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Crankshaft Formulation

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connecting rod mechanism. The first pumps produced on a large scale were the

positive displacement pumps and those positive displacement pump most widely

used is the piston pump and these pump are constructed using this mechanism.

If we look at figure 1.1 we see that we can calculate the displacement quite

easy. The displacement is x and the total length is l+r. We can distinguish two

rectangular triangels,ABB’ and CBB’.

x = l + r − AB 0 − B 0 C

time. So as a matter of fact in terms of the rotation speed of the crankshaft

which is ω.

Thus we find

AB 0 = l cos ϕ

and

B 0 C = r cos θ

Now we still need to express ϕ in function of θ. For this we look at the common

side BB’

BB 0 = r sin θ = l sin ϕ

. So

l

sin ϕ = sin θ

r

and we set

l

=λ

r

0.2

We have to change the sin into a cos and for this we use

cos2 ϕ = 1 − sin2 ϕ

This adds up to p

cos ϕ = 1 − λ2 sin2 θ

Now we get for the displacement of the crankshaft-connecting rod mechanism

p

x = l + r − l 1 − λ2 sin2 θ − r cos θ

mation by using a Taylor-series for the square root

√ x

1−x≈1−

2

In the end we get for the displacement

λ2 sin2 θ

x = l + r − l(1 − ) − r cos θ

2

If one wants to calculate the speed and the acceleration he simply takes

respectively the first and the second derivative of the displacement.

We get respectively

r

v = ωr(sin(ωt) + sin(2ωt))

2l

r

a = ω 2 r(cos(ωt) + cos(2ωt))

l

0.2. INCREASE IN PRESSURE CAUSED BY A FAN 0.3

We are going to calculate the increase in pressure caused by the movement of

the fan. The pressure is the proportion of the force to the surface.We need to

calculate the forces on the fluid that the pump is transporting. We use the

principle of D’Alembert

ΣdF = adm

on an infinitely small amount of fluid.

1. pressure:dp

2. gravitational force:dG

0.4

dealing with a relative motion. For the calculation of an acceleration of relative

rotational motion we use the theorem of Coriolis.

1. drag acceleration:ad

2. relative acceleration:ar

3. Coriolisacceleration:aC

Now we will look at the diagram of the resulting forces and make the vector

sum. We make the sum of the components geprojected on the direction of the

relative speed w.

• Accelerationforces

1. The drag acceleration is centrifugal and the angle between as and w

is cos

u2

as = = ω2 r

r

2. The relative acceleration is the change of speed towards the outside

and it decreases so this component is negative and pointed to the

entry of the fan

dw

ar = −

dt

0.2. INCREASE IN PRESSURE CAUSED BY A FAN 0.5

allel to O.The projection is equal to zero.

aC = 2ωw

get an increase in pressure towards the outlet:-Adp

2. Gravitational force: They are pointed towards the center of the earth.

We can say in this case pointed perpedicular downwards. For every

small unit of mass there is a counterpart on the other side of the fan

so these forces will cancel if we calculate their work(energy).

3. Reaction forces on the fan: They are pointed perpendicular on the

side of the fan so the projection on w is zero.

The force is the mass times acceleration. The mass will be calculated using

the flow in the fan

dm = ρqdt

In the end we get

dw

Adp = ρqdt(ω 2 r cos − )

dt

The next step is to calculate the change in energy of the flow when it passes

through the fan. For this we calculate the displacement dl of the forces inter-

vening on the mass of fluid.

dw

(Adp)dl = (ρqdt)dl(ω 2 r cos − )

dt

On the other hand we have

dl

w=

dt

or

dl = wdt

and

dl cos = dr

We also can use Castelli’s law

Aw = q

We fill these equations in the equation of the force equilibrum

dw

Adpwdt = ρqdtω 2 rdr − ρqdt dl

dt

0.6

dp = ρω 2 rdr − ρwdw

This equation has to be integrated over the entire distance from inlet to outlet.

Z p1 Z r1 Z w1

dp = ρω 2 r dr − ρ w dw

p0 ro w0

ρ 2 2

p1 − p0 = (ω (r1 − r02 ) − (w12 − w02 ))

2

Now we have to rewrite the equation and have to consider frictionloss on the

fan(skinfriction:pw ).

p1 − p0 u2 − u20 w2 − w12 pw

= 1 + 0 −

ρg 2g 2g ρg

We use Bernouilli’s law between intake and outlet of the fan.

p0 c2 p1 c2

+ 0 = + 1 + W0

ρg 2g ρg 2g

From this we get

p1 − p0 c2 − c20

W = + 1

ρ 2

Again we need to consider frictional losses so we get

p1 − p0 c2 − c20 pw

W = + 1 +

ρ 2 ρ

We can now replace the pressureterms and finally become

W = + 1 + 0

2 2 2

Now we simply use some basic trigonometry on the vectordiagram of intake

(i=0) and outlet(i=1)

W = u1 c1 cos α1 − u0 c0 cos α0

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