Floating Gate Devices

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Floating Gate Devices

© All Rights Reserved

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and Andrea MarmirolI(2)

42100 Reggio Emilia (Italy) - pavan.paolo@unimo.it

(2) STMicroelectronics, Central R&D, Via C. Olivetti, 2,

20010 Agrate Brianza (MI), Italy – andrea.marmiroli@st.com

OUTLINE

z Motivation and Purposes

z Floating Gate (FG) Device model:

z FG voltage calculation (DC)

z Parameter extraction procedure

z Program/erase current modeling (TRANSIENT)

Fowler-Nordheim tunnel current + a new self-consistent

model to calculate the electric field within the oxide

Channel Hot Electron (CHE) and Channel Initiated

Secondary Electron (CHISEL) currents

z Reliability simulations

Stress and Radiation Induced Leakage Current

z Advantages and Conclusions

MOTIVATIONS AND PURPOSES

z FG memory cells are usually replaced with standard MOS

in industry circuit simulations: Spice-like models demanded

capacitive coupling coefficients, αi= Ci/CT

z The optimum model should be: Spice-like, compact,

accurate, reliable (both DC and transient)

[1] L. Larcher, et al., IEEE Trans. Elect. Devices, Sept. 2001

The new DC model

Control Gate

CPP

Floating Gate

VFG

P-substrate

VFG = Floating Gate voltage

Elements of the DC model

z The new Spice-like model uses lumped circuit

elements:

z the capacitor, CPP, which takes into account the

inter-poly dielectric capacitance

z the MOS transistor: can be MOS Model 9 (Philips)

or BSIM3v3 (Berkeley), or …

z The voltage controlled voltage source, VFG:

z It implements the procedure to calculate the FG

voltage in a C code routine

z It is necessary to overcome problems in simulating a

capacitive net in DC conditions

VFG calculation

CG z VFG is calculated by

solving the charge

FG

neutrality equation at the

VFG FG node:

D S

B QMOS + QCPP = QW/E

z QCPP = CPP(VFG-VCG)

z QW/E = charge injected into the FG during the write/erase

(constant in DC conditions)

z QMOS = f(VFG,VS,VB,VD) calculated by means of the MOS

model charge equations ….

QMOS calculation

z MOS Model 9 (Philips) charge equations:

Q S = f (VDS2 , VGT3 , C OX , δ2 , FJ )

QD = f (VDS2 , VG T3 , C OX , δ2 , FJ )

z MOS electrical internal variables: VT1, VGT3, VDS2, δ2, FJ

Solution of charge equation

z The charge neutrality equation is an implicit equation in

VFG:

F(VFG) = QMOS(VFG) + QCPP(VFG) – QW/E = 0

z It has no analytical solution, due to the complex expression

of QMOS

z ELDO (Spice-like simulator) solves it numerically through

suitable convergence algorithms

z Note that F is monotonic versus VFG for all the bias

combinations (VCG,VS,VB,VD) in the functionality range of

the device, thus guaranteeing the physical meaning of the

derived VFG solution

Parameters of the model

z Parameters of the equivalent MOS transistor (dummy cell):

z they can be extracted by applying the standard MOS

parameter procedure to the dummy cell.

MOS transistor: the Floating Gate to Control Gate

capacitance CPP

z derived from the cross section and layout of the cell

activity for MOS transistors

z The model is very easy and simple to use

The new transient model

z The DC model of FG memories can be extended to model

transient conditions by adding some voltage controlled

current sources to include program and erase currents

z Write currents of E2PROM and Flash are different: hence,

number and position of current sources may vary for

E2PROM and Flash

z Each voltage controlled current source models analytically

a specific kind of program/erase current: Fowler-Nordheim,

CHE, CHISEL

z One additional Eldo parameter allows the user to choose

the desired Floating Gate memory (Flash or E2PROM)

model

The new transient E2PROM model

Control Gate

CPP

Floating Gate

IW/E VFG

Source

Drain

P-substrate Body

Fowler-Nordheim current flowing across the tunnel oxide

The new transient Flash model

Control Gate

CPP

Floating Gate

Iw1 Iw3

VFG

Iw2

Source Drain

Body P-substrate

z For Flash memories: IW1 and IW2 model the erase FN current;

IW3 the CHE+CHISEL program current

Fowler-Nordheim current source

z The voltage controlled current source (implemented in

ELDO) modeling Fowler/Nordheim currents allows to

reproduce program-erase and erase operations of

E2PROM and Flash memories, respectively.

BFN

IFN(Fox ) = ATA F ⋅ exp −

2

FN ox

Fox

AT = area of the tunneling region

AFN , BFN = Fowler-Nordheim coefficients depending

on the Si/SiO2 barrier

FOX = electric field across the oxide, which has

been evaluated through ….

