ABSTRACT

Prestea central shaft, one of the main active surface shafts of New Century Mine was surveyed to ascertain it vertical alignment, lateral and horizontal motion that has occurred since its existence. The survey was from shaft collar to 30 level even though previous survey conducted for similar purpose in 1984 focused on 9 to 16 levels which was the area that had undergone considering earth movement. The method used for the survey was the plumb bob method by taking perpendicular offset measurements from a freely suspending weighted wire at the corners of each compartment of the shaft to the shaft walls and its lining. The whole project from surface to 30 level was undertaken in two phases due to plumb wires touching either the cage or the setts between 9 and 16 level. The first phase spanning a period of three weeks from January to February 2007 saw to completion of that for the shaft collar to 9 level. The second phase, which continued from 9 to 30 level, was subdivided into batches of three (9 to 17, 17 to 24, and 24 to 30 levels) due to short piano wire lengths. In general, the shaft was straight with some of the steel setts displaced towards southwest and the others corroded.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF FIGURES.........................................................................................................1 INTRODUCTION...............................................................................................................2 Background......................................................................................................................2 Objectives........................................................................................................................3 Scope of Work.................................................................................................................3 METHODOLOGY..............................................................................................................4 Resources Used ..............................................................................................................4 Possible Sources of Errors...............................................................................................5 Precaution........................................................................................................................5 Set-Up..............................................................................................................................7 Measurements ................................................................................................................8 OBSERVATIONS...............................................................................................................9 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION...............................................................................10 RECOMMENDATION.....................................................................................................11 .......................................................................................................................................17 APPENDICES…......13-20

TABLE OF FIGURES
Figure 2-1 Set-up of the Pulley for the Piano Wires...........................................................7 Figure 2 Central Shaft Compartments from Surface to 30 Level (Plan View) ...............12 12 Figure 3 Plumb Wires Installed from Surface Collar to nine Level and Code for their Corresponding North and South Offsets (Plan View).......................................................13 Figure 4 Positions of Plumb Wires Installed From Surface Collar to nine Level And Code for their Corresponding East and West Offsets (Plan View).............................................14 Figure 5 Positions of Plumb Wires Installed from 9 Level to 30 Level (Plan View)........15 Table 1 Plumb Wires and their Corresponding Codes for Measurement..........................16

DETAIL SURVEY

INTRODUCTION
The object of survey is to produce, in general a graphical or numerical form, a representation of natural and fabricated features in order that engineering works can be located in their correct position on the ground. To carry a survey into a mine through a shaft by means of heavily weighted fine wires hung vertically in the shaft, the line of sight passing through the wires at the surface is thus transferred to the mine workings. An important piece of work: in mineshafts, and in transferring courses or bearings from one level to another. While executing maintenance works on a shaft of an underground mine, it is essential to maintain the vertical alignment of the shaft for the smooth working of cages. The position of the center of the shaft should be known throughout the shaft and needs to be transferred at various levels in the mine. Shaft detailing and survey was as thus undertaken to graphically represent the shaft in threedimension (3D) and determine the position of the shaft sets, the verticality of the shaft, and earthwork volumes. The whole project from surface to 30 level was undertaken in two phases due to a number of reasons with the first phase spanning a period of three weeks from January to February 2007. The first phase covered surface to 9 level and the second phase, which continued from nine to 30 level, was subdivided in batches of three.

Background
New Century Mine is a shaft mine situated at Prestea. The Central Shaft is one of the two active shafts of the Underground Mine. It serves as the main entrance to the 35 level underground mine at Prestea with an interval of 150 meters between levels and as emergency exit to Bondaye Main Shaft because they are inter-connected. It is a 4-compartment shaft with a portion of the fist and second compartments serving as ladder way and opening to service pumps, cables, etc, Survey Department 2 8/3/2007

DETAIL SURVEY the other portion for the skip cage. The third and fourth compartments are used for man-riding and carrying equipments and machines up to surface and down to underground. It became imperative for shaft maintenance to be carried out on the shaft since most of the sets were worn-out and rusty making it unsafe for hoisting. A shaft survey was therefore undertaken to plot the shaft and its members in threedimension.

