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# MAK 510 Ch_11

Example Problem 1:
For the plane stress problem shown in the figure below, consider a
one-element triangular mesh. The boundary conditions are as follows:
• edge BC is constrained in y and traction free x,
• edge AB is constrained in x and traction free in y,
• edge AC is subject to prescribed normal traction.

## a) Construct the stiffness matrix.

b) Determine the nodal force
vector.
c) Determine the unknown
displacement vector.
d) Determine the stresses at point
P(1.5, 1.5).

E = 3 × 107 Pa,

## • The displacement vector:

T
u e = u xe1 u ey1 uxe 2 u ye 2 u xe 3 u ey 3 

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MAK 510 Ch_11

Be

Ee Pa

## • The stiffness matrix (Ke matrix):

K e = h e Ae ( B e ) Ee B e
T

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MAK 510 Ch_11

Ke

Ke N/m

## • The consistent element nodal force vector due to

surface tractions:
fΓee = ∫hN t d Γe
T

Γe

x = x1 x = x2 ξ = −1 ξ =1
1 L 2 1 L 2
x = a1 + a2ξ , {x = x1 ⇒ ξ = −1; x = x2 ⇒ ξ = 1} ,

1−ξ  1+ ξ 
x = N1 x1 + N 2 x2 =   x1 +   x2 ,
 2   2 
1− ξ 1+ξ
⇒ N1 = ; N2 = .
2 2

dx = d ( N1 x1 ) + d ( N 2 x2 ) = −
x1 x (x − x )
dξ + 2 dξ = 2 1 dξ ,
2 2 2
L
⇒ dx = dξ
2

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MAK 510 Ch_11

fΓee =

• where:

fΓee = N

T

Ωe

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e
= N

## • solve for the displacements:

• strains:

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MAK 510 Ch_11

• stresses:

• Note that for the constant strain triangle, the stresses and
strains are the same everywhere in the triangle.

Example Problem 2:
For the plane stress problem shown in the figure below, consider a
one-element quadrilateral mesh. The Young’s modulus and Poisson’s
ratio are, respectively, E = 3x107 Pa and ν = 0.3. The boundary
conditions are as follows:
• the bottom and right vertical edges are traction free,
• traction ty = -20 N/m.
 1 1 
Calculate the stress at point P ξ = − ,η = − .
 3 3

1( x = 0, y = 1) 4 ( x = 2, y = 1)

η
3 ( x = 2, y = 0.5)
ξ

2 ( x = 0, y = 0 )

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MAK 510 Ch_11

Ee Pa

Je

Je=

## • The inverse of a 2x2 matrix:

A A12  1  A22 − A12 
A =  11  ⇒ A −1 = − A ;
 A21 A 22  det ( A )  21 A11 
det ( A ) = A11 A22 − A12 A21.

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MAK 510 Ch_11

(Je)-1= |Je|

Be=

## • Use 4 Gauss points to calculate the stiffness matrix (Ke matrix):

1 1

∫ h (B ) ∫ h ( B ) E B J dξ dη
e T T
K = E B dΩ = ∫
e e e e e e e e e e

Ωe −1 −1

{
≈ ∑∑ ci c j h e ( B e ) Ee B e J e }
2 2 T

i =1 j =1 (ξi ,ηi )

{
K (eξi ,ηi ) = ci c j h e ( B e ) Ee B e J e
T
}
(ξi ,ηi )

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MAK 510 Ch_11

 1 1 
• For the first Gauss point  ξ1 = − ,η1 = − 
 3 3

{
K (eξ1 ,η1 ) = h e ( B e ) Ee B e J e
T
}
(ξ1 ,η1 )

Ke=

fΩe e = 0

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MAK 510 Ch_11

## • The consistent element nodal force vector due to

surface tractions:
1
f = ∫h N t dΓ = ∫ {h N t} dη
e T e T
Γe
(ξ =−1,η )
Γ e
−1

fΓee =
N

e
= N

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MAK 510 Ch_11

## stresses at the Gauss point  ξ1 = − ,η1 = − 

1 1

 3 3 

= {Ee e e } = Ee {Be } ue =
(ξ1 ,η1 ) (ξ1 ,η1 )

= Pa

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