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MAK 510 Ch_11

Example Problem 1:
For the plane stress problem shown in the figure below, consider a
one-element triangular mesh. The boundary conditions are as follows:
• edge BC is constrained in y and traction free x,
• edge AB is constrained in x and traction free in y,
• edge AC is subject to prescribed normal traction.

a) Construct the stiffness matrix.


b) Determine the nodal force
vector.
c) Determine the unknown
displacement vector.
d) Determine the stresses at point
P(1.5, 1.5).

E = 3 × 107 Pa,

• The displacement vector:


T
u e = u xe1 u ey1 uxe 2 u ye 2 u xe 3 u ey 3 

• The shape functions:

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MAK 510 Ch_11

• Non-zero derivatives of shape functions:

• The strain-displacement matrix (Be matrix):

Be

• The constitutive matrix (Ee matrix):

Ee Pa

• The stiffness matrix (Ke matrix):

K e = h e Ae ( B e ) Ee B e
T

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MAK 510 Ch_11

• The stiffness matrix (Ke matrix):

Ke

Ke N/m

• The consistent element nodal force vector due to


surface tractions:
fΓee = ∫hN t d Γe
T

Γe

x = x1 x = x2 ξ = −1 ξ =1
1 L 2 1 L 2
x = a1 + a2ξ , {x = x1 ⇒ ξ = −1; x = x2 ⇒ ξ = 1} ,

1−ξ  1+ ξ 
x = N1 x1 + N 2 x2 =   x1 +   x2 ,
 2   2 
1− ξ 1+ξ
⇒ N1 = ; N2 = .
2 2

dx = d ( N1 x1 ) + d ( N 2 x2 ) = −
x1 x (x − x )
dξ + 2 dξ = 2 1 dξ ,
2 2 2
L
⇒ dx = dξ
2

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MAK 510 Ch_11

• The consistent element nodal force vector due to surface tractions:

fΓee =

• where:

• The consistent element nodal force vector due to surface tractions:

fΓee = N

• Note that the body forces (b) are zero:

fΩe e = ∫hN b dΩe = 0


T

Ωe

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MAK 510 Ch_11

• The element nodal force vector:

f e = fΓee + fΩe e + f Reaction


e
= N

• apply the BC’s:

• solve for the displacements:

• strains:

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MAK 510 Ch_11

• stresses:

• Note that for the constant strain triangle, the stresses and
strains are the same everywhere in the triangle.

Example Problem 2:
For the plane stress problem shown in the figure below, consider a
one-element quadrilateral mesh. The Young’s modulus and Poisson’s
ratio are, respectively, E = 3x107 Pa and ν = 0.3. The boundary
conditions are as follows:
• the bottom and right vertical edges are traction free,
• traction ty = -20 N/m.
 1 1 
Calculate the stress at point P ξ = − ,η = − .
 3 3

1( x = 0, y = 1) 4 ( x = 2, y = 1)

η
3 ( x = 2, y = 0.5)
ξ

2 ( x = 0, y = 0 )

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MAK 510 Ch_11

• The constitutive matrix (Ee matrix):

Ee Pa

• The shape functions:

• The Jacobian matrix (Je matrix):

Je

Je=

• The inverse of a 2x2 matrix:


A A12  1  A22 − A12 
A =  11  ⇒ A −1 = − A ;
 A21 A 22  det ( A )  21 A11 
det ( A ) = A11 A22 − A12 A21.

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MAK 510 Ch_11

• The inverse and the determinant of the Jacobian matrix:

(Je)-1= |Je|

• The strain-displacement matrix (Be matrix):

Be=

• Use 4 Gauss points to calculate the stiffness matrix (Ke matrix):

1 1

∫ h (B ) ∫ h ( B ) E B J dξ dη
e T T
K = E B dΩ = ∫
e e e e e e e e e e

Ωe −1 −1

{
≈ ∑∑ ci c j h e ( B e ) Ee B e J e }
2 2 T

i =1 j =1 (ξi ,ηi )

{
K (eξi ,ηi ) = ci c j h e ( B e ) Ee B e J e
T
}
(ξi ,ηi )

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MAK 510 Ch_11

 1 1 
• For the first Gauss point  ξ1 = − ,η1 = − 
 3 3

{
K (eξ1 ,η1 ) = h e ( B e ) Ee B e J e
T
}
(ξ1 ,η1 )

• The total stiffness matrix (Ke matrix):

Ke=

• Note that the body force is zero:

fΩe e = 0

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MAK 510 Ch_11

• The consistent element nodal force vector due to


surface tractions:
1
f = ∫h N t dΓ = ∫ {h N t} dη
e T e T
Γe
(ξ =−1,η )
Γ e
−1

fΓee =
N

• The element nodal force vector:

f e = fΓee + fΩe e + fReaction


e
= N

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MAK 510 Ch_11

• apply the BC’s:

• solve for the displacements:

stresses at the Gauss point  ξ1 = − ,η1 = − 


1 1

 3 3 

= {Ee e e } = Ee {Be } ue =
(ξ1 ,η1 ) (ξ1 ,η1 )

= Pa

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