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You are on page 1of 60

Indian institute of information technology design & manufacturing Jabalpur

Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements

for the Degree of Bachlor of Technology

in the Department of Mechanical Engineering,

By

PRAKANSHU SINGH

2009081

LAXMI SAGAR MAJHI

2009053

Under the supervision of

Prof. V.K. GUPTA

JABALPUR M.P. INDIA

Dumna Airport Road P.O. khamariya -482005

Tel:+91-761-2632273 Fax: +91-761-2632524

Url- www.iiitdmj.ac.in

Page 1 of 60

AKNOWLEADGEMENT

It’s a great pleasure to acknowledge the people who have been helping me during this work. firstI

would like to thank my research advisor Prof. V.K. Gupta, for his constant guidance, advice and help

throughout this project. He helped me develop my thought process and constantly introduced me to

the real life problems in the field of MEMS and Microfluidics. His constant faith in my abilities was a

driving force for my research work. The challenges he put forth for me were helpful to achieve

higher goals. I am very much grateful to Prof. Tanujasheorey for the infinite time they spent over

me. They are a constant source of inspiration for my work.Their patience and guidance helped me to

achieve this goal. I am grateful to the staff at IIITDM Jabalpur, especially Mr.Varun and Mr.Mayur

for providing me constant help in computer and software resources. I want to thank my Parents and

brother for their unconditional love and support and the life principles that they installed in me. I

would also like to thank all my dear friends for their constant support throughout my life.

PRAKANSHU SINGH

LAXMISAGAR MAJHI

Page 2 of 60

TABLE OF CONTENT

Acknowledgements ....................................................................................................... 02

Contents ........................................................................................................................03

1 Introduction............................................................................................................... 04

2. engineering drawing and CAD modelling of Micropump working principle……………06

3Working with symmetric plane……………………………………………………………….09

4. Piezoelectricity and solution procedure in ANSYS………………………………………..15

5 Development of Numerical Model Using ANSYS APDL Tool-kit…………………………19

Numerical Methodology

Definition of the Problem

Solution Procedure Using ANSYS APDL 12

Specify Geometry

Meshing

boundary condition

model analysis

harmonic analysis

Transient analysis

DAT file creation which will be later used in CFX

Result

5 Development of Numerical Model Using CFX pre Tool-kit ..........................................29

Numerical Methodology

Definition of the Problem.

Solution Procedure Using CFX pre

CFX-Build

Specify Geometry

Meshing

CFX-Pre

Inlet Boundary

Outlet Boundary

Wall Boundary

Symmetry Boundary

6.MFX Solver coupling between CFX and ANSYS…………………..………..42

7.Results and Discussions.............................................................................................45

8. Some common error in mfx solver……………………………………..………………….50

9. Publications by student……………………………………………..……………………..59

10.reference…………………………………………………………………………………….60

Page 3 of 60

CHAPTER 1

field, which covers a broad range of studies including design, modeling,simulation,

characterization, fabrication, microflow pattern and phenomenon, etc. Fluid volumes, on the

order of a milliliter and below, figure prominently in anincreasing number of engineering

systems ranging from Biology and Medicine to spaceexploration and microelectronics

cooling.Most initial research in microfluidics resulted in the development of a gas

chromatograph at Stanford University, and inkjetprinter nozzle at IBM [1]. Since then

research in this area has undergone an enormousgrowth and many different microfluidic

devices has been developed, which includevalves, pumps, flowsensors, and fluidic mixers as

well as chemical and biological sensors [1]. Resent work is mostly focused on integrating

several devices on a singlesubstrate, the eventual aim being development of an on-chip

chemical analysis system.Microfluidic transportation requirements can sometimes be met by

takingadvantage of passive mechanisms, most notably surface tension. For otherapplications,

microscale pumps, pressure/vacuum chambers and valves provideadequate microfluidic

transport capabilities. Thus micropump research is one of biggest fields in microfluidics.

1.2 MICROPUMPS

There is a great and increasing interest in making smaller fluid pumps due to the requirements of

the new applications in different chemical, medical and biomedical fields. Thesemicropumps are

designed to handle small and accurate quantities of fluid. Some of the potential applications are

drug delivery for cancer and diabetic patients, controlled fuel delivery in engine and fuel cell,

localized cooling in electronics. The first micropump design presented by Spencer et al. in 1978

was based on an actuation of both, the pump diaphragm and valves. Smits carried out initial

research and development on micropump using microvalves in 1980s. Based on this idea

micromembrane pumps were developed by many researchers.

Micropumps can be classified in two categories: mechanical pumps with moving parts and non

mechanical pumps without moving parts. The mechanical pump utilizes either of the

reciprocating, rotary or peristaltic motion [2]. The non mechanical pumps utilize various electric-

fluid interaction phenomena to generate forces on fluids. The fluid motion can be induced by the

propagating flexural waves and the liquid moves in the direction of wave propagation with the

speed proportional to the square of the acoustic amplitude. The electro-osmosis,

thermopneumatic, and surface tension are examples of the phenomenon utilized in the design of

non mechanicalpumps .

According to the data from World Health Organization (WHO) for year 2000, numbers of

diabetics in USA were about 15 million and 154 million worldwide. The estimated increase in the

diabetics’ population from 1995 to 2025 is shown in Fig 1.1. Among them about 5-10% are

classified as type I diabetics (insulin dependent diabetes mellitus) patients, who need insulin

injection everyday. The other 90-95% of patients are mainly type II (non-insulin dependent

diabetes mellitus). About 40% of type II diabetes patients need insulin injection. The total

number of patients needing injection is estimated to be 6.9 million in USA, 16.3 million in

Europe and 71.0 million in world wide according to the data from WHO . The general price of an

insulin pump system is about $4000, but most of the cost of system and supplies are covered by

many health insurance plans in USA . The lifetime of the drug delivery system is estimated to be

Page 4 of 60

about 4 years. If 10% of the diabetes patients needing insulin injection use insulin pump as drug

delivery system then the market of the pump is roughly $6.9 million per year in USA alone and

will be much larger if the other countries are considered.

Table 1.1 Estimated numbers of diabetics in the U.S and World according to WHO

6

cases (10 )

U.S 13.8 14.3 15.0 21.8

Europe 33.0 33.9 35.4 47.7

World 135.2 142.5 154.3 299.9

Fig- 1.1

The objectives of this thesis are as following: (1) develop a PZT based soft piezoelectric ceramic

suitable for actuator application (2) maximise the flow rate The thesis is divided in five chapters.

Chapter 1 introduces the motivation behind this work. Chapter 2 discusses the basic theory of

piezoelectricity. It also describes the mathematical modelling of piezoelectric Chapter 3

illustrates the actuator design, FEM analysis and characterization of actuator (displacement and

vibration velocity as a function of applied voltage). Chapter 4 elaborates the micropump

operation principle, Chapter 5. Describe the CFD analysis of Micropump and discussion of result.