Objectives
The main objectives for the shaft plumbing is • • • • • • • • to measure with precision the positions of shaft steels to provide reference points for future bunton installation to determine the vertical alignment of the shaft and the shaft lining. to determine volume of earthwork between shaft sets and the walls Setting out of plumb wires at the corners ends of the compartments Checking alignment of hung plumb wires Measuring perpendicular offsets from plumb wires to the steel sets, walls and guides Establishing controls at level stations to take coordinates of plumb wires

Scope of Work

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DETAIL SURVEY

METHODOLOGY
The conventional shaft survey techniques make use of plumb wires suspended from the top of the shaft in order to transfer the position of a point and that of the direction of a plumb plane from the surface to the pit bottom underground. Plumbing a shaft mechanically means lowering a thin wire into the shaft using a winch and a guide weight. This method is known as the Plumb Bob Method. Empirical methods show a divergence of 0.00ft (0.00mm) to 0.10ft (30.00mm) for every 4000 feet (1220.00m) of plumb line suspended. The longest plumb wire suspended was about 900 feet (275.00m) which would have a divergence range of zero feet (0.00mm) to 0.0223097 (6.80mm) if the wires are assumed to have a steady divergence with depth increase. For a measurement carried out with a tape measure which gives measurement accuracy of decimals of a centimeter (1mm), the fractional error per meter depth would be 40441.00mm; an error of 1.00mm divergence for every 40.00 meter depth reached which is not significant as thus the plumb bob method used being adequately accurate and acceptable. Coordinates difference for plumb line suspended from 24 level was taken for 24 and 30 levels and the corresponding divergence for each plumb line and as such the mean divergence for. The coordinate difference measured at 17 level, their corresponding divergence and the mean divergence calculation is attached as equation 1.

Resources Used
• • • • Piano wires running round a pulley Plumb bobs (25-10kg - which do not exceed the tensile strength of wire) Pair of pliers Nails (2-5’’) and Hammer 4 8/3/2007

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DETAIL SURVEY • • • • • • Wooden Boards (4”x6”x8’), (1”x2”x2’) Eye bolts of 4mm diameter. Engine oil and Grease Polythene bags Total station Steel tape

Possible Sources of Errors
The determination of the position of the freely hanging plumb bobs and as such, the vertical position of the plumb wires is subject to a variety of influences, such as: • • • • • • rotational oscillation of plumb bob longitudinal oscillations of plumb wire mechanical load the weight imposes on the wire thickness of wire mechanical stretch and stiffness of wire precision of position detection - the error obtained in coordinates of the plumb wire which is consecutively transmitted to the calculated positions of the other points since the offsets were taken from the plumb wire The rotational oscillation of the plumb bob is overlapped by longitudinal oscillations of the wire. If these are asymmetric to the pendulum oscillation, then additional movements are induced, this can then cause a significant shift of the apparent rest position if measures are not put in place to eliminate them.

Precaution
The following precautions were taken to reduce if not eliminate the abovementioned errors as much as possible. Other precautions were taken for safety reasons and workload reduction involved.

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DETAIL SURVEY • A thorough inspection was done to make sure the plumb wires and as the plumb bobs touched nothing. This was done to ensure the plumb wires from which the plumb bobs were suspended pointed directly to the earth's center of gravity; used to determine the true vertical from a given point. • The rotational oscillation of the plumb bob and longitudinal oscillations of the wire were taken care of by damping the heavy weighted bobs in highly viscous oil. • Heavy plumb bobs were hung on thin wires to make the wires taut. This eliminates errors introduced by mechanical stretch and stiffness of wire and that of the thickness of wire. This also ensures verticality of plumb wires. • • The plumb wires were guarded from any disturbances since any displacement in the wire will cause an error in the readings taken. The position of the plumb wires were measured with utmost accuracy since a significant error in the coordinates would introduce errors in the positions of points obtained since the offsets were taken from the plumb wire. The following precautionary measures were taken to make work easier and for safety reasons. • • • • Polythene bags were used to cover the piano wire to prevent wires from rusting. Smaller plumb bobs were used to lower the wires before replacing with bigger and heavy plumb bobs. Eye bolts were fixed to each plumb line at sets 2 and 10 of a vertical distance of 14.095m to serve as guide in case any displacements. A wooden platform built to form a base for drums containing the oil to be used for damping and falling objects from finding the underlying bottom of the shaft.

