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1 views4 pagesIn this paper, the author began by studying the integral of the functions on the nucleon a(o), and then, making use of the point function in infinitesimal analysis to define t h e D i r a c d function d(x) so that it satisfies the condition (1.2) and

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In this paper, the author began by studying the integral of the functions on the nucleon a(o), and then, making use of the point function in infinitesimal analysis to define t h e D i r a c d function d(x) so that it satisfies the condition (1.2) and

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In this paper, the author began by studying the integral of the functions on the nucleon a(o), and then, making use of the point function in infinitesimal analysis to define t h e D i r a c d function d(x) so that it satisfies the condition (1.2) and

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(English Edition, Vol. 2 No. 3, Sept. IYSI) Promotion Centre. Hong Kong

A Mathematical Interpretation of

Dirac 6 Function'-

Wang Jin-ru (~s

(South China Institute ol Technology, Guan~zhou)

(Received on April 1, 1980)

Abstract

The two conditions (see[l] p. 58)

d(x) = 0/~ for x:A:O (1.1)

.[+_~O(x)dx= I (1.2)

of the Dirac 0 function are inconsistent in standard analysis,

In this paper, the author began by studying the integral of the func-

tions on the nucleon a(o), and then, making use of the point function in

infinitesimal analysis to define t h e D i r a c d function d(x) so that it satis-

fies the condition (1.2) and

~(x)=O, for x C R and x=/=0

Some various examples of Dirac d functions have been presented and

some properties of the d function have been derived.

I. Introduction

D i r a c ' s d e f i n i t i o n of a 0 f u n c t i o n O(x) i n the real n u m b e r s y s t e m R is t h e

i d e a l i z a t i o n of a f u n c t i o n s a t i s f y i n g the f o l l o w i n g conditionsE'~:

~O(x)dx= l (1.2)

a n y f u n c t i o n t h a t is z e r o has a v a l u e of zero e x c e p t t h a t which at one point.

I n t h e p r e s e n t p a p e r , we a t t e m p t to g i v e a r i g o r o u s m a t h e m a t i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n

to these c o n d i t i o n s , we h a v e to e x t e n d the real number SYstem R to R : , and

make use of the p o i n t f u n c t i o n in i n f i n i t e s i m a l a n a l y s i s to d e f i n e D i r a c O f u n c -

t i o n O(x) on R I so t h a t it s a t i s f i e s the above condition (i.2) and the restric-

t i o n of O(x) to R w i l l s a t i s f y the c o n d i t i o n ( 1 . 1 ) . F i n a l l y , we d e r i v e some im-

p o r t a n t p r o p e r t i e s of r f r o m t h i s defi,nition.

II. Dirac 8 Function

DEFINITION 1o Let R be the real number system and K be an i n f i n i t e

natural n u m b e r . The set

Let ] ( u ) be an i n t e g r a b l e f u n c t i o n on the i n t e r v a l [a, b] of R and let

b

a

b

If the l i m i t b

e x i s t s and it is f i n i t e , we w r i t e

w h i l e th e f u n c t i o n k](kx) is said to be i n t e g r a b l e on a ( o ) .

Let

Rl={xlx=u+t, uER, tEa(o)} (2.5)

ral e x t e n s i o n of [a,b], the d e f i n i n g i n t e r v a l of f ( x ) , to the i n t e r v a l [a,b]l i n R1,

{xlxER~ and a<~x<~b}, t h a t

w h e r e [a,b] t = is, for each xoE [a,b], w h e n xE [a,b] 1

and x~xo, we have 1(x)=I(xo). I t can be r e a d i l y seen from R i e m a n n ue, 6"

d e f i n i t i o n t h a t a f t e r the natural extension of l ( x ) does not affect the inte-

g r a t e d v alu e 1= I' ](x)dx. The c o n c l u s i o n also holds for i m p r o p e r i n t e g r a l s .

a

s a t i s f i e s the f o l l o w i n g c o n d i t i o n s :

(D1) 6 ( x ) = 0, f or xERz and x C a ( o )

(D2) f oCo~d(x)dx= 1

t h e n 6 ( x ) is called a D i r a e 6 f u n c t i o n .