FOX calculation

FOX =

(V FG − VS,D ,B ) − VFB − ψS − ψ P

TOX

– VFB = flat-band voltage

– ψS = surface potential drop at Si/SiO2 interface

account poly depletion and charge quantization effects:

for this reason, a self consistent model has been used [2]

z The so calculated FOX has been incorporated in the FG

model through an analytical law, parameterized on the FG

and S,D,B dopings, which are additional parameters

[2] L. Larcher et al., “A new model of gate capacitance …”, IEEE Trans. Elect. Devices

CHE-CHISEL current source

z CHE-CHISEL gate currents have been modeled

analytically and included by means of a voltage controlled

current source

z This way, actual program operations of modern Flash

memories can be reproduced also by circuit simulations

z The CHE-CHISEL current model adopts a new approach to

model hot carrier phenomena, and particularly, to describe

the high energy distribution of carriers involved in impact

ionization phenomena

CHISEL current modeling

z The key point of CHISEL[3] current modeling is the accurate

calculation of energy distribution of tertiary electrons, that

are generated by four physical mechanisms (M)

Gate CHISEL

CHE

M4

e1 e1,2

Source e3 M2 M1 Drain

h2

Impact Ionization

M3

Body

h2,3

[3] L. Larcher, P.Pavan, “A New Analytical Model of Channel Hot Electron (CHE) and

CHannel Initiated Secondary ELectron (CHISEL) …,” MSM 2002, 2002, pp. 738-741.

Reliability Simulations

z Leakage currents across the gate oxide (SILC[4] - RILC[5])

are modeled analytically and included by means of some

voltage controlled current sources

z The model can simulate the reliability degradation of Flash

and E2PROM memories due to the aging of the gate oxide

induced by Program/Erase cycles and also by the exposure

to ionizing radiation: read/gate/drain disturb prediction

z Now, our work is focused to model leakage currents due to

Trap-Assisted Tunneling through n-traps including also the

phonon contribution (percolation path)

[4] L. Larcher et al. “A Model of the Stress Induced Leakage Current in Gate Oxides”, IEEE Trans.

Electr. Devices, Vol.48, N.2, 2001, pp.285-288.

[5] L. Larcher et al. “ A model of radiation induced leakage current (RILC) in ultra-thin gate oxides”,

IEEE Trans. Nuclear Science, Vol. 46 (6), pp. 1553-1561, 1999.

SILC - RILC modeling

z The Stress-Induced Leakage Current (SILC) and the

Radiation-Induced Leakage Current are modeled

assuming an inelastic Trap-Assisted Tunneling (TAT) as

conduction mechanism

cathode SiO2

Ep

xT

anode

tox

Simulation results

z Simulation results achieved by this model are excellent in

both DC and transient condition, for either Flash and

E2PROM memories, WITHOUT any free parameter to

improve the fitting quality

z We tested the simulation capability of this model on both

E2PROM and Flash memories, in DC and transient

conditions.

DC – E2PROM: IDS-VCG

10-5

VSB= 0V

10-6 CPP = 3 fF

W=0.3 µm

-7 L=0.75 µm

I DS (A)

10

VSB= 5V

10-8

simulation

10-9

VSB (exp) 0..5 step 1V

-10

10

0 1 2 3 4 5

VCG (V)

DC – E2PROM: IDS-VDS

140

simulation VG= 5V

120

VB= 0V

100 VG= 4V

80

I DS (µA)

VG= 3V

60

VG= 2V

40

20 VG= 1V

0

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4

VDS (V)

DC – E2PROM: IDS-VCG

120

simulation VB= 0V

100 VD (exp) 0.8..3.8 step 1V

80

I DS (µA)

60 VD= 3.8V

40

20 VD= 0.8V

0

0 1 2 3 4 5

VCG (V)

DC – Flash: IDS-VCG

10-4

VSB (exp) 0..2 step 0.5V

10-5

W=0.25 µm

10-7 L=0.375 µm

I DS (A)

10-8 VSB= 2V

10-9

VDS= 0.1V

10-10

simulation

-11

10

2 3 4 5 6 7

VCG (V)

DC – Flash: IDS-VDS

25

simulation VCG= 4 V

20 VB= 0 V

VCG= 3.75 V

15

I DS (µA)

VCG= 3.5 V

10

VCG= 3.25 V

5 VCG= 3 V

0

0 0.3 0.6 0.9 1.2 1.5 1.8

VDS (V)

DC – Flash: IDS-VCG

60

simulation CPP = 0.4 fF

50 W=0.16 µm

L=0.3 µm

VD (exp)

40

0.1 V

I D (µA)

0.7 V

30 1.3 V

1.9 V

20

10

0

2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6

VCG (V)

DC – Flash: IDS-VDS

25

VCG= 3.4 V

simulation

20 VB= 0 V

VCG= 3.2 V

CPP = 0.4 fF

15 W=0.22 µm

VCG= 3 V

I DS (µA)

L=0.3 µm

10 VCG= 2.8 V

5

VCG= 2.6

0

0 0.3 0.6 0.9 1.2 1.5 1.8

VDS (V)

DC – Flash: IDS-VDS

30

simulation

25

VD (exp)

20 0.4 V

I D (µA)