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DETAIL SURVEY

Set-Up
A reconnaissance survey was undertaken to determine appropriate points where all plumb lines could be seen to establish controls. Piano wires coiled around a winch as shown in figure 2.1 and fixed to a wooden board - to ensure stability and firm grip to the ground - were stationed close to the corners of the compartment to be measured. The plumb wires were lowered with the help of light weighted bobs from the starting base station (surface collar, 9, 17, and 24 level gangways) to their corresponding destination base stations (9, 17, 24 and 30 level gangways) respectively. A wooden platform was built four (4) sets below the corresponding destination level within the specified compartment to form a worktable for drums containing the oil to be used for damping and also prevent falling objects from getting to the shaft bottom. The light plumb bobs were replaced with the heavy ones to make the wires adequately taut. The plumb bobs were dampened by putting them in the drum of oil. Figures 5-1, 5-4 and 5-5 show a diagram of the shaft compartments and the general set-up for the plumb lines.

Figure 2-1 Set-up of the Pulley for the Piano Wires

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Measurements
After the plumb wires had been set-up, an inspection was again conducted to make sure the wires were hanging freely. Some few minutes was allowed to elapse to make sure the wire and bob are in a state of equilibrium. Perpendicular offsets were then taken from the plumb wires on the northern and southern side of the shaft to their respective north and south wall plates, north and south walls, end plates, dividers and guides. The observational procedure was repeated for each set down the shaft. The vertical interval between one shaft set to the next was measured as the cage moved down. The label mapping code used for the measurement is attached as table 5-1. Figures 5-2, 5-3, 5-4, and 5-5 show diagrams of the set-ups for the various modes of measurement. The same measurement procedure and code format were used for all the phases. The coordinates of the plumb wires were then measured with a total station to be used to compute the coordinates of the various components of the shaft lining. The positional set-up of the plumb lines was altered and thus giving the different sets of offset readings. The calculations involved are outlined as equations 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6.

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DETAIL SURVEY

OBSERVATIONS
• • • • The shaft lining from surface to three (3) level were intact due to its concrete walls. From three (3) level to nine (9) level had good sets with a couple of corroded ones with some portions replaced with buntons. A vertical plane put through the middle of the shaft’s DTM from surface to 9 level was within limit. The vertical alignment of the shaft sets from surface to 17 level was skewed towards the west up to thirty centimeters (30cm) in an average gradient of 0.0414% ( 1 in 0.0004141) as its depth increased down the shaft. • • Most of the sets between 12 and 16 level were worn-out. The plumb wires hanged from 9 to 17 level at the transferred position of the plumb wires from surface to 9 level touched most of the shaft sets between 12 and 15 levels. • There was so much water in the shaft.

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DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION

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DETAIL SURVEY

RECOMMENDATION

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Not drawn to scale No 1 Compartment No 2 Compartment No 3 Compartment No 4 Compartment

N
E C A

3

Plumb line

F

2

D

Ladder way

Pipes and Cables Vent

1

B

Shaft Walls

South Wall Plate

Dividers

Cage Guide

North Wall Plate

Plumb Wires

Figure 2 Central Shaft Compartments from Surface to 30 Level (Plan View)

Not drawn to scale 12

Plumb Wires

A

AN2 AG

AN1

C
CG

CN2 CN1

EN1 EN2
E

E
EG2
C

GN2 GN1

IN1 IN2

G
GG A

I
IG

N

EG1

B

BS2

BS1

DPlumb line DS2 3

DS1

F FS1 FS2

F

2

D

HS1

HS2

1

H B

JS1

JS2

J

Figure 3 Plumb Wires Installed from Surface Collar to nine Level and Code for their Corresponding North and South Offsets (Plan View)

