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) We had a tour in London from 10th June -23th June 2009. We had lectures from 16th June till 19th June. We had lectures from eminent professors from various organization which includes IBM, British Telecom, Royal Bank of Scotland, Oxfam, Hudson, South Thames College. We had various learning on Organization Culture from IBM, Private equity, Learning life stories about Royal bank of Scotland , Importance of networking ,Porters five force analysis in comparison with British telecom, The way recruitment has been evolving in recent years in detail. The learning has added value to our knowledge, helped us to understand the way things are handled and perceived in global context.
P.E.S.T. ANALYSIS: POLITICAL: As far governance is concerned it can be partitioned into two categories
Local government. National government.
Local government The administration of London is formed of two tiers a city-wide strategic tier and a local tier. City-wide administration is coordinated by the Greater London Authority (GLA), while local administration is carried out by 33 smaller authorities. The GLA consists of two elected parts; the Mayor of London, who has executive powers, and the London Assembly, who scrutinizes the Mayor's decisions and can accept or reject his budget proposals each year. The GLA was set up in 2000 to replace the similar Greater London Council (GLC) which had been abolished in 1986. The headquarters of the GLA and the Mayor of London is at City Hall; the current Mayor is Boris Johnson. The 33 local authorities are the councils of the 32 London boroughs and the City of London Corporation. They are responsible for local services not overseen by the GLA, such as local planning, schools, social services, local roads and refuse collection. National government London is an important city because the Government of the United Kingdom is located around the Palace of Westminster. Many government departments are located close to Parliament, particularly along Whitehall, including the Prime Minister's residence at 10 Downing Street. The British Parliament is often referred to as the "Mother of Parliaments" because it has been the model for most other parliamentary systems, and its Acts have created many other parliaments.
smaller financial district is developing at Canary Wharf to the east of the city which includes the global headquarters of HSBC. Government policies such as low taxes. Another half a million employees resident in Greater London work in manufacturing and construction. the largest law firm in the world. The City of London is home to the Bank of England. almost equally divided between both.S. London generates approximately 20% of the UK's GDP (or $446 billion in 2005). a business friendly environment. London handled 31% of global currency transactions in 2005 an average daily turnover of US$753 billion with more US dollars traded in London than New York. New York City. particularly for foreigners (non-UK domiciled residents do not get taxed on their foreign earnings). and 75% of Fortune 500 companies have offices in London. More than half of the UK's top 100 listed companies (the FTSE 100) and over 100 of Europe's 500 largest companies are headquartered in central London. more than any other city in the world. and its financial exports make it a large contributor to the UK's balance of payments. Over 85% (3. London is one of the pre-eminent financial centre of the world and vies with New York City as the most important location for international finance. and more Euros traded than in every other city in Europe combined. good transport infrastructure and a deregulated economy with little intervention by the government have all contributed to London's economy becoming more service based. while the economy of the London metropolitan area. Over 70% of the FTSE 100 are located within London's metropolitan area. which includes Clifford Chance. close relationship with the U.ECONOMIC SITUATION London is a major centre for international business and commerce and is one of three "command centre’s" for the world economy (with New York City and Tokyo). London has over 480 overseas banks. Around 325. and Paris. The three tallest skyscrapers as of 2008 in Canary Wharf as viewed from Cabot Square. Barclays and the Magic Circle. the second largest in Europe generates approximately 30% of the UK's GDP (or an estimated $669 billion in 2005). London is home to banks. and Lloyds of London insurance market.2 million) of the employed population of Greater London work in service industries. Los Angeles. Along with professional services. London's success as a service industry and business centre can be attributed to factors such as English being the native and dominant language of business. It is home to such companies as HSBC and Reuters. brokers. Other factors include English law being the most important and most used contract law in international business and the multi-cultural infrastructure. and various countries in Asia. London's largest industry remains finance. media companies are concentrated in London and the media distribution industry is London's second most competitive 3 . Reuters.000 people were employed in financial services in London until mid-2007. London has the 6th largest city economy in the world after Tokyo. Chicago. London Stock Exchange. insurers and legal and accounting firms. A second. According to 2005 estimates by the PricewaterhouseCoopers accounting firm.