Page 5 of 60

CHAPTER -02

2.1 Engineering drawing and CAD modelling of Micropump and working

principle

*All the dimensions are in mm.

Upper part 1

FIG 2.1

Upper part 2

FIG

FIG-2.2

Page 6 of 60

Lower part

Fig

Fig-2.3

Page 7 of 60

2.2 CAD MODEL OF MICROPUMP

Lower part of the micropump

Fig- 2.4

Fig-2.5

Page 8 of 60

Assemble model

Fig- 2.6

The development of micropumps started with the reciprocating or “mechanical” concept and

can be traced back to the mid 1970s. These early developments as well as most of the

following share the same diaphragm or “piston type” principle, which is depicted in Fig.

1. A pump chamber is realized, which is closed with a flexible diaphragm on one side (or

more). By means of a suitable actuation principle, upward and downward movement

of the diaphragm is achieved to generate volume changes and, hence, under- under and

overpressure transients Dp in the pump chamber. The working principle can be described

by a cyclic process, which is divided into a supply mode (the pump chamber volume

increases) and a pump mode (the pump chamber volume decreases). During the supply

mode underpressure is generated in the pump pump chamber, which causes blood to be

sucked into the pump chamber through

throug the microneedle, as soon asDpbecomes

becomes higher than

theinlet valves threshold pressureDpcrit.

pressure . During the pump mode overpressure occurs in

the pump chamber, which transfers liquid from the pump chamber into the outlet, as

soon as Dpp becomes higher than the outlet valves threshold pressureDpcrit

pressure pcrit

Page 9 of 60

Fig.- 2.7

It should be mentioned here, that the micro diaphragm pump concept has proven to

be successful long before any of the technical realizations described here were

initiated. Some predaceous bugs, like “Graphosomalineatum”, use piston micropumps

for the external digestion of their insect prey (Fig. 2.8). One micropump is used to

dispense saliva loaded with digestion enzymes through the bugs picking stylet into the

victim’s body. A secondmicropump sucks the externally digested food back

Fig. 2.8: “Graphosomalineatum” (left) and cross section of the insects saliva dispensing

micropump (right)

Page 10 of 60

MATERIALS AND FABRICATION TECHNOLOGIES

After the early designs, which were realized by conventional machining.micropump

fabrication became an exclusive domain for silicon micromachining at the beginning of

the 1990s. Until today, the main advantage of this technology is definitely the high

precision and reproducibility achievable with the materials in use, mainly silicon and glass.

Moreover, the results of long-term tests allow the conclusion, that wear and fatigue of

mechanically moving parts do not seem to pose any problem with this technology

[6,7]. Nevertheless, the disadvantages of a rather high fabrication cost and a limited

material choice have enforced a search for alternatives quite soon. Polymer

microfabrication, namely microinjection moulding [8,9,11], polymer hot embossing [12]

and stereolithography[10,13] were demonstrated as suitable technologies for micropump

fabrication since around 1995. The material basis has definitely been broadened by this

approach. However, the goal of a true “low-cost” micropump, although often promised,

is not satisfied up to now with these technologies, which, although being more cost effective,

are still highly complex and therefore comparatively expensive microfabrication processes.

Moreover, other material-related aspects, like limited lifetime can be a critical issue. An

interesting pragmatic alternative can be seen in recent “low tech” micropumps made

by conventional moulding [14,15] or well-established printed circuit board technology

[18]. This concept may not provide a micropump with the ultimate performance of a

silicon micromachined device, but still an acceptable result at moderate fabrication costs. It

therefore seems to be the future choice for all low performance and low cost applications,

provided, that other requirements, like reproducibility and operational stability, can be

satisfied. True high performance applications, e.g. in drug delivery, can still be

regarded as a clear domain of silicon micromachining as demonstrated by recent

industrial efforts in this direction . Moreover, one should not forget, that the cost of a

microcomponent is not exclusively defined by the fabrication technology itself, but

mainly by an “intelligent” and fabrication-oriented design. It can be clearly seen in the large

number of publications cited here, that this aspect has often been left out of

consideration in favour of a scientific result, which is fully justified from the

standpoint of science. However, a more fabrication- and cost-oriented design philosophy is a

premier need for the near future to seed the basis for a broader commercial application.

Page 11 of 60

CHAPTER 3

WORKING WITH SYMMETRIC PLANE

If the model you create is symmetric, you have the option of subdividing the model and working

with a symmetric section instead of the entire model. By modeling only a portion of the part, you

can greatly reduce the number of elements in your model, thus saving significant analysis time and

system resources. Depending on the model, you can also save yourself the overhead spent defining

repeated versions of a load or constraint or selecting multiple surfaces, edges, or points during load

or constraint definition.

For a model to be symmetric , it must exhibit the following characteristics:

The geometry must be symmetric.

The loads, constraints, and idealizations must be symmetric.

There are two types of symmetry you can model —mirror symmetry and cyclic symmetry. Mirror

symmetry relies on the principle that one segment of a model is the mirror image of other segments.

An example of this type of model would be a rectangular plate with a hole at its center. In native

mode you can use the mirror symmetry constraint to take advantage of your model's symmetry. To

use mirror symmetry in FEM mode you must apply a displacement constraint to fix translation

normal to the plane of symmetry and fix rotations in opposition to the plane of symmetry.

Mirror Symmetry

In this thesis we are going to use mirror symmetry that why I am explaining mirror symmetry

for better understanding of my thesis

Mirror symmetry relies on the principle that you can describe the behavior of an entire model

using one segment, provided that segment is the mirror image of each of the other segments.

Therefore, you can model the segment rather than the whole, and still get an accurate idea of

your model's behavior.

To use mirror symmetry, you must be able to divide your model in such a way that each

segment you remove mirrors the segment that remains. The easiest way to determine whether

a model shows this type of symmetry is to imagine folding the model. If you can fold the

model in such a way that the segments are geometrically identical and have loads and

constraints with identical orientation and placement, your model demonstrates mirror

symmetry. Additionally, all loads on each segment must have the same value.

If you want to take advantage of mirror symmetry in your model, you need to complete two

steps—identifying the axes or planes of symmetry in your model and applying mirror

constraints.

For example, let us say you are working with a rectangular plate that has a hole at its center.

A bolt secures the plate at the hole, locking it in place, and the plate bears an identical force

load acting on either end. The model qualifies for mirror symmetry because the geometry,

loads, and constraints are all symmetrical.

Looking at the model as a whole, you would first decide how to divide the model. The best

choice is as follows:

Page 12 of 60

Fig 3.1

You can choose to cut the original model at the division lines, or simply apply mirror

symmetry constraints along those lines. Note that, if you use the division plan proposed

above, you will end up working with one quarter of your model. You could also choose to cut

the original model in half instead, but your resulting model would have more elements and be

less efficient for the solver. Thus, you should always strive to find the smallest symmetric

section. The remainder of this discussion assumes that you are working with a cut model.

