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Genomics sequences of the: E.

colli Human Drosophila C elegans Drabidopsis tailiana Taeniopygia guttata

Members of the tigers: Soto Camacho Perla Karina Morales Mejía Nidia Merari Rangel Ventura Isela Elizabeth Hernández Acosta Marco Fabricio Theacher: Hugo Subject: Genomic science

the International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium reported a draft sequence of the euchromatic portion of the human genome. Craig A. The genome also contains insertion sequence (IS) elements. coli are also evident. Ying Shao The 4. Since then. phage remnants. greatly improves the precision of biological analyses of the . Mayhew. 38 percent have no attributed function.221-base pair sequence of Escherichia coli K-12 is presented. Comparison with five other sequenced microbes reveals ubiquitous as well as narrowly distributed gene families. The largest family of paralogous proteins contains 80 ABC transporters. we report the result of this finishing process. Heather A. Nelson Wayne Davis. Bloch. In 2001. oligonucleotides possibly related to replication and recombination.000 bases. Rode. Glasner. The current genome sequence (Build 35) contains 2. Blattner. Julio Collado-Vides. as well as rich information about human evolution. Perna. Of 4288 protein-coding genes annotated. Nicole T. Bob Mau. The near-complete sequence. * * Finishing the euchromatic sequence of the human genome International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium The sequence of the human genome encodes the genetic instructions for human physiology. Monica Riley. Jeremy D.85 billion nucleotides interrupted by only 341 gaps. guanines. Debra J. Goeden. and most genes are so oriented. Kirkpatrick. Michael A. Guy Plunkett III. It covers 99% of the euchromatic genome and is accurate to an error rate of 1 event per 100. Jason Gregor. The genome as a whole is strikingly organized with respect to the local direction of replication. Here. many families of similar genes within E. Rose.639. the first for a vertebrate. and many other patches of unusual composition indicating genome plasticity through horizontal transfer. George F. Many of the remaining euchromatic gaps are associated with segmental duplications and will require focused work with new methods. Valerie Burland. the international collaboration has worked to convert this draft into a genome sequence with high accuracy and nearly complete coverage.The Complete Genome Sequence of Escherichia coli K-12 Frederick R. Christopher K.

elegans Genome Sequence is Complete! The WS90 release of WormBase made available today has a complete C. and thus the Sequencing Consortium will remain active in responding to and resolving any potential errors that arise. The Drosophila community welcomes this leap forward and the opportunity it affords to advance our understanding of how organisms function and how genetic defects cause disease. This occasion caps a century of ground-breaking discoveries made using Drosophila. The Drosophila Board of Directors represents the interests of the international community of Drosophila researchers. The Drosophila Board. and the Drosophila Genome Projects for providing this important resource to our research community. elegans genome sequence. Completion of the Drosophila genome sequence The Drosophila research community thanks Celera Genomics and the publicly-funded genome projects for delivering the fruitfly genome sequence PITTSBURGH. several of which were recognized by Nobel prizes. On behalf of the C. Notably. PENN. The completion of the Drosophila genome sequence heralds a new era of biomedical discovery. elegans nuclear chromosomes. Inc. This daunting project was only accomplished at an accelerated pace because private industry and government funded public efforts collaborated in a true partnership. neurodegeneration. The genome sequence reported here should serve as a firm foundation for biomedical research in the decades ahead. elegans community we thank the C. March 23. The 100. representing the community of Drosophila researchers. elegans Genome Sequencing Consortium at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute and Washington University's Genome Sequencing Center for this impressive accomplishment. These include the demonstration that radiation causes mutations and the discovery of genes that control the basic body plan of all organisms.258. including genes responsible for birth defects. These findings demonstrate that basic research using Drosophila has enormous value in the fight against human disease.000 protein-coding genes. Drosophila has the largest genome sequence produced to date. there are undoubtedly remaining errors in the genome sequence. The Drosophila Genome Project is a consortium of the Berkeley Genome Project. and FlyBase.The publication and release of the complete DNA sequence of the fruit fly Drosophila in the current issue of Science reports an achievement that will have enormous impact on understanding human biology and disease. birth and death.000–25.171 base pairs are present in six contiguous segments corresponding to the six C. Baylor College of Medicine Human Genome Center. European Genome Project. International Team Reveals DNA Secrets Of Arabidopsis Thaliana . First-Ever Complete Plant Genome Sequence Is Announced. and cancer. sincerely thanks Celera Genomics. Nearly two-thirds of the genes known to cause human disease are present in the Drosophila genome. In spite of the high quality of the sequence. 2000 -. Please inform WormBase of any errors. C.human genome including studies of gene number. the human genome seems to encode only 20.