000 scientists specializing in pharmaceuticals and biotechnology and.7 million).6 million international tourists in 2006. This puts London far ahead of 2nd place Bangkok (10. 80. Bank of America and Citigroup are primarily cutting their workforce in London. as many as 100 in the life science sector alone in 2008. Due to its prominent global role. Science and research and development are playing an increasingly important role in shaping the economy of modern London with 1. Many national newspapers are edited in London.000 health-care professionals.340 million Euros of public funding. Other banks.000 full-time workers in London in 2003. attracting 15. Credit Suisse. BNP Paribas and Santander. yearly. are growing in number twice as fast as in the rest of the United Kingdom. including UBS. while other broadcasters also have headquarters around the city. while annual expenditure by tourists is around £15 billion. London has been hit hard by the global financial crisis of 2008–2009. The Port of London is the secondlargest in the United Kingdom. London attracts 27 million overnight-stay visitors every year. having traditionally been associated with Fleet Street in the city.000 jobs in finance will be cut within barely a year.35 million) and 3rd place Paris (just 9. notably Dresdner Kleinwort. The BBC is a key employer. 6. 4 . A study carried out by Euro monitor in October 2007 places London at first place out of 150 of the world's most popular cities.sector. Tourism is one of London's prime industries and employs the equivalent of 350. The city has 175.000 medical and science students studying at universities and colleges. London's private concerns conducting scientific research. 25 research institutes and medical schools and 23 National Health Service hospitals. they are now primarily based around Canary Wharf. Several foreign banks have started to move off employees from London to their national financial centre. handling 53 million tonnes of cargo each year. The City of London estimates that 70.
and the Hammersmith Apollo. festivals. the Wigmore Hall and St John's. In the summer opera is performed in a temporary pavilion by Opera Holland Park. the Philharmonia and the BBC Symphony Orchestra. some of which specialize in period instrument performances. Martin-in-the-Fields. The Sex Pistols. and there are occasional performances by visiting opera companies and small freelance professional opera companies. and the Royal Albert Hall. the world's second largest carnival. and the Academy of St. Radiohead. The Who. The Clash. fairs and carnivals throughout the year. which are both in the South Bank Centre. The city is home to more than 300 nationalities that have over time molded and shaped the city's culture into what it is today. Pink Floyd. London Philharmonic Orchestra. favorite venues being the Brixton Academy. Most major bands' tours will pass through London as well. Chamber music venues include the Purcell Room at the South Bank Centre. The major venues for contemporary dance productions include the Sadler's Wells Theatre and the Barbican Centre. The Beatles and Jimi Hendrix. In addition to spawning the bands mentioned above. Coldplay. London. Smith Square. museums and much more. including the Orchestra of the Age of Enlightenment. Popular music London is famous for its rock scene. The Royal Opera House at Covent Garden is home to the Royal Opera and Royal Ballet companies. including David Bowie. and was the starting point of some of the greatest 60s and 70s band such as Iron Maiden. in its capacity as the UK's cultural centre. music. which hosts the Proms each summer. The other main opera company is the English National Opera. The principal orchestral music venues are the Royal Festival Hall. Led Zeppelin. It has a distinctly AfroCaribbean flavor. as well as being instrumental in the birth of dance music. The carnival takes place over the August bank holiday weekend. and attracts almost 1 million people. and the Queen Elizabeth Hall. Queen and very popular 90s bands like The Libertines. The London Symphony Orchestra. the London Astoria. The diversity of cultures within London is so great that easy definition is impossible. and highlights include a competition between London's steelpan bands and a 3 mile street parade with dancing and music. has served as the base of a number of internationally important acts. Festivals London hosts several festivals. The most famous is the Notting Hill Carnival. the Barbican Centre. 5 .SOCIAL: London is an amazing place as it is international centre of culture in terms of arts. and Oasis that are still very popular to this day. There are also several chamber orchestras. the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra.