To apply mirror symmetry constraints you must select enough geometric entities to define a

plane. If you cut the model as in the figure below, you can create mirror symmetry constraints

by selecting the surfaces created by the cuts. If you choose not to cut the model, you would

need to define enough datum points or axes to define the plane.

Fig 3.2

Page 13 of 60

Here, you add a mirror constraint in the X direction along the vertical cut, where the surface

would normally merge with the rest of the part geometry. Similarly, you add a mirror

constraint in the Y direction along the horizontal cut. In this way, you mimic the way that the

geometry would behave were it part of the full model. Note.you can add constraints simply

by defining a displacement constraint and selecting the surfaces at the horizontal and vertical

cuts as the constraint references.

In addition to adding the mirror symmetry constraints at the cuts, you also need to adjust the

load on the symmetric section by dividing the additive load seen by the model by the number

of segments that result from the cut process. This situation occurs whenever you apply your

load using a total load distribution. In this case, the model sees an additive total force load of

200 pounds—100 pounds on one end of the model, and 100 on the other. To develop the

symmetric segment, you cut the model into 4 parts. Dividing 200 by 4 yields a 50 pound load

on the symmetric segment.

Page 14 of 60

CHAPTER 4

PIEZOELECTRICITY

The piezoelectric effect understood as the linear electromechanical interaction between the

mechanical and the electrical state in crystalline materials with no inversion symmetry The

piezoelectric effect is a reversible process in that materials exhibiting the direct piezoelectric

effect (the internal generation of electrical charge resulting from an applied mechanical force)

also exhibit the reverse piezoelectric effect (the internal generation of a mechanical strain

resulting from an applied electrical field). For example, lead zirconatetitanate crystals will

generate measurable piezoelectricity when their static structure is deformed by about 0.1% of

the original dimension. Conversely, those same crystals will change about 0.1% of their static

dimension when an external electric field is applied to the material. The inverse piezoelectric

effect is used in production of ultrasonic sound waves.

Piezoelectricity is found in useful applications such as the production and detection of sound,

generation of high voltages, electronic frequency generation, microbalances, and ultrafine

focusing of optical assemblies. It is also the basis of a number of scientific instrumental

techniques with atomic resolution, the scanning probe microscopies such as STM, AFM,

MTA, SNOM, etc., and everyday uses such as acting as the ignition source for cigarette

lighters and push-start propane barbecues.

MATHEMATICAL DISCRIPTION

Piezoelectricity is the combined effect of the electrical behaviour of the material

and E is electric field strength, and

whereS is strain, s is compliance and T is stress. These may be combined into so-called

coupled equations, of which the strain-charge form is

Where[d] is the matrix for the direct piezoelectric effect and[dt ]is the matrix for the converse

piezoelectric effect. The superscript E indicates a zero, or constant, electric field; the superscript

T indicates a zero, or constant, stress field; and the superscript t stands for transposition of a

matrix.

The strain-charge for a material of the 4mm (C4v) crystal class (such as a poled piezoelectric

ceramic such as tetragonal PZT or BaTiO3) as well as the 6mm crystal class may also be written

as (ANSI IEEE 176):

Page 15 of 60

S1 s11E s12E s13E 0 0 0 T1 0 0 d31

E T

S2 s21

E

s22 E

s23 0 0 0 2 0 0 d32

E1

S3 s31E s32E s33E 0 0 0 T3 0 0 d33

= + E2

S4 0 0 0 E

s44 0 0 T4 0 d 24 0

E

S 0 0 0 0 s55E 0 T d 0 0 3

5 5 15

S6 0 0 0 0 0 s66 = 2( s11 − s12 ) T6 0

E E E

0 0

T1

T

∈11 0

2

1

D 0 0 0 0 d 0 0 E1

D = 0

15

T

0 d 24 0 0 + 0 ∈22 0 E2

3

2 0

T

D3 d 31 d32 d33 0 0 0 4 0 0 ∈33 E3

T

5

T6

where the first equation represents the relationship for the converse piezoelectric effect and the

latter for thedirect piezoelectric effect.[12]Although the above equations are the most used form in

literature, some comments about the notation arenecessary. Generally D and E are vectors, that is,

Cartesian tensor of rank-1; and permittivity ε is Cartesian tensorof rank 2. Strain and stress are, in

principle, also rank-2 tensors. But conventionally, because strain and stress are

all symmetric tensors, the subscript of strain and stress can be re-labelled in the following

fashion: 11 → 1; 22 → 2;33 → 3; 23 → 4; 13 → 5; 12 → 6. (Different convention may be used

by different authors in literature. Say, someuse 12 → 4; 23 → 5; 31 → 6 instead.) That is why S

and T appear to have the "vector form" of 6 components. Consequently, s appears to be a 6 by 6

matrix instead of rank-4 tensor. Such a re-labelled notation is often calledVoigtnotation.In total,

there are 4 piezoelectric coefficients,

E T

∂D ∂S j

dij = i =

∂T j

∂Ei

E S

∂D ∂T j

eij = i = −

∂S

j ∂Ei

D T

∂E ∂S j

gij = − i =

∂T j

∂Di

D S

∂E ∂T j

hij = − i = −

∂S

j ∂Di

where the first set of 4 terms correspond to the direct piezoelectric effect and the second set

of 4 terms correspondto the converse piezoelectric effect.[13] A formalism has been worked

out for those piezoelectric crystals, forwhich the polarization is of the crystal-field induced

type, that allows for the calculation of piezoelectricalcoefficientsdij from electrostatic lattice

constants or higher-order Madelung constants.

Page 16 of 60

4.2. Piezoelectric Material Simulation Methods and Tools

ANSYS was used to predict and optimize the performance of the actuator. Initially, the

differences between IEEE and ANSYS standards in the parameters such as piezoelectric

elastic compliance sEand piezoelectric strain coefficient d were addressed. The first step in

using ANSYS for PZT analysis is to define three matrices: permittivity matrix (dielectric

constants), piezoelectric strain (or stress) matrices, and elastic coefficient (or stiffness)

matrices. The piezoelectric matrix can be in [e] form (piezoelectric stress matrix) or in [d]

form (piezoelectric strain matrix). The [e] matrix is typically associated with the input of the

anisotropic elasticity in the form of the stiffness matrix [c], while the [d] matrix is associated

with the compliance matrix [s], where the stiffness matrix [c] is the inverse of the compliance

matrix [s]. For most published piezoelectric materials, the order used for the

piezoelectricmatrix is [x, y, z, yz, xz, xy] based on IEEE standards, while the ANSYS input

order is

[x, y, z, xy, yz, xz]. This means that to transform the matrix to the ANSYS input order row

data switching for the shear terms is needed. Equations 18 and 19 are the transformed

matrices between IEEE and ANSYS. IEEE constants [e61, e62, e63] must be defined as

ANSYS xy row, and IEEEconstants [e41, e42, e43] must be defined as ANSYS yz row, and

IEEE constants [e51, e52,e53] must be defined as ANSYS xz row.

x y z x y z

x e11 e12 e13 x y x e11 e12 e13

e e23 y e21 e22 e23

y 21 e22 e11 e12

z e e32 e33 e e z e e e33

[ e] = e31 e42 e43

[ e] = e21 e22 ANSYS [ e] = 31 32

xy 41 31 32 xy e61 e62 e63

yz e51 e52 e53 e41 e42 yz e41 e42 e43

xz e61 e62 e63 xz e51 e52 e53

(3--D) (2-D)

IEEE terms [c61, c62, c63, c66] must be defined as ANSYS xy row, IEEE terms

[c41, c42, c43, c46, c44] must be defined as ANSYS yz row, and IEEE terms

[c51, c52, c53,c56, c54, c55] must be defined as ANSYS xz row.