0.8 V

15 1.2 V

1.6 V

10

0

1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5

VCG (V)

Transient – Flash: VT - time

7

VG0(exp) -2.7..-4.7 step 1V

6 Erase bias:

D float

5

VG0= -4.7 V VS=VB=8 V

4

V T (V)

VCG

3 VG,MAX

VG0= -2.7 V

2

VG0

1 Time

simulation VB= VS= 8 V

0

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4

Time (s)

Transient – Flash: VT - time

7

dV/dt (exp)= 12.5,20,25,30,35,50,60 V/s

6 simulation

5

4

V T (V)

dV/dt= 12.5V/s

3

2

1

dV/dt= 60 V/s

0

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4

Time (s)

Erase E2PROM: VT - time

4

Lines: simulations

3 Symbols: measures

1

VT (V)

0 TRISE(ms 12V VCG-ramp

)

-1

-2 VD=VB=0V

TRIS VS=0V

E

-3

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

Time (ms)

Program E2PROM: VT - time

3

12V VD-ramp

2

VCG=VB=0V

TRIS VS floating

1

VT (V)

TRISE(ms

0 0.6 0.7

)

0.3 0.4

-1

Lines: simulations

Symbols: measures

-2

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

Time (ms)

Program E2PROM: VFG and VS

6

Dotted lines: VFG

5 Solid lines: VS

3 TRISE(ms

) 0.6

2 0.3 12V VD-ramp

0

TRIS

-1 E

Time (ms)

Erase E2PROM: Tunnel Current

60

Lines: simulations VD-ramp

40 Rea

ITUN (pA)

TRIS l

30 E

20

10 dVT

ITUN,MEAS = −C CG

dt

0

0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1

Time (ms)

Simulation results: Flash program

9

8 VDS = 4.2V

8

4

7 VCG pulse (V)

0 No free

6 0 1 2 3 4

parameter

VT (V)

time (µs)

5 to improve

VSB (exp) the fitting

4 0V quality!!

0.6 V

3 1.2 V

(A) 1.5 V

2

0 1 2 3 4

time (µs)

E2PROM retention simulations

NC

4.7

10 - 1 - fresh

4.2 2

10

VT(V)

3.7

3

10

4

3.2 10

NC= 105

2.7

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Years

E2PROM read path schematic

VPSENSE

Current bias Sense

out

for sense VISENSE Amplifier

amp

VBOOST

voltage transfer

generator block

COL<i> BL

WL

Mini array of

virgin cells CELLS

CG<i>

E2PROM read path signals

6

VW L

5

4

V (V)

3 VSENSEOUT

2 VCG

VCELL

1 VREF

VB L

0

0 100 200 300 400 500

Time (nsec)

E2PROM read path signals /2

3.0 3.0

VSENSE OUT VSENSE OUT

2.5 2.5

VCELL

2.0 VCELL 2.0

V (V)

V (V)

1.5 1.5 VREF

VREF

1.0 1.0 VB L

VB L

0.5 0.5

0 0

310 330 350 370 390 410 320 340 360 380 400 420

Time (nsec) Time (nsec)

Advantages

z This model features many advantages compared to

others proposed in the literature:

The parameter extraction procedure is the same of a

standard MOS transistors

The simulation time is comparable to that of a simple

MOS transistor

VFG calculation procedure does NOT use capacitive

coupling coefficients:

z this means a more accurate VFG calculation

(considering the capacitive coupling coefficients

as constants introduces errors)

Coupling coefficients: αCG - Flash

VB=-1V αCG

VS=0V 0.72

0.70

0.68

0.66

0.64

0

22.

11.13 0

33.38

55.63

44.5 1

9 8 66.75 2

3

4

VCG 5

VD

VFG = αCG VCG + αD VD + αSVS + αBVB

Coupling coefficients: αD - Flash

αD

VFG = αCG VCG + αD VD + αSVS + αBVB 0.15

0.13

0.11

0.07

0 0

0.05

10 9

20 2

30 3

40 4

50 5

60

7

8 VD

9

VCG VB=-1V

VS=0V

Advantages /2

This is the first compact DC and transient model of a FG

memory cell: it can be used for both single device

simulations and circuit simulations

to improve the fitting quality

account in the MOS model itself, and they do not affect

the VFG calculation

current sources can be replaced independently on other

elements of the model

Conclusions

z We developed a new compact Spice-like DC and

transient model of the FG memory cell

z It overcomes the fixed coupling coefficients approach,

thus improving the FG memory cell modeling

z It is easily scalable and upgradeable

z Its simulation time is not critical

z Parameters can be extracted applying the same

procedure used for MOS transistor

z Simulation results are excellent without any free

parameter to improve the fitting quality

z It can be used for statistical analysis (effects of statistical

fluctuation of critical parameters)

References

z Paolo Pavan, Luca Larcher, Andrea Marmiroli,

Floating Gate devices: Operation and

Compact Modeling, Kluwer Academic

Publishers, 2004, 140 pp., ISBN 1-4020-7731-9

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