the National Maritime Museum. held on the first Sunday of August each year. Museums List of London museums There are over 240 museums in London. The Royal Academy's temporary exhibitions are also important. a fair held annually to promote animal rights. 6 . Hammersmith Apollo. Other major collections of pre-1900 art are The Wallace Collection.London also hosts the Carnival Del Pueblo. Night-life Apart from the pubs and clubs. which ends in Burgess Park. The National Portrait Gallery has a major collection dedicated to prominent British people from all periods. The UCL Bloomsbury. and features a variety of dance companies putting on displays across London. In addition there are many smaller fairs and parades. most notably Mumbai (Bombay). George's Day (April 23) and St Patrick's Day (March 17). Brixton Academy. Wembley Arena. and the Museum of London. dance. and Funfairs go up to 9:30 pm. Among the best known are Shepherds Bush Empire. the Natural History Museum. Europe's greatest Latin American Festival. The Marquee. and Dulwich Picture Gallery. the Court auld Gallery at the Court auld Institute of Art. Albert Hall and the London Astoria. In addition to Tate Modern major contemporary art venues include White Cube. the Science Museum. London is home to many clubs such as the Ministry of Sound. Seven countries participate in this street procession. The British National collection of Western Art to 1900 is held at The National Gallery. the Saatchi Gallery. There are streets in Mumbai which bear the same name as streets in London. including the Christmas without Cruelty Fayre. There are also large parades held on St. and The ICA. The national collection of post-1900 art is at Tate Modern and the national collection of British Art is at Tate Britain. Live music. The Dance Umbrella is held every October. there are many music venues. Among the more important are the British Museum (antiquities from all over the world). Inspiration The city of London has also served as an inspiration for other cities in the world. the Imperial War Museum. the Victoria and Albert Museum (applied and decorative arts). whose infrastructure and transport system is modeled on London.
This seminar will address increasing concerns over climate change and emphasize how important it is to achieve an energy system which is environmentally sustainable. Fossil fuels will remain the dominant energy source in the UK for a number of decades and methods to manage the associated carbon emissions are fundamental to the UK’s transition towards a sustainable energy economy. socially acceptable and meets energy needs securely and affordably. the Energy White Paper set the target of a 60% reduction in UK emissions of CO2 by 2050 following recommendations from the Royal Commission of Environmental Pollution. Increased energy efficiency and the use of renewable energy are the key mechanisms suggested to achieve this.TECHNOLOGY: In 2003 as part of the government’s global strategy to address climate change. Benefits of attending: Review recent developments in policy Explore revolutionary new capture and sequestration concepts Highlight novel technologies and methods for capturing and storing carbon dioxide Identify opportunities for collaborative research and partnerships between industry and academia. 7 .
protect and enhance London’s environment. marine. That is why Government Office for London works closely with regional stakeholders and organizations to protect and enhance London’s environment. The Strategy. This includes work to improve London’s air quality.from acting to limit global environmental threats. to safeguarding individuals from the effects of poor air quality or toxic chemicals. biodiversity. trees and woodlands and its local environmental quality form vital components to make London a sustainable city. recycling and recovery of waste). which are part of a new delivery framework overseen by Natural England. Protection of the environment requires activity on many different fronts . voluntary and private sectors. Climate change is the single most important environmental issues affecting the world today and the Government Office for London plays an important role in tackling climate change in London. Statutory Agencies. education and public understanding. The strategy implementation groups are now supported by biodiversity integration groups. 8 . which includes the principal stakeholders from the public. economics and funding of biodiversity and engaging the business community. agriculture. as well as being an active member of the London Climate Change Partnership which is working to ensure that London is able to adapt to the impacts of climate change. water. and the nongovernmental sector is driven forward through 11 strategy implementation groups. such as re-use.ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUESs Government Office for London works with a wide range of stakeholders and organizations in London on a number of environmental issues to improve. woodland. Who is involved in making these changes happen? The England Biodiversity Group. coastal and urban sectors as well as cross cutting issues on climate change adaptation. will oversee the Strategy's implementation. protect and enhance biodiversity as well as tackling climate change. More information on the national picture London’s air quality. Such actions also produce benefits for housing (through improved energy efficiency of buildings) and economic growth (through more efficient use of resources. underpinned by a partnership of Government. Updated key deliverables for the strategy implementation groups are now available on the Biodiversity Action Reporting System website. such as climate change. They cover. its local environmental quality. local and regional action.
9 . safeguarded and enhanced.England Biodiversity Group The England Biodiversity Group. large file size) and volume 2 (PDF 5. PSA 28 deals with the natural environment and makes clear that the England Biodiversity Strategy will aim to deliver the vision of biodiversity valued. which are the measures we use to monitor progress. chaired by Defra advises Government on biodiversity policy and the implementation of the UKBAP in England.4 MB. the Government’s conservation agency.including biodiversity indicators.79 MB. Natural England. How are we monitoring our progress? A full report on the progress under the England Biodiversity strategy 2002-2006 volume 1 (PDF 2. is the organization charged with delivery of this vision. very large file size) was published in 2007 . Public Service Agreement 28 – Secure a Healthy Natural Environment for Today and the Future: The Government set out in October 2007 its priority outcomes for the period 2008-11 in a series of public service agreements (PSAs).