Page 17 of 60

x y z xy yz xz x y z xy

x c11

y c21 c22 x c

11

z c c c33 y c21 c22

[ c ] = c31 c32

xy 41 42 c43 c44 z c31 c32 c33

yz c51 c52 c53 c54 c55 xy c41 c42 c43

c44

xz c61 c62 c63 c64 c65 c66

(3-D) (2-D)

x y z xy yz xz

x c11

y c21 c22

z c c c33

ANSYS [ c ] = 31 32

E

xy c61 c62 c63 c66

yz c41 c42 c43 c46 c44

xz c51 c52 c53 c56 c54 c55

Page 18 of 60

CAPTER-05

Material property of Pb(Zr,Ti)O3

−5.7 15.8 −7.0 0 0 0

−7.0 −7.0 18.1 0 0 0

sij = 0

E

0 0 40.6 0 0

0 0 0 0 40.6 0

0 0 0 0 0 43.0

0 0 0 0 550 0

d ij = 0 0 0 550 0 0

207 207 410 0 0 0

The material properties for PZT were taken with relative dielectric constants of

K11=K22=1930 and K33=2100, and

Density ρPZT=7800 (kg/m3).

5.1MODEL OF ACTUATOR

STACTURAL DOMAIN

For the structural simulation, the half-model of the LIPCA was considered with 3930

hexahedral elements as shown infigure5. The boundary of the circular LIPCA could be

considered to fix supported at the peripheral and symmetric boundary condition at the front

edge as shown in figure. Basically, a LIPCA uses the reverse piezoelectric effect, which

means that the piezoelectric crystals can change theirshape when subjected to an applied

voltage. In

The present analysis, we used a fully coupled analysis of thestrain and charge of the material.

When an input voltageis applied to the LIPCA, the LIPCA acts as an actuating diaphragm; it

then supplies water to the pump chamber andpump the water out of the pump chamber. We

assumed that the applied voltage had the following form of a sine function.

V=20*sin(2*pi*25000*{time})

Where Vis the applied voltage and 25000 is the first natural frequency of the voltage.

Page 19 of 60

In the structural domain, the PZT was modelled as SOLID226 which has a three-dimensional

magnetic, thermal, electric, piezoelectric and structural field capability.

In this simulation, the piezoelectric and structural coupling field was used.

Modelling

we can easily visualize that whole the model is symmetric

inXZ plane that’s why only half of the model is created. Actuator is made by two bimorph

piezoelectric which is glued together

5.2.1 What are Bimorph Actuators

A bimorph actuator is composed of two thin panels of ceramic elements bonded together with

a flexible metallic panel as it's central electrode. By wiring these two elements in such a way

as to make one elongate and the other contract by applying voltage, inflection deviation

occurs conforming to the waveform of the applied voltage.

Bimorphs are operated in d31 mode.

5.2.2 What are Piezoelectric Bimorph Actuators

It can be described as a sandwich-type actuator in which two layers of a piezoelectric

material are laminated onto one surface of a supporting beam or plate. The two piezoelectric

layers are generally poled in the same direction, typically in the direction normal to the

supporting beam/plate. When opposing electric fields are applied to the two piezoelectric

layers, their corresponding dimensional changes are of the opposite character, which gives

rise to bending of the beam.

Fig 5.1

5.3.3PZT Bimorph Actuator Configuration

Two Electrode Bimorph (Serial Bimorph): Here one of the two ceramic plates is

always operated opposite to the direction of polarization. To avoid depolarization, the

maximum electric field is limited to few hundred volts per millimeter. These type of

actuator is widely used in accelerometers and force sensors.

Three Electrode Bimorph (Parallel Bimorph):

Here the two piezoelectric plates are of the same polarization directions and the actuator is

driven by applying electrical field between surface electrodes and the bonding layer

Page 20 of 60

Fig 5.2

Basic Working Principle

Two PZT thin films are stacked co-axially on both sides of a thin elastic bronze piece, and an

outer ring and an inner ring are separately installed and are firmly fixed on outer and inner

diameter of the elastic piece by two ring covers.

Fig 5.3

When a proper excitation voltage is applied on it, the upper PZT thin film expands vertically

and contracts horizontally, the lower PZT contracts vertically and expands horizontally. This

establishes the bimorph bending, the effect of which produces the deformation

Page 21 of 60

Fig-5.4

MESHING

Model is meshed using SOLID 226 element

SOLID226 Element Description

SOLID226 has the following capabilities:

Structural-Thermal

Piezoresistive

Electroelastic

Piezoelectric

Thermal-Electric

Structural-Thermoelectric

Thermal-Piezoelectric

The element has twenty nodes with up to five degrees of freedom per node.

Structural capabilities are elastic only and include large deflection, stress stiffening

effects, and prestress effects. Thermoelectric capabilities include Seebeck, Peltier,

and Thomson effects, as well as Joule heating. In addition to thermal expansion,

Page 22 of 60

structural-thermal

thermal capabilities include the piezocaloric effect in dynamic analyses.

The Corioliseffect is available for analyses with structural degrees of freedom.

Table 5.1 SOLID226 Coupled-Field

Coupled Analyses

Coupled- KEYOPT DOF Force Reaction Analysis

Field (1) Label Label Solution Type

Analysis

Piezoelectric 1001 [3] UX, UY, FX, FY, Force, Static

UZ, FZ, Electric Modal

VOLT CHRG Charge Full

(negative) Harmonic

Full

Transient

Fig- 5.6

Page 23 of 60

fig:- 5.8 full expansion model

BOUNDARY CONDITION

Page 24 of 60

APDL programming of the actuator

CYLIND,5E-3,0,1.5e-3,2.0e-3,0,180

CYLIND,5e-3,0,2.0e-3,2.5e-3,0,180

VGLUE,ALL

/com- meshing

allsel !Fluid domain meshing

type,1

mat,1

esize,2e-4

vsweep,all

allsel

/com boundary condition

/com

/com -- Boundary conditions for silicon

/com

esel,s,type,,1

allsel,below,elem

nsel,r,loc,y,0

d,all,ux,0 !Symmetry boundaries (at y=0)