S i n c e t h e r e is o n l y a single p o i n t x = 0 of t h e real n u m b e r s y s t e m R w h i c h

is c o n t a i n e d in the n u c l e o n a ( o ) , and e x c e p t i n g at a ( o ) , all the values of the

9 362-

f u n c t i o n O(x) are O. Hence the i n t e r v a l of i n t e g r a t i o n of (DD can be e~tte~ded to

any interval, including a(o), w i t h o u t affecting the i n t e g r a t e d value. Thus we get

I~d(x)dx =1 1 (2.6)

/

d(x) =0, for x E R and x=~0 )

Formula (2.6) conforms w i t h that which is o b t a i n e d from physical i n t u i t i o n m.

Form d e f i n i t i o n 2 and foxmula (2.4) the following theorem c a n be easily

deduced:

THEOREM 1. If f ( u ) is an integrable f u n c t i o n on R, and

~::f(tt)du = 1

xER~ and xqia(o)

{ 0,

d ( x ) = kf(kx),

for

for xEa(o)

is a Dirac d f u n c t i o n .

From Theorem 1, it is k n o w n that Dirac 0 f u n c t i o n s are a class o f func-

tions. We now present several d i f f e r e n t examples of Dirae 0 f u n c t i o n s . In these

examples we assume t h a t t h e i r d e f i n i n g domain is Rt, and K is an i n f i n i t e n a t u -

ral number.

0~ for x ~ a(o)

Examplel. all(x)= k

~(1 +k2x2) ' for x E a ( o )

0, for xC~a(o)

Example 2. 0~ (x) = k -k2x ~

for xEa(o)

O, for x~a(o)

Example 3. d~ (x) = sin~x

for xEa(o)

, for x s[ 2k '

Example 4. d4 (x) = [

k, for x E [ 1

2k '

1]

2/c

i t can be e a s i l y v e r i f i e d t h a t these examples all s a t i s f y the c o n d i t i o n s of d e f i n i -

t i o n 2, hence t h e y are all Dirac O f u n c t i o n s .

III. P r o p e r t i e s of D i r a c b F u n c t i o n

THEOREM 2. Let I(x) be a n y c o n t i n u o u s f u n c t i o n from R--*R, and let / ( x )

be n a t u r a l l y extended from R to RI, and d(x) is taken as a c e r t a i n Dirac d f u n c t i o n ,

then we will have the following s i f t i n g p r o p e r t y

I~](x)O(x)dx= , ( 0 ) (3. I)

; 363*

Proof: Let

H(x)=~**d(x)dx, (XERt7 (3.2)

Obviously we have

H(x)=f0, for x < 0 and x~a(o).

1t , for x > 0 and x~.a(o)

as for the value of the f u n c t i o n H(x) on .nue~leon a(o), it is d e t e r m i n e d by t h e

d(x7 chosen. Let a, h E R and a,<O<b, then

ed on the real number s y s t e m R, and u s i n g the method of i n t e g r a t i o n by parts.

of Stieltjes i n t e g r a l for real f u n c t i o n , we o b t a i n

"

of the sif.ting p r o p e r t y can be r e a d i l y o b t a i n e d from formula (3.1):

H a v i n g proved the s i f t i n g p r o p e r t y , each of the formulas on [1] p. 60 can

t h e n be easily j u s t i f i e d . Take formula (3.1) for i n s t a n c e , we have

~ i~, (x)d (x2 - a')dX -- l ~ , (x)d(x2 " aZT dx + ~_2, (x)d(xz - aZ)dx

Hence

d(x~_a,.) ~w)

1 {d(x-aT+d(x+a)} (a~0) (3.5)

2a

In the t h e o r y of generalized f u n c t i o n s , the representatior~ of the product of two

or more d f u n c t i o n s is c o m p a r a t i v e l y d i f f i c u l t , but i n the present paper, the

product of two or more d f u n c t i o n s is the product of o r d i n a r y p o i n t f u n c t i o n s .

T h e author is much i n d e b t e d to Prof. Guan Zhao--zhi and o t h e r colleages

for t h e i r h e l p f u l comments.

ReferenGes

1. Dirac, P.A.M., The Principles o] Quantum Mechanics, Oxford Clarendon Press, 3rd ed.,

(1947).

2. Van Osdol and Donovan, H., Amer. Math..Mon~l(|y 79 (1972), 355--363.

3. Robinson, A., Nonstandard Analysis, North-Holland Amsterdam (1974).

4. Lightstone, A. H. and Wong, Kam, Ganad. Math. Bull. 8f, 5"(19~5), 759--762.

364 9

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