Of the companies merged to form what later became IBM.S. At the helm during this period. New York. The company originally sold some machines to a railway company but quickly focused on the easy profits of the 1900 US Census. IBM's history dates back decades before the development of electronic computers. 1911 in Endicott. 10 . but as the census wound down it returned to targeting private businesses. first applied for in 1884. CTR changed its name to International Business Machines Corporation. punched card equipment.A. the Computing Scale Corporation (founded 1901 in Dayton. By 1911 Hollerith was 51 and his health was failing and the business was sold to Charles Flint for $2. became General Manager of CTR in 1914 and President in 1915. Limited. Flint was the financier and key person behind the merger and remained a member of the board of CTR until his retirement in 1930. The census sustained the company for another 3 years.S. tabulating and sorting machines in 1908. including automatic punching. the oldest was the Tabulating Machine Company. founded in 1896 by Herman Hollerith. His transition to the use of punch cards in 1886 laid a foundation for generations of equipment and a core component of what would become IBM. Watson played a central role in establishing what would become the IBM organization and culture.. This was incorporated on June 16. On February 14. Ohio. automatic meat slicers. CTR entered the Canadian market under the name of International Business Machines Co. USA). CTR was formed through a merger of four different companies: the Tabulating Machine Company. The companies that merged to form CTR manufactured a wide range of products. or IBM. drew on his work at the U.3 million (of which Hollerith got $1. including employee time-keeping systems. and most importantly for the development of the computer. In 1917. Hollerith's series of patents on tabulating machine technology.2 million) to form the Computing Tabulating Recording (CTR) Corporation. and specialized in the development of punched card data processing equipment. Watson Sr. Census Bureau from 1879–82. weighing scales. Thomas J. and the Bundy Manufacturing Company (founded in 1889).HISTORY OF IBM: 1880s–1924: The origin of IBM. the International Time Recording Company (founded 1900 in Endicott). U. Hollerith was initially trying to reduce the time and complexity needed to tabulate the 1890 Census. 1924.
in the 1930s no computer existed. IBM continued to develop and manufacture new products. Only after Jews were identified—a massive and complex task that Hitler wanted done immediately—could they be targeted for efficient asset confiscation.. IBM manufactured the Browning automatic rifle and the M1 Carbine.S.S. more than three dozen major ordnance items. government. Thomas Watson. and other war-related purposes. In particular. it called for a computer. 11 .1925–1949: IBM's early growth During the next twenty-five years.S. annihilation. There was extensive use of IBM punch-card machines for calculations made at Los Alamos during the Manhattan Project for developing the first atomic bombs. and. During the rise of Nazi Germany and the onset of World War II. anticipating the Reich's needs. war effort. This format became the standard "IBM Card" that was used by the company's tabulators and computers for many decades. logistics. IBM introduced a new 80 column rectangular-hole punched card. the first large-scale automatic digital computer in the U. IBM's product line expanded to include bombsights. Instead. During the War. deportation. enslaved labor. According to the IBM archive website: When World War II began. and after the Social Security Act of 1935 secured a major government contract to maintain employment data for 26 million people. all IBM facilities were placed at the disposal of the U. ultimately. It was a cross-tabulation and organizational challenge so monumental. After America entered World War II. IBM's archive website describes this as "the biggest accounting operation of all time. They did not merely sell the machines and walk away. IBM leased these machines for high fees and became the sole source of the billions of punch cards Hitler needed. Of course. Navy. IBM's punch card machines were used by Germany to keep track of people who were to be subjected to the Holocaust. Despite the Great Depression of the 1930s. Allied military forces widely utilized IBM's tabulating equipment for military accounting. one by one. IBM played an active role in the U. Sr. IBM and its German subsidiary custom-designed complex solutions. rifles and engine parts – in all. But IBM's Hollerith punch card technology did exist. set a nominal one percent profit on those products and used the money to establish a fund for widows and orphans of IBM war casualties. ghettoization. IBM also built the Harvard Mark I for the U. IBM had relationships and contracts with the German military/industrial technocracy. In 1928.S." and it opened the door for a variety of other government contracts. IBM's organization and product lines grew steadily.