d,all,uy,0

allsel,below,elem

csys,1

nsel,r,loc,x,5e-3 ! alldof=0 at outer surface

csys,0

d,all,ux,0

d,all,uy,0

d,all,uz,0

allsel

esel,s,type,,2

allsel,below,elem

nsel,r,loc,y,0

d,all,ux,0 !Symmetry boundaries (at y=0)

d,all,uy,0

allsel,below,elem

csys,1

nsel,r,loc,x,5e-3 ! alldof=0 at outer surface

csys,0

d,all,ux,0

d,all,uy,0

d,all,uz,0

allsel

sf,all,fsin,1

allsel

save

The goal of modal analysis in structural mechanics is to determine the natural mode shapes and

frequencies of an object or structure during free vibration. It is common to use the finite element

method (FEM) to perform this analysis because, like other calculations using the FEM, the object

being analyzed can have arbitrary shape and the results of the calculations are acceptable. The types

of equations which arise from modal analysis are those seen in Eigen systems. The physical

interpretation of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors which come from solving the system are that they

represent the frequencies and corresponding mode shapes. Sometimes, the only desired modes are the

Page 25 of 60

lowest frequencies because they can be the most prominent modes at which the object will vibrate,

dominating all

ll the higher frequency modes.

Model analysis of this actuator is done using block langrange method 3 mode is extracted between 0

to 100000 frequency and result of model analysis is shown in fig

Fig. 5.10model

model analysis of actuator

2nd natural frequency 45877 hz

3rd natural frequency 47869 hz

Harmonic analysis

20 volt is applied to upper part of the piezoelectric and lower part is grounded then harmonic

analysis is done between frequency range 0 to 100000 and 100 steps are subtracted result of

harmonic analysis is shown below

Page 26 of 60

Fig- 5.12 deflection of actuator at different frequency

Transient analysis

There are two way to define any sinusoidal function in ANSYS either directly define the

sinusoidal function from parameter > function > define and this file can be used as input or

circuit can be applied in this project circuit is applied using the APDL programming circuit

94 is used for the same. APDL programming for the circuit is given by

V= applied voltage

freq= natural frequency

In this project V=20 Volt and freq= 24100 hz but it can be taken as 25000 hz

! Electrical BC

nsel,r,loc,z,1.5e-3

cp,1,volt,all

ng=ndnext(0) ! ground node

nsel,all

nsel,s,loc,z,2.5e-3

cp,2,volt,all

nl=ndnext(0) ! load node

nsel,all

/PREP7

et,2,CIRCU94,4,1,,,,1 ! voltage source, positive electric charge option

r,2,,V,freq

type,2

real,2

*get,nod226,node,,count ! number of nodes

n,nod226+1

e,nl,ng,nod226+1

Page 27 of 60

ddele,nl,volt

fini

/SOLU

antype,trans

time,40/freq

deltime,1/freq/20

outres,all,all

solve

finish

solution is done for the 800 time step and final graph of the transient analysis is shown like

this

Fig- 5.13

After this analysis file is ready to create .dat file which will be latter used in CFX pre during

the interfacing and the dat file can be created using GUI window

Choose menu path Main Menu> Multi-field Set Up> MFX-ANSYS/CFX>

ANSYS/CFX> Load Transfer.

Enter Interface1 for the CFX Region Name.

For Load Type, accept the default of Mechanical.

Click OK.

Choose menu path Main Menu> Multi-field

Multi Set Up> MFX-ANSYS/CFX>

ANSYS/CFX> Time Ctrl.

Set MFX End Time to ………….

Set Initial Time Step to ……………

Set Minimum Time Step to ……

Set Maximum Time Step to ……..

Accept the remaining defaults and click OK.

Page 28 of 60

CHAPTER- 6

Fluid region as well as solid region (steel body) is created and meshed in ANSYS APDL.

Fluid 142 element is used for meshing fluid region and solid 45 is used for meshing solid

region as we are not interested in deformation in solid region that’s why coarse mesh is done

for solid region and very fine mesh is done for fluid region further all the fluid region is

meshed by mesh200 element and name is given at the place where boundary condition

suppose to be applied in CFX pre APDL programming for meshing of fluid region would be

look like thismesh=1

*if,mesh,eq,1,then

/prep7

/com

/com -- Element types

/com

et,3,fluid142,,,,1 !3D Fluid element with diplacement DOF option

et,4,mesh200,6 !Mesh only element (3D quad 4 nodes) to mesh surfaces used in CFXpre

/com

/com -- Fluid domain geometry

/com

block,,2.5e-3,,0.2e-3,,0.1e-3

k,9,2.8e-3

k,10,2.8e-3,0.02e-3

k,11,2.8e-3,,0.1e-3

k,12,2.8e-3,0.02e-3,0.1e-3

v,6,11,9,4,7,12,10,3

block,2.8e-3,2.9e-3,,0.02e-3,,0.1e-3

vglue,1,2,3

/com

/com -- Meshing

/com

allsel !Fluid domain meshing

type,3

mat,3

esize,4e-5

mshape,1,3d !Volume mesh using Tet.

mshkey,0 !Free meshing

vmesh,all

allsel

type,4 !with mesh only elements

amesh,all

allsel,below,area

cm,fsi,elem !Create component named fsi

allsel

Page 29 of 60

asel,s,,,5 !Opening surface mesh

type,4 !with mesh only elements

amesh,all

allsel,below,area

cm,pipe,elem !Create component named pipe

allsel

asel,a,,,10 !with mesh only elements

asel,a,,,21

type,4

amesh,all

allsel,below,area

cm,side1,elem !Create component named side1

allsel

asel,s,,,2

asel,a,,,8

asel,a,,,19

type,4

amesh,all

allsel,below,area

cm,side2,elem !Create component named side2

allsel

asel,a,,,20 !with mesh only elements

type,4

amesh,all

allsel,below,area

cm,top,elem !Create component named top

allsel

asel,a,,,7 !with mesh only elements

asel,a,,,18

type,4

amesh,all

allsel,below,area

cm,bottom,elem !Create component named bottom

allsel

type,4 !with mesh only elements

amesh,all

allsel,below,area

cm,opening,elem !Create component named opening

allsel

save

this model should be saved as .cdb file form

pre-processor> archive mode > write which can be directly open in cfx pre for further analysis

Page 30 of 60

Fig- 6.1 full meshed model of micropump

Fig-6.2

6.2 isometric view of micropump

Only half of the model is created due to symmetry reason and condition for symmetry has been

explained in chapter 2

Page 31 of 60

Fig- 6.3 half model of micropump

There are two region in pumping chamber fluid region and solid region (outer part steel

body) solid body is meshed using solid 45 and very coarse mesh is done because we are not

interested is solid part i.e we don’t want to see that what is the effect on solid part because of

fluid I am assuming that there are no effect on solid part or it has very minor effect which can

be negligible.

as very fine mesh is done for fluid region there are two region for this

Whereas

2. It is necessary for stability during solving in CFX solver this type of error will be

discussed in chapter

FLUID 142 element detail about this element is given below

Page 32 of 60

We are using FLUID142 to model transient or steady state fluid/thermal systems that involve

fluid and/or non-fluid regions. The conservation equations for viscous fluid flow and energy

are solved in the fluid region, while only the energy equation is solved in the non-fluid

region.Use this FLOTRAN CFD element to solve for flow and temperature distributions

within aregion, as opposed to elements that model a network of one-dimensional regions

hookedtogether (such as FLUID116).we can also use FLUID142 in a fluid-solid interaction

analysis..

