the @hTi f

unit volume H3 to obtain the space occupied by the ﬂuid per unit ~ j Te if ¼ kdiskj

qf cpf hu ð29Þ

@xk

cell, then divided it by H3 .

Our prediction based on the general Eq. (20a) is illustrated in Moreover, the interstitial heat transfer between the ﬂuid and solid

Fig. 7, which indicates fairly good agreement among our predic- phases is modeled according to Newton’s cooling law as

tion, Chang’s prediction and the experimental data of the wire Z

1 @T

screens reported by VanSant and Malet [29]. This suggests that kf nj dA ¼ af hf hTif hTis ð30Þ

V Aint @xj

our general set of Eqs. (20) is valid even for the prediction of effec-

tive stagnant thermal conductivity tensors in anisotropic porous where af and hf are the speciﬁc surface area and interfacial heat

media. transfer coefﬁcient, respectively.

5. Expressions for thermal dispersion conductivity

The energy Eq. (26) at the steady state may be written along the

Even when the local thermal equilibrium holds at the macro-

macroscopic ﬂow direction x as follows:

scopic scale, the interstitial heat transfer takes place between the

solid and ﬂuid phases. In other words, the interface at the pore @hTif

scale is never at local thermal equilibrium. In fact, it is this interfa- qf cpf hui ¼ af hf ðhTif hTis Þ ð31Þ

@x

cial heat transfer at the local non-thermal equilibrium that controls

the spatial distribution of the temperature at the pore scale and We have dropped the diffusion term, since the convection term on

thus the thermal dispersion activities. the left hand side predominates over the diffusion term, as the ther-

Upon introducing the interstitial heat transfer coefﬁcient hf and mal dispersion becomes appreciable. A magnitude analysis reveals

the effective porosity tensor, eij , as function of the stagnant thermal that the diffusive term in Eq. (26) may be neglected when the Peclet

number based on an external scale L and dispersion thermal con-

conductivity tensor, kstagij ¼ kstagxx ð i ;~

iÞ þ kstagyy ð~ jÞ þ kstagzz ð~

j;~ k; ~

kÞ, the ductivity kdis , namely, qf cpf huiL=kdis , is sufﬁciently large. As will be

two energy equations (8) and (9) may be rewritten, as follows: shown later (see Eq. (46)), we have kdis qf cpf huiD for convective

3228 C. Yang, A. Nakayama / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 53 (2010) 3222–3230

ﬂows. Hence, qf cpf huiL=kdis L=D 1 and Eq. (31) may readily be Kaguei’s empirical equation [18] for the interstitial heat transfer

satisﬁed for most convective ﬂow cases. Exploiting the foregoing coefﬁcient for packed beds, namely,

equation, the longitudinal thermal dispersion term may be evalu-

ated as follows: hf D

¼ 2:0 þ 1:1Pe0:6

D =Pr

0:27

ð38Þ

kf

~ Te if ¼ qf cpf huif ðhTif hTis Þhðf 1Þðg 1Þif

qf cpf hu

ðqf cpf huiÞ2 we obtain the longitudinal thermal dispersion in the laminar

@hTif

¼ hðf 1Þðg 1Þif ð32Þ regime as follows:

eaf hf @x

kdisxx Pe2D

Hence, ¼ 0:15 : Laminar regime ð39Þ

kf 2:0 þ 1:1Pe0:6

D =Pr

0:27

2

ðqf cpf huiÞ

kdisxx ¼ hðf 1Þðg 1Þif ð33Þ The foregoing equation gives kdisxx / Pe2D for small Peclet number,

eaf hf which is consistent with Taylor and Aris analysis [20,21]. The equa-

where tion also implies the existence of the transition regime from laminar

to turbulent, in which we have kdisxx / Pe1:4

D .

u ¼ huif f ðgÞ ð34aÞ A similar procedure can be taken to estimate the longitudinal

thermal dispersion for the case of fully turbulent ﬂow, using the

and

wall laws as

T hTis ¼ ðhTif hTis ÞgðgÞ ð34bÞ

1

u ¼ us ln nþ þ B ð40Þ

We shall consider a convective ﬂow through cubes in a regular j

arrangement as shown in Fig. 8, where the dimensionless coordi- and

nate g is deﬁned as

q w rT 1

g ¼ 2y=ðH DÞ ð35Þ T hTis ¼ ln nþ þ A ð41Þ

us qf cpf j

The cubes are assumed to have no touching arms, since the effects

where us and qw are the friction velocity and wall heat ﬂux, respec-

of such arms on the thermal dispersion may be negligibly small for

tively, and nþ ¼ us n=mf is the dimensionless distance measured

packed beds of our interest. For the ﬁrst approximation, we may as-

from the wall surface ðn ¼ HD yÞ. j is the von-Karman constant

sume the following proﬁle functions describing the laminar fully 2

while both B and A are the empirical constants. It is easy to ﬁnd

developed velocity and temperature proﬁles:

u

3 ~ ¼ s ðln f þ 1Þ

u ð42Þ

f ðgÞ ¼ ð1 g2 Þ ð36aÞ j

2

and

and

q rT

5 Te ¼ w ðln f þ 1Þ ð43Þ

gðgÞ ¼ ð5 6g2 þ g4 Þ ð36bÞ us qf cpf j

16

R1 where

Noting that h/if ¼ 12 1 /dg such that hf if ¼ hgif ¼ 1, and substitut-

ing the foregoing proﬁles into (33), we readily obtain f¼1g ð44Þ

2

kdisxx 3 ðqf cpf huiÞ 1 Pe2 Using these proﬁle functions (42) and (43), we have

¼ ¼ D ð37Þ

kf 14 eaf hf kf 28eð1 eÞ hf D

kf

~ j Te if ¼

rT qw rT qw rT qf cpf hui @hTif

qf cpf hu hðln f þ 1Þ2 if ¼ ¼ ð45Þ

j 2 j2 j2 af @x

where PeD ¼ qf cpf huiD=kf is Peclet number based on the Darcian

velocity and particle diameter. Note also af ¼ 6ð1 eÞ=D for spher- where we used Eq. (31) to eliminate qw ¼ hf ðhTif hTis Þ in favor of

ical particles of size D. Assuming e ¼ 0:4 and using Wakao and the temperature gradient. Setting j and rT to 0.41 and 0.9, respec-