RCA and Honeywell) through most of the 1960s. IBM built fifty-six SAGE computers at the price of US$30 million each. and at the peak of the project devoted more than 7. digital computer (which included many other advancements such as an integrated video display. 1960–1968: The System/360 era IBM was the largest of the eight major computer companies with UNIVAC. Robert P." IBM would use its experience designing massive. IBM gained access to crucial research being done at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. General Electric. duplexing." given the much smaller size of the other companies' computer divisions (IBM produced approximately 70% of all computers in 1964. 12 . according to one project participant. integrated real-time networks with SAGE to design its SABRE airline reservation system. however. NCR. analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog conversion techniques. multiprocessing. and networks). magnetic core memory. Crago. The major technical development of the 1960s was IBM's System/360 series. the first effective algebraic computer language.000 employees (20% of its then workforce) to the project. working on the first real-time. People in this business would talk jokingly of "IBM and the seven dwarfs. IBM became a chief contractor for developing computers for the United States Air Force's automated defense systems.1950–1959: Postwar recovery and the rise of business computing IBM 7090 installation In the 1950s. IBM neglected. however. to gain an even more dominant role in the nascent industry by allowing the RAND Corporation to take over the job of programming the new computers. because. digital data transmission over telephone lines. Working on the SAGE interceptor control system. which shows how well we were understanding the future at that time. which met with much success. "we couldn't imagine where we could absorb two thousand programmers at IBM when this job would be over some day. Burroughs. light guns. Control Data Corporation. More valuable to the company in the long run than the profits. was the access to cutting-edge research into digital computers being done under military auspices.
that earned it its position in the market at that time is still growing today. This effort. GE sold most of its computer business to Honeywell and in 1971. is now known as the IBM System z10. Between 1971 and 1975. and Honeywell producing mainframes. That decision invalidated the 1964 patent for the ENIAC. RCA sold its computing division to Sperry Rand. IBM was ruled to have created a monopoly via its 1956 patentsharing agreement with Sperry-Rand in the decision of Honeywell v. thus jeopardizing progress of the existing product lines (although some elements of FS were later incorporated into actual products). In 1973. Sperry Rand. UNIVAC. which has re-entered the business in recent years. The IBM computer. Department of Justice. The major technical development of the 1970s was IBM's System/370 series. known as the Future Systems project. which filed a complaint for the case U. the world's first general-purpose electronic digital computer. except for Unisys. federal court case. was decided. and had a significant impact on the company's practices. NCR's being cash registers (hence the name. NCR and Honeywell dropped out of the general mainframe and mini sector and concentrated on lucrative niche markets. Control Data. of IBM and the BUNCH. people then talked. IBM in the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York.S. Litigation continued until 1983. It was originally known as the IBM System/360 and. 1969. v. in far more modern 64-bit form. IBM investigated the feasibility of a new revolutionary line of products designed to make obsolete all existing products in order to re-establish its technical supremacy. NCR.S. and Honeywell becoming the market leader in thermostats. UNIVAC and Burroughs. A key event at IBM in 1969 was the decision to "unbundle" software from hardware sales. specifically computers designed primarily for business. See unbundling of software and services. In April 1973 Honeywell v. Sperry Rand. but by now in humorless. but had consumed most of the high-level technical planning and design resources during five years. and General Electric. a decision that invalidated the patent on the ENIAC. on January 17. was terminated by IBM's top management in 1975. which is the result of multiple mergers that included Sperry Rand.1969–1979: The System/370 era In 1970. a landmark U. The suit alleged that IBM violated the Section 2 of the Sherman Act by monopolizing or attempting to monopolize the general purpose electronic digital computer system market. thus putting the invention of the electronic digital computer into the public domain. the IBM mainframe. With only Burroughs. Most of those companies are now long gone as IBM competitors. below.S. blistering criticism. IBM's success in the mid-1960s led to inquiries as to IBM antitrust violations by the U. 13 . National Cash Register).