For the FLOTRAN CFD elements, the velocities are obtained from the conservation of

momentum principle, and the pressure is obtained from the conservation of mass principle.

(The temperature, if required, is obtained from the law of conservation of energy.) A

segregated sequential solver algorithm is used; that is, the matrix system derived from the

finite element discretization of the governing equation for each degree of freedom is solved

separately. The flow problem is nonlinear and the governing equations are coupled together.

The sequential solution of all the governing equations, combined with the update of any

temperature- or pressure-dependent properties, constitutes a global iteration. The number of

global iterations required to achieve a converged solution may vary considerably, depending

on the size and stability of the problem. Transport equations are solved for the mass fractions

of up to six species.

You can solve the system of equations in a constant angular velocity rotating coordinate

system. The degrees of freedom are velocities, pressure, and temperature. Two turbulence

quantities, the turbulent kinetic energy and the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate, are

calculated if you invoke an optional turbulence model.

CFX is divided in to 3 part CFX pre, CFX post and CFX result , CFX pre is used for basic

setting initial condition boundary condition etc CFX post is used for solution numerical

scheme conservation point residual value number of iteration are supposed to be define in

CFX post finally CFX result is used for result viewer no setting is required I am going to

explain all the setting used by me .

Page 33 of 60

If a transient simulation is started from an approximate initial guess the initial transient will not be

accurate

The first few timesteps may not converge

A smaller time step may be needed initially to maintain solver stability

For cyclic behavior the first few cycles can be ignored until a repeatable pattern is obtained.

obtained

MATERIAL PROPERTIES

Water is taken as

Page 34 of 60

Symmetric boundary condition is imposed on the front face red colour is the symbol of

symmetric boundary condition

No slip wall condition area of the wall is shown in above figure it is mainly outer part of the

fluid domain

Fluid solid interfacing in define on the highlighted part at this part mesh deformation is

allowed and data is taken from the ANSYS dat file which has been createn in ANSYS APDL

Page 35 of 60

FULL MODEL with different boundary

boun condition in cfx

Red colour is the symbol of symmetric boundary condition blue colour is the symbol of

opening type boundary condition and black arrow is the symbol of outlet boundary

condition.

Available Boundary Condition Types

Inlet

– Velocity Components -Static Temperature (Heat Transfer)

– Normal Speed -Total Temperature (Heat Transfer)

– Mass Flow Rate -Total

Total Enthalpy (Heat Transfer)

– Total Pressure (stable) -Relative Static Pressure

ressure (Supersonic)

– Static Pressure -Inlet Turbulent conditions

Outlet

– Average Static Pressure -Normal Speed

– Velocity Components -Mass Flow Rate

– Static Pressure

Opening

– Opening Pressure and Dirn -Opening

Opening Temperature (Heat Transfer)

– Entrainment -Opening Static Temperature (Heat Transfer)

– Static Pressure and Direction -Inflow Turbulent conditions

– Velocity Components

Wall

– No Slip / Free Slip -Adiabatic (Heat Transfer)

– Roughness Parameters -Fixed

Fixed Temperature (Heat Transfer)

– Heat Flux (Heat Transfer) -Heat Transfer

ransfer Coefficient (Heat Transfer)

– Wall Velocity (for

for tangential motion only)

only

Page 36 of 60

Symmetry

– No details (only specify region which corresponds to the symmetry plane

• Inlets are used predominantly for regions where inflow is expected; however, inlets

also support outflow as a result of velocity specified boundary conditions

• Velocity specified inlets are intended for incompressible flows

– Using velocity inlets in compressible flows can lead to non-

non physical results

• Pressure and mass flow inlets areare suitable for compressible and incompressible flows

• The same concept applies to outlets

In this analysis opening type of boundary condition is imposed on the inlet because there is

a no valve and inlet as well outlet both are expected whereas outlet boundary condition

with pressure boundary condition is applied which insure that it is acting as one way valve

and no inlet is allowed form the outlet

Page 37 of 60

CELL( CFX Expression Language) PROGRAMMING IN CFX Pre

ANALYSIS TYPE:

Option = Transient

EXTERNAL SOLVER COUPLING:

ANSYS Input File = C:\Users\ccadmin\Desktop\openong.dat

Option = ANSYS MultiField via Prep7

END

INITIAL TIME:

Option = Coupling Initial Time

END

TIME DURATION:

Option = Coupling Time Duration

END

TIME STEPS:

Option = Coupling Timesteps

END

END

DOMAIN: Default Domain

Coord Frame = Coord 0

Domain Type = Fluid

Location = Primitive 3D A

BOUNDARY: inlet

Boundary Type = OPENING

Interface Boundary = Off

Location = INLET

BOUNDARY CONDITIONS:

FLOW REGIME:

Option = Subsonic

END

MASS AND MOMENTUM:

Option = Entrainment

Relative Pressure = 10 [kPa]

END

MESH MOTION:

Option = Stationary

END

END

END

BOUNDARY: interface1

Boundary Type = WALL

Page 38 of 60

Create Other Side = Off

Interface Boundary = Off

Location = FSI

BOUNDARY CONDITIONS:

MASS AND MOMENTUM:

Option = No Slip Wall

END

MESH MOTION:

Option = ANSYS MultiField

Receive from ANSYS = Total Mesh Displacement

END

END

END

BOUNDARY: outlet

Boundary Type = OUTLET

Interface Boundary = Off

Location = OUTLET

BOUNDARY CONDITIONS:

FLOW REGIME:

Option = Subsonic

END

MASS AND MOMENTUM:

Option = Static Pressure

Relative Pressure = 0 [Pa]

END

MESH MOTION:

Option = Stationary

END

END

END

BOUNDARY: symm

Boundary Type = SYMMETRY

Interface Boundary = Off

Location = SYMMETRY

BOUNDARY CONDITIONS:

MESH MOTION:

Option = Unspecified

END

END

END

BOUNDARY: wall

Boundary Type = WALL

Create Other Side = Off

Interface Boundary = Off

Location = WALL

BOUNDARY CONDITIONS:

MASS AND MOMENTUM:

Option = No Slip Wall

END

MESH MOTION:

Option = Stationary

END

END

END

DOMAIN MODELS:

BUOYANCY MODEL:

Option = Non Buoyant

Page 39 of 60

END

DOMAIN MOTION:

Option = Stationary

END

MESH DEFORMATION:

Option = Regions of Motion Specified

MESH MOTION MODEL:

Option = Displacement Diffusion

MESH STIFFNESS:

Option = Increase near Small Volumes

Stiffness Model Exponent = 10

END

END

END

REFERENCE PRESSURE:

Reference Pressure = 1 [atm]

END

END

FLUID DEFINITION: Fluid 1

Material = Water

Option = Material Library

MORPHOLOGY:

Option = Continuous Fluid

END

END

FLUID MODELS:

COMBUSTION MODEL:

Option = None

END

HEAT TRANSFER MODEL:

Fluid Temperature = 25 [C]

Option = Isothermal

END

THERMAL RADIATION MODEL:

Option = None

END

TURBULENCE MODEL:

Option = Laminar

END

END

INITIALISATION:

Option = Automatic

INITIAL CONDITIONS:

Velocity Type = Cartesian

CARTESIAN VELOCITY COMPONENTS:

Option = Automatic with Value

U = 0.001 [m s^-1]

V = 0.001 [m s^-1]

W = 0.001 [m s^-1]

END

STATIC PRESSURE:

Option = Automatic with Value

Relative Pressure = 1000 [Pa]

END

END

END

END

Page 40 of 60

DOMAIN: solid

Coord Frame = Coord 0

Domain Type = Solid

Location = Primitive 3D B

BOUNDARY: solid Default

Boundary Type = WALL

Create Other Side = Off

Interface Boundary = Off

Location = Primitive 2D

BOUNDARY CONDITIONS:

HEAT TRANSFER:

Option = Adiabatic

END

END

END

DOMAIN MODELS:

DOMAIN MOTION:

Option = Stationary

END

MESH DEFORMATION:

Option = None

END

END

INITIALISATION:

Option = Automatic

INITIAL CONDITIONS:

TEMPERATURE:

Option = Automatic with Value

Temperature = 298 [K]

END

END

END

SOLID DEFINITION: Solid 1

Material = Aluminium

Option = Material Library

MORPHOLOGY:

Option = Continuous Solid

END

END

SOLID MODELS:

HEAT TRANSFER MODEL:

Option = Thermal Energy

END

THERMAL RADIATION MODEL:

Option = None

END

END

END

OUTPUT CONTROL:

MONITOR OBJECTS:

MONITOR BALANCES:

Option = Full

END

MONITOR FORCES:

Option = Full

END

MONITOR PARTICLES:

Page 41 of 60

Option = Full

END

MONITOR POINT: Monitor Point 1

Expression Value = areaAve(Velocity)@outlet

Option = Expression

END

MONITOR RESIDUALS:

Option = Full

END

MONITOR TOTALS:

Option = Full

END

END

RESULTS:

File Compression Level = Default

Option = Standard

END

TRANSIENT RESULTS: Transient Results 1

File Compression Level = Default

Option = Standard

OUTPUT FREQUENCY:

Option = Time Interval

Time Interval = 1.25e-5 [s]

END

END

END

SOLUTION UNITS:

Angle Units = [rad]

Length Units = [m]

Mass Units = [kg]

Solid Angle Units = [sr]

Temperature Units = [K]

Time Units = [s]

END

SOLVER CONTROL:

ADVECTION SCHEME:

Option = High Resolution

END

CONVERGENCE CONTROL:

Maximum Number of Coefficient Loops = 3

Minimum Number of Coefficient Loops = 1

Timescale Control = Coefficient Loops

END

CONVERGENCE CRITERIA:

Residual Target = 1.E-4

Residual Type = RMS

END

TRANSIENT SCHEME:

Option = Second Order Backward Euler

TIMESTEP INITIALISATION:

Option = Automatic

END

END

END

END

Page 42 of 60

CHAPTER 7

The ANSYS code functions as the master: it reads all Multi-field commands, collects the

interface meshes from the CFX code, does the mapping, and communicates time and stagger

loop controls to the CFX code. The mapping generated by ANSYS is used to interpolate

loads between dissimilar meshes on either side of the coupling interface. Each field solver

advances through a sequence of multi-field time steps and stagger (coupling) iterations within

each time step. During every stagger iteration, each field solver collects the loads that it

requires from the other field solvers and then solves its physics fields. You can run the CFX

field solver using CFX's parallel processing capabilities to run large-scale parallel CFD jobs

on either the same or a different platform as ANSYS.

Synchronization Points and Load Transfer

Using MFX, data are transferred throughout the fluid-solid interaction analysis. The points at

which data are transferred are called synchronization points. Data can be sent or received

only at a synchronization point, as shown in Figure 6.1: MFX Method Data Communication

Solution Process

The solution process for MFX is shown in the figure below. The ANSYS code acts as the

master and reads all MFX commands, does the mapping, and serves the time step and stagger

loop controls to the CFX slave. The MFANALYSIS command activates a master multi-field

solution. The solution loop consists of two loops: the multi-field time loop and the multi-field

stagger loop.

The ANSYS field solver supports transient and static analyses. CFX supports only a transient

analysis. If you want a static solution, running a static analysis on ANSYS will help CFX to

reach a solution more quickly.

Page 43 of 60

Figure 7.2: ANSYS Multi-field

Multi solver Process

The time loop corresponds to the time step loop of the multi-field

multi field analysis, set with the

MFTIME command. Use the MFDTIME command to specify time step size.

Within each time step is the stagger loop. The stagger loop allows

allows for implicit coupling of the

fields in the MFX solution. The number of stagger iterations applies to each time step in the th

MFX analysis. Within each ch step in the time step loop, the field solutions are repeated in the

stagger loop until convergence. The number of iterations executed

executed within the stagger loop is

determined by the convergence of the loads transfer between fields or the maximum number

of stagger iterations specified by the MFITER command. For a transient analysis performed

in CFX, the stagger iteration contains many CFX coefficient

coefficient iterations, which loop until

convergence or until the maximum number of coefficient iterations is reached. Load Lo transfers

between fields occur at each stagger loop. Global convergence

convergence is checked after the load

transfer. If global convergence of the load transfer is not achieved, another stagger loop

loo is

performed.