Not drawn to scale 13

AW1

AW2

CE

EE

GW IE1

1E2

A

C
E

E
C

G
A

I

F B D 3
Plumb line
F

H

J

2
FE DE

D

1
HW

B

BW2

BW1

JE1

JE2

Figure 4 Positions of Plumb Wires Installed From Surface Collar to nine Level And Code for their Corresponding East and West Offsets (Plan View)

Not drawn to scale

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A

C
E

E
C

G
A

N

H B D 3
Plumb line
F

F 2
D

1

B

Figure 5 Positions of Plumb Wires Installed from 9 Level to 30 Level (Plan View)

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FROM PLUMB WIRE A A A A A B B B B C C C C D D D E E E E F

TO POSITION North Wall plate North Wall West End plate West Wall Guide South Wall Plate South Wall Western end plate Western wall North Wall plate North Wall East Divider Set Guide South Wall Plate South Wall East Divider Set North Wall plate North Wall East End plate Guide South Wall Plate

CODE AN1 AN2 AW1 AW2 AG BS1 BS2 BW1 BW2 CN1 CN2 CE CG DS1 DS2 DE EN1 EN2 EE EG FS1

FROM PLUMB WIRE F F G G G G H H H I I I I I J J J J

TO POSITION South Wall East Divider Set North Wall plate North Wall West Divider Set Guide South Wall Plate South Wall West Divider Set North Wall plate North Wall East End plate East Wall Guide South Wall Plate South Wall East End Plate East Wall

CODE FS2 FE GN1 GN2 GW GG HS1 HS2 HW IN1 IN2 IE1 IE2 IG JS1 JS2 JE1 JE2

Table 1 Plumb Wires and their Corresponding Codes for Measurement

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Equation 1
divergence

= 0.00 ft − 0.10 ft (30 .00 mm ) for every 4000 ft (1220m)

If 1220 ≈ 30 , then

x=

30 mm × 275 m 1220 m

∴x = 6.80mm

KEY WORDS
Shaft or Cage guides Conductor made of wood, iron or steel, or wire rope; used to guide the cages in the shaft and to prevent them from swinging and colliding with each other while in motion. Shaft inset The point where a horizontal tunnel intersects a shaft. Shaft lining

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The timber, steel, brick, or concrete structure fixed around a shaft to support the walls. In modern shafts, a concrete lining is generally favored as a permanent shaft support. Shaft mine A mine in which the vein is reached by a vertical shaft which may vary in depth from less than 100 ft (30 m) to several thousand feet. Or a mine in which the main entry or access is by means of a shaft. Shaft pillar A solid block of ore left around the shaft where it crosses the lode, for protection against earth movement. Shaft plumbing The operation of transferring one or more points at the surface of a vertical shaft to plumb line positions at the bottom of the shaft; a method to ensure that a shaft is sunk in the true vertical line. Survey operation in which the orientation of two plumb bobs is measured both at the surface and at depth in order to transfer the bearing underground. Shaft section A drawing or log giving details of the structure and the nature of strata intersected by a shaft. Shaft set A Supporting frame of timber, masonry, or steel that supports the sides of a shaft and the gear; Composed of two wall plates, two end plates, and dividers that form shaft compartments. A system of mine timbering similar to square sets. The shaft sets are placed from the surface downward, each new set supported from the set above until it is blocked in place. New wall plates are suspended from those of the set above by hanging bolts. Blocking, wedging, and

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lagging complete the work of timbering. At stations, the shaft posts are made much longer than usual to give ample headroom for unloading timber and other supplies. Shaft signal Code of electric ringing, or for shallow depths, knocking, among the onsetter or hitcher at the shaft bottom, the banksman at the top, and the engineman who operates the winder. Signals inform the latter as to type of load, etc. A telephone is also installed. Tensile Strain Deformation along a line segment that increases in length when a load is applied along that line. Tensile stress The stress state leading to expansion; that is, the may be increased until the reach of tensile strength, namely the limit state of stress. The formula for computing the tensile stress in a wire is:

Where σ is the tensile stress, F is the tensile force over the rod and A is the cross-sectional area of the rod. Units for tensile stress are newtons per square meter (N/m², also called Pascals, Pa)

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