This financial strategy created the perception that IBM's revenues and profits were much stronger than they really were as in the mid to latter part of the decade. databases and the like.1980–1989: Information revolution. System/32 and System/34. Up to this point in its history. building most key components of its systems itself.565 it was affordable for businesses — and many businesses purchased PCs. IBM disbanded the organization that had meant the Data Processing Division sold only mainframes to large customers while the General Systems Division sold only S/3x 14 . In 1982. accommodate. In the midrange arena. In an attempt to speed time to market for the PC. With a team known as "Project Chess. in a decade which marked the end of IBM's monopoly. operating systems. and in many cases could not. with its radical architecture. IBM consolidated its mainframe business. as the PC was not seen as a "proper" computer. which threatened the monopoly IBM held within the technology business. Typically. and expanded the scope of mainframes with the S/390 and ESA/390 series. IBM chose not to build the operating system and microprocessor internally. IBM consolidated the market position its General Systems Division had built in the 1970s with the System/3. peripherals. In the 1980s. it was this fateful decision by IBM that passed the sources of its monopolistic power (operating system and processor architecture) to Microsoft and Intel. management scrambled to react to the spending shift towards distributed computing. The System/38. at a base price of US$1. rise of software and PC industries Boca Corporate Center & Campus was originally one of IBM's research labs where the IBM PC was created. the killer app. The original IBM PC The company hired Don Estridge at the IBM Entry Systems Division in Boca Raton. during this time. had experienced delays to its first customer shipment since announcement in 1978. Purchases were often instigated by middle managers and senior staff who saw the potential — once the revolutionary VisiCalc spreadsheet. IBM relied on a vertically integrated strategy. the company embarked on the practice of converting its large rental base of mainframes to lease agreements. Lotus 1-2-3. Although not cheap. paving the way for rise of PC compatibles and the creation of hundreds of billions of dollars of market value outside of IBM. Importantly. Florida. Reassured by the IBM name. including processors. rather it sourced these vital components from Microsoft and Intel respectively. launched on August 12. 1981. they began buying microcomputers on their own budgets aimed at numerous applications that corporate computer departments did not. these purchases were not by corporate computer departments. Ironically." they built the IBM PC. had been surpassed by a far more powerful and stable product.
software. Examples included Intel in microprocessors. 15 . the new ISM (for small and medium customers) and ISAM divisions (large customers) could sell from the entire IBM portfolio. HP in printers. Seagate in disk drives and Oracle Corporation in database software. who would typically have engaged in intense negotiations with one of the third parties and probably not have heard of the other two vendors. IBM sales representatives were now able to work openly with application software houses as partners. Accounts Receivable. And in 1988. if they were to propose a third-party application to a customer.g. distribution (DMAS) and manufacturing (MMAS). intended to represent a point of convergence for both System/36 customers and System/38 customers.machines to small and medium-sized customers. IBM announced the AS/400. Instead. Soon IBM's dominance in personal computers would be challenged by the likes of Compaq and later Dell. 1983 saw the announcement of the System/36. Recognizing this trend. As the decade ended. with the support of the Board of Directors. versus vertically integrated lines. This caused some amusement to the customer. storage. CEO John Akers. The 1970s had seen IBM develop a range of Billing. Novell in networking.) to compete more effectively with competitors that were more focused and nimble and had lower cost structures. it was clear that competition and innovation in the computer industry was now taking place along segmented. processors. Microsoft in desktop software. where leaders emerged in their respective domains. all written in the RPG II language. printers. By the end of the 1980s. began to split IBM into increasingly autonomous business units (e. IBM had almost completely withdrawn from the BICARSA applications marketplace. etc. Inventory Control. which obliged IBM sales representatives. the replacement for the System/34. a 'rule of three' operated. For a period in the early 1980s. services. Because of developments in the antitrust cases against IBM brought by the US government and European Union. & Sales Analysis (BICARSA) applications for specific industries: construction (CMAS). to also list at least two other third-party vendors in the IBM proposal.