Use the MFLCOMM command to specify surface load transfer ansfer between field solvers. The

meshes used in the individual field solvers can be dissimilar

dissimilar across the interface. Before

solving a given field, all necessary loads are collected from the other field solver. Loads are

transferred either before or after solution of the field solver, depending on whether the field

solver groups are set to solve sequentially or simultaneously

ANSYS

APDL

CFX PRE

CFX SOLVER

Page 44 of 60

CHAPTER 8

Initially wall boundary condition is placed at inlet and outlet both and micrpoump is

completely filled by water and the main aim of this analyasis to show that what are the

maximum and minimum pressure is generated because of actuation of piezoelectric it can be

seen in chapter 4 that micropump

pump is made is xy plane and microneedle is located toward z

axis

Analysis is done only for 50 time steps 10 time step = 1complete cycle

1/25000= 4e-5[s]

fr ANSYS APDL

Page 45 of 60

FIG-8.2

8.2 pressure at top of needle

Fig-8.4

8.4 velocity near outlet

Page 46 of 60

Fig 8.5 pressure at outlet

Page 47 of 60

Fig 8.7 velocity at outlet

Page 48 of 60

Velocity vector plot

0.7e meter

1e meter

Page 49 of 60

Velocity vector at time 0.8e-55 s

ocity vector at time 0.8e-5

0.8e s

4e second

Page 50 of 60

Discussion on this analysis

fig 8.12)) we can see that during the positive

displacement of the actuator pressure is decreases because of this suction is created and

+velocity w is generated at the top of micro needle and –ve ve velocity in x direction is

generated it means that fluid particle try

tr to come toward the centre of the micro pump.

pump

Same type of the design of micropump has been made and tested by kazuyoshi Tsuchiya, Naoyuki

nakanishi and Eiji nakamachi in their reseach paper” Development of blood extraction system for

health monitering system”[3],

], and they measured maximum pressure 13 kpa, in my anlysis I am

getting maximum pressure 14 kpa which is very close to experomental measure value.

Analysis n0.2

Now boundary condition is changed opening boundary condition

condition is placed at the inlet and wall is

placed at the outlet

The main purpose of this analysis to allow the flow from inlet but not from outlet also it is

assuming that blood pressure is 10kpa gauge

Page 51 of 60

Velocity vectors

Page 52 of 60

Discussion on analysis 2

Very high pressure is generated when we change the boundary condition maximum pressure is

shown near about 70 Mpa which is very high pressure at cant be generated from piezoelectric

main reason for this answer can be

3.But I am getting this range pressure for all the analysis except boundary condition wall (i.e.

micropump is completely closed and filled by water analysis no. 1) that’s why is is also possible

that some coefficient factor may exist for this type analysis

BOUNDARY CONDITION

Opening at inlet with gauge pressure 10 kpa and outlet at outlet with gauge pressure 0

atmosphere

Page 53 of 60

Analysis -04

opening at inlet with gauge pressure 10kpa and outlet with gauge pressure o pa at outlet are

taken

Page 54 of 60

Page 55 of 60

CHAPTER 09

Error msg- load in not transferred

SOLUTION- Never apply area load LOAD must be appliedonly on node in ANSYS ,use

APDL programming instead of GUI window

Area load ????

Node load ????

Why APDL is better than GUI window ????

AREA LOAD area load is applied on the area it can be applied before or after the meshing,

meshing does not alter this type of load meshing can be changed number of time load will not

be affected this type of load can be easily applied using GUI window

NODE LOAD node load is applied on node and cant be applied before meshing, this type of

load always applied after meshing and once load has been applied mesh cant be alter , during

the communication between CFX and APDL all the information is transferred between nodes

therefore it is good practice to apply node load only.

Why APDL is better than GUI window ????

It is good practice to use APDL command for node load because node can be easily selected

using APDL command for exp I have to select node betwwn

-1.5 <x<1.5

-2.5<y<2.5

-3.5<z<3.5

Then it is very hard to use GUI window but APDL command can easily select these nodes

Nsel,r,loc,x,-1,5,1.5

Nsel,s,loc,y,-2.5,2.5

Nsel,s,loc,z,-3.5,3.5

Plot>nodes

Most common problem in moving mesh problem new user will face 9 time out of10 time

this error msg

Don’t use smart meshing, meshing quality must be good enough

Element size should be small

Time step should be small

Errormsg- overflow

It means that your boundary conditions are wrong change it

Ex-in the case of one inlet and one outlet static pressure cant be applied on outlet and total

stable pressure cant be applied on inlet boundary condition.

If you are working with multiphase problem (where more than two liquid are involve) it is

good practice to use 0.000001 instead of 0

Error msg- no surface is compatible to ANSYS

Make sure the name of the interfacing surface define in ANSYS is same as the name define in

Cfx- pre

i.e if interface1 is written in ANSYS then it cant be written Interface1 or interface 1 or

INTERFACE1 in CFX

Error msg – your system don’t have memory sparse matrix are very large

Page 56 of 60

This is the ANSYS problem make sure that model created in ANSYS should not have very

dense mesh

Error msg – disc is full ,solution cant be updated

Check your c drive make sure that it have enough space 1 analysis 100 time step may take up

to 3 GB space if your meshing is very dense and you are solving for 1000 sub steps then total

size must be more than 20 GB

Error msg-Avoiding

Avoiding Mesh Alignment Errors

Error

Multi field simulation is to get

the Mechanical application mesh and the CFX mesh misaligned, so that they do not meet at a

common interface. The meshes do not need to match each other node by node nod on the

interface, but if the geometry is offset too much then the interpolation algorithm will have

difficulty in deciding where the interfaces touch and the quantities transferred between the

Mechanical application and CFX may not be as desired.

It is easy

asy to spot this problem after the simulation has completed by loading both the

Mechanical application and CFX results into CFD-Post:

CFD Post: if there are significant gaps or offsets

in the two meshes then this will be readily visible.Change

visible.Change your whole model and meshm it

properly

Checking Convergence

field run has converged, then it must be the case that the Mechanical application,

CFX and the data exchanged across the interface has all converged to the limits specified. For a full

transient simulation,

ulation, convergence should take place for every timestep for the results to be

accurate.

If these warnings are present, then the run did not converge. You may be able to increase the

number of stagger iterations if the timestep was converging but did not meet the criteria before the

maximum number of stagger iterations was reached. This can be done in CFX-Pre

CFX Pre by increasing the

Max. Iterations parameter on the External Coupling tab of the Solver Control panel.

Page 57 of 60

If the run was not converging, then you will have to view the residual plots to determine which

component (the Mechanical application, CFX or the data exchanged) was not converged and take

appropriate action to improve the convergence.

Page 58 of 60

PUBLICATIONS BY THE CANDIDATE

INTERNATIONAL JOURNALS

Entitle- Comparison of Contact Stresses in Wheel-Rail interface for the different Wheel

Diameters from Analytical Methods and Simulation Results from Ansys 11.0 research paper

submitted in American society of mechanical engineers (ASME) journal

Status- under review

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE

Kumar gaurav, alok R. dixit,Prakanshusingh

2.Finite element analysis supporting the lowering of floor height of Indian railway accepted in indem

international conference organised by Indian institute of information technology design &

manufacturing jabalpur

Under progress

3.Prakanshusingh, laxmisagarmajhi, V.K. Gupta

Finite element and computational fluid dynamics analysis micropump for drug delivery system

This paper is based on my PBI report final paper will be submitted with in 1 month

Page 59 of 60

REFERENCE

Research Studies Press Ltd., Baldock, Hertfirdshire, England, 2000.

2. .Heschell, M., Müllenborn, M., Bouwstra, S., “Fabrication and characterization of

truly 3-D diffuser/nozzle microstructures in silicon”, Journal of

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