Fig. 8. Cubes in a regular arrangement and prevailing velocity and temperature ﬁelds.

C. Yang, A. Nakayama / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 53 (2010) 3222–3230 3229

tively, according to Launder and Spalding [30], we obtain for the 6. Validation of the expressions for longitudinal and transverse

turbulent regime: thermal dispersion conductivities

kdisxx rT qf cpf hui rT

¼ ¼ PeD ¼ 1:5PeD : Turbulent regime In Fig. 9, our results for the case of packed beds are presented in

kf j2 af kf 6ð1 eÞj2

terms of the ratio of the total longitudinal effective thermal con-

ð46Þ

ductivity to the ﬂuid thermal conductivity, namely,

Thus, the thermal dispersion conductivity increases in proportion to

Peclet number for the turbulent regime. It should be noted that, for ktotalxx kstagxx þ ekdisxx

¼ ð54Þ

the case of turbulent ﬂow, the turbulence thermal conductivity kf kf

should be added in addition to the thermal dispersion conductivity.

The present results obtained for the cases of (Pr, ks =kf ) = (0.71,

However, the recent study of Nakayama and Kuwahara [31] gives

53.28) and (7.02, 2.30) are compared with the experimental data re-

kturb =kf ¼ 0:0233PeD =ð1 eÞ for the case of packed beds, which is

ported by Fried and Combarnous [31] and the empirical equation

much smaller than the dispersion thermal conductivity, and thus,

ekdisxx =kf ¼ 0:5PeD proposed by Wakao and Kaguei [18] for high Pec-

can be dropped for the ﬁrst approximation.

let number. The stagnant thermal conductivity kstag was evaluated

using the general Eq. (20a) along with Eqs. (22a) and (22b), which

5.2. Transverse thermal dispersion conductivity was also added to their experimental data to show the total longi-

tudinal effective thermal conductivity. Fairly good agreement can

The transverse thermal dispersion must be taken into account be seen between the present correlation and the experimental data.

correctly, when we evaluate the heat transfer from the bounding Likewise, the correlations established for the transverse thermal

wall. Let us consider the energy Eq. (26) close enough to the solid dispersion conductivity are presented along with the experimental

surface for the convection to be negligible, but sufﬁciently away data reported by Fried and Combarnous [31] for the transverse

from the solid surface, such that the transverse thermal dispersion thermal dispersion conductivity. The present expressions appear

dominates over the stagnant thermal diffusion: to be in good accord with the experimental data (see Fig. 10).

2

d hTif

ekdisyy 2

¼ af hf ðhTif hTis Þ ð47Þ

dy

A magnitude analysis reveals that the convection terms in Eq. (26)

vanish near the wall due to no-slip conditions and at the same time

that transverse diffusion overwhelms the longitudinal one for

ðL=dÞ2 ðL=DÞ2 1 where d is the thermal boundary layer thick-

ness. Hence, Eq. (47) may be satisﬁed for most near wall ﬂow cases.

Upon assuming hTif ¼ hTis at inﬁnity, we integrate the foregoing

equation and obtain

sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

dhTif af hf

¼ ðhTif hTis Þ ð48Þ

dy ekdisyy

Thus, the transverse thermal dispersion term may be evaluated as

follows:

qf cpf hv~ Te if ¼ qf cpf huif ðhTif hTis ÞhFðg 1Þif

sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

ekdisyy dhTif

¼ qf cpf huif hFðg 1Þif ð49Þ

af hf dy

kdisyy ¼ ðhFðg 1Þif Þ2 ð50Þ

eaf hf

where

such that hFif ¼ 0. It is interesting to note that Eq. (50) obtained for

the transverse thermal dispersion conductivity is identical to Eq.

(33) obtained for the longitudinal thermal dispersion conductivity,

except the difference in the multiplicative constants, namely,

ðhFðg 1Þif Þ2 and hðf 1Þðg 1Þif . Fried and Combarnous’ experi-

mental data [32] suggest that hðf 1Þðg 1Þif is about 20 times lar-

ger than ðhFðg 1Þif Þ2 such that we propose the following

equations:

kdisyy Pe2D

¼ 0:0075 : Laminar regime ð52Þ

kf 2 þ 1:1Pe0:6

D =Pr

0:27

kdisyy

¼ 0:075PeD : Turbulent regime ð53Þ

kf Fig. 10. Transverse effective thermal conductivity of packed beds.

3230 C. Yang, A. Nakayama / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 53 (2010) 3222–3230

The foregoing comparison suggests that the present expressions [7] M. Sahraouni, M. Kaviany, Slip and non-slip temperature boundary conditions

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(1993) 1019–1033.

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[24] D. Vortmeyer, Axial heat dispersion in packed beds, Chem. Eng. Sci. 30 (1975)

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