history. as customers increased their emphasis on departmental and desktop computing. 16 . Gerstner.1990–1999: IBM's near disaster and rebirth IBM's traditional mainframe business underwent major changes in the 1990s. is often heralded as the decision that led the company from the brink of disaster and remains the fundamental underpinning of IBM's strategy today.10 billion loss for the 1992 financial year. That same year. was the first computer system to beat a reigning world chess champion. and its logical counterpart. On October 5. Louis V. at the COMDEX computer expo. IBM announced the first ThinkPad laptop computer. A byproduct of that decision was a shift in focus significantly away from components and hardware and towards software and services. the decade of the 1990s began with IBM posting record profits up to that point in its history. 4 MB RAM (expandable to 16 MB) and a Track Point II pointing device. a 10. This proved illusory as the rental to lease conversion was tapping out. in the match Deep Blue versus Garry Kasparov. which then cost US$4350. The computer. DB2. joined IBM and he is widely credited with turning the company around. demand for mainframes was waning and corporate downsizing was in full swing. to five: DB2. brought about a wake-up call for IBM: after two consecutive years of reporting losses in excess of $1 billion. His strategy to reverse the decision of his predecessor and re-integrate IBM's major divisions to focus on services first and products second.. included a 25 MHz Intel 80486SL processor. a trend headed by Novell Inc. Lotus. However. which was then the largest single-year corporate loss in U. Corporate spending shifted from high profit margin mainframes to lower margin microprocessor-based systems and the growth in IBM's PC business was not nearly enough to offset the company's mainframe revenue decline.4-inch active matrix display. and other vendors. Jr.S. and Rational. IBM announced a US$8. Starting in 1995 with its acquisition of Lotus Development Corp. IBM built up the Software Group from one brand. In 1997 the IBM chess playing computer system Deep Blue. the ensuing decline of mainframe sales. 1992. the 700c. Web Sphere. Tivoli. 1993. A decade of steady acceptance and widening corporate growth of local area networking technology. removable 120 MB hard drive. on January 19.
A chart showing IBM's revenue and net income. as of 2005 it employs about 195.2000 and on: Recent trends In 2002. A chart showing IBM's patent history.S. with emphasis also on high-value chips and hardware technologies. That total includes about 350 Distinguished Engineers and 60 IBM Fellows. The company has increasingly focused on business solution-driven consulting. applying it to technicians from diverse disciplines who may not be graduates from Engineering Schools of recognized Universities. services and software. It should be noted. 1993–2005. 17 . its most-senior engineers. that IBM and some other U. however. firms use the term 'engineer' in a broad sense. In the same year its hard disk operations was sold to Hitachi. The program has since then been implemented. IBM announced the beginning of a US$10 billion program to research and implement the infrastructure technology necessary to be able to provide supercomputer-level resources "on demand" to all businesses as a metered utility.000 technical professionals. 1980–2005. IBM strengthened its business advisory capabilities by acquiring the consulting arm of professional services firm PricewaterhouseCoopers. In 2002.
The company retained the right to use certain IBM brand names for an initial period of five years. As a result of the purchase. On June 20. The new IBM has enhanced global delivery capabilities in consulting. which is partially owned by the Chinese government.000 patents for which IBM is the primary assignee. saying that IBM has generated $1 billion in profit by licensing intellectual property. In 2004. 2006. In 2003. IBM announced the proposed sale of its PC business to Chinese computer maker Lenovo Group. The deal was approved by the Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States in March 2005. −452 °F) using liquid helium and is not comparable to CPU speed. a line of laptops that had been one of IBM's most successful products.5 K (−269 °C. In every year from 1993 to 2005. for US$650 million in cash and US$600 million in Lenovo stock. As of 2004. This was done by freezing the chip to 4. software and technology based process services—and this change is reflected in its top-line. which is valuable for cross-licensing with other companies. as its chief executive officer. IBM earned 3415 patents. Lenovo inherited a product line that features the ThinkPad. IBM has been granted significantly more U. patents than any other company. IBM and Georgia Institute of Technology jointly announced a new record in silicon-based chip speed at 500 GHz. which moved its headquarters to New York State and appointed an IBM executive. head of IBM Research. breaking the US record for patents in a single year. The chip operated at about 350 GHz at room temperature. Values: 18 . A 2003 Forbes article quotes Paul Horn. Steve Ward. generating over $10 billion dollars to the bottom line for the company during this period. IBM had shifted much of its focus to the provision of business consulting & reengineering services from its hardware & technology focus. and completed in May 2005. IBM acquired a 19% stake in Lenovo. The thirteen-year period has resulted in over 31.IBM has steadily increased its patent portfolio since the early 1990s. Protection of the company's intellectual property has grown into a business in its own right.S.
Whatever the problem or the context. as well as everyday improvements. reason and science can improve business. achieving an impressive usiness turnaround. but all with the goal of helping our clients succeed.From the very beginning. • Innovation that matters – for our company and for the world IBM employees are forward thinkers. In other words. This dedication spurs us to go "above and beyond" on our client's behalf. we examined IBM's core values for the first time since the company's founding. They were also brutally honest. The result? A set of core values – defined by IBM employees for IBM employees – that shape everything we do and every choice we make on behalf of the company Together. IBM moved confidently into a future it helped create. our culture and business have been shaped by fundamental values. For 72 hours. IBM’ers by the tens of thousands weighed in. investors and fellow IBM employees. following through and keeping our word. and soon perhaps. • Trust and personal responsibility in all relationships IBM employees actively build relationships with all the constituencies of our business — including clients. We build trust by listening. We love grand challenges. communities. we invited all IBM employees around the world to engage in an open "values jam" on our global intranet. every electronic device in the world. In 2003. LEARNINGS FROM THE TRIP: 19 . long-lasting client relationships. we committed to a future in which our value proposition depends upon our values. however they measure success. And it had successfully transformed itself. society and the human condition. We believe in progress. • Dedication to every client’s success IBM employees are passionate about building strong. services and solutions. what sets the company apart and what should drive our actions as individuals. partners. As the decade drew to a close. a future shaped by our own employees. one that is linked to the ubiquitous and surging presence of the global networks that are connecting every computer. every IBM employee seeks ways to tackle it creatively — to be an innovator. As the new century opened. believe that the application of intelligence. We sell products. We needed to affirm IBM's reason for being. They were thoughtful and passionate about the company they want to be a part of. Its leadership helped create the e-business revolution. IBM stood on the threshold of the new century having reestablished itself as a leading information technology innovator.
What did we actually learn? The much awaited G.O. Why is London one of the biggest tourist destinations? London is not only a very clean city but a much planned city & the people have maintained place of historic importance with utmost care. The people use a lot of courtesy gestures. Every person.A Program was definitely worth the wait. Some really amazing places were West minister Abbey. But that really doesn’t mean there are lesser Indians. They have established their presence in a very good way be it business in a small shop or in the top level management of a multi-national company. GLOBAL OPPORTUNITY & THREAT ANALYSIS: 20 . in fact it is completely the opposite. be it a small boy or an old person has to follow a queue. Tower Bridge of London. Buckingham Palace & the list goes on. There is a huge cultural diversity but London has always provided opportunities for people from other countries to be a part of the United Kingdom. u can find an Indian in every street you walk through.T. What Cultural Differences exist between London & India? Right from the first day we felt a lot of differences in how the people in London behave or rather which is their culture. The culture of the place is completely different & is difficult for an orthodox Indian to adopt. London Eye. It was not just the seminars that imparted knowledge in everyone but rather the whole environment. Every shop was very organized.
The first thing that makes you attracted to London is the place itself. THREATS: 21 . the presence of many multi-national companies offers jobs for people with an edge in Management studies Security: High level of security system. Human Resource & Finance in colleges like Imperial college. Finance: Once you’re in London it’s not that difficult to find a part time job in London which makes u feel financially secure till u settle down. OPPORTUNITIES: Education: T o go for higher education in different specializations like Marketing.Is London a Place of Opportunity or Threat? With all things said & done the kind of opportunity that London provides to me are many. University of Cambridge to name a few. Career: To work in London. One of the country with maximum surveillance cameras which monitors every move you make. Culture: There is a huge cultural diversity but this is not a threat rather an opportunity to get to interact with different cultures but also maintain the values that we’ve gained over time.
A. even if you don’t contribute anything to that. because it takes weeks to meet the doctor even after taking the appointments. Food: If you are vegetarian getting pure vegetarian food is something difficult. Time constraint in treatment: Patience is something required if you are a patient. handle them effectively & ways to capitalise on the opportunities that it offers. 22 . Program has definitely exposed us to a bigger picture of the global market. people.Discrimination: Discrimination is something faced by people who have their origin outside U.T. G. as lot of riots happens among youngsters and you might be a victim.O. culture & lifestyle. Analysis: From the above analysis it was clearly found that Global opportunity in London is definitely high but before making it to London it is better to think once about the threats that a place like London has & how to minimise the threats.K Cultural difference: Culture difference is prevailing inside the place and it is not the best place to nurture your future generation. Night life: Night time hangout is something that should be avoided.
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