and produce useful chemicals more efficiently. The journal anticipates about 1. The NSF 2010 Project is part of a worldwide Arabidopsis functional genomics effort and will be coordinated in a similar manner to the Arabidopsis genome sequencing project. so the research results being announced today are immediately available to scientists across the world. with potentially widespread applications for agriculture. an understanding of the genome could also help scientists develop crops that grow faster and larger. bloom. the number scholarly publications on Arabidopsis has risen from about 300 in 1990 to more than 1. an advisor to the AGI and a faculty member in the University of Chicago's Department of Molecular Genetics and Cell Biology.emphasized that international cooperation was key to the project's success. Arabidopsis is yielding insights that scientists are already applying to make other plants easier to grow under adverse conditions and healthier to eat. National Science Foundation (NSF) Director Rita Colwell . Europe and Japan. Without advanced computers and networks. Arabidopsis has few "junk" DNA sequences that contain no genes. This achievement. To help researchers capitalize on the genome sequence. becomes public on the cover of the journal Nature's December 14 issue. The species Arabidopsis thaliana has emerged as the plant counterpart of the laboratory mouse. the French Government and the Chiba Prefectural Government of Japan.. Because it is a model for over 250. is small and reproduces abundantly. 3 and 5 were announced as complete. medicine and energy. the genome's usefulness would not be as extensive.000 Arabidopsis genes over the next decade.000 other plant species. funded by government agencies on three continents. Completion of the Arabidopsis genome sequence is revealing how photosynthesis converts solar energy and carbon dioxide into biomass. "Today's news of the genome sequence completion could well mark the beginning of a whole new plant-genomics industry. The AGI is a collaboration of research groups in the U. Those functional genes have their counterparts in plants with much larger genomes. such as wheat. this plant has gradually become quite indispensable to us.S. in which the human body's inability to excrete copper can be fatal. For the once-humble Arabidopsis. Because every molecular function of plants is dictated by DNA. offering clues to how all sorts of living organisms behave genetically." Colwell said.ScienceDaily (Dec. energy resources.whose agency provided substantial funding . 14. Unlike the human genome. (For a list of the individuals who contributed to the main article in Nature's December 14. sleep or seed.S. The plant is practical for scientists because it matures quickly. I thank our counterparts in the European Union. helping scientists develop better plants for fuel and chemical uses. nutrition and medicine are potentially vast. Its entire genome consists of a relatively small set of genes that dictate when the weed will bud. by a consortium of scientists called the Arabidopsis Genome Initiative (AGI). Biologists are the fastest-growing . NSF has begun a "2010 Project" to determine the function of 25. The AGI's international team coalesced in 1996 to begin sequencing the Arabidopsis genome. although they currently represent just three percent of U. All these physical and genetic traits add up to an especially useful organism whose genome is now catalogued for the public's benefit.ranging from cancer and premature aging. The sequence of chromosomes 2 and 4 was reported in 1999. simplicity is truly a virtue. rice. 2000 issue.700 articles for this year. the latest year in which complete figures were available. funders including the Department of Energy and the Department of Agriculture. By inserting a certain gene into poplar shoots.S.300 in 1998. to ailments such as Wilson's disease. Some of those processes are easier to study in Arabidopsis than in human or animal models. cotton and soybean. scientists have shortened that tree's flowering time from six years to only six months. "On behalf of U. Arabidopsis researchers have also identified genes that determine whether the growing shoot of a plant will develop into a flower." The complete sequence of Arabidopsis is directly relevant to human biological functions. and today chromosomes 1. 2000) — Genetics reached a major milestone today as an international research team announced it has completed the first plant genome sequence." According to Nature. which includes four articles describing how researchers sequenced the entire genome of this weed in the mustard family. Arabidopsis contains numerous genes equivalent to those that prompt disease in humans -. are more diseaseresistant. "Because its implications for farming. because many fundamental life processes at the molecular and cellular levels are common to all higher organisms." said Daphne Preuss. The Arabidopsis initiative also demonstrates how information technology (IT) is revolutionizing biology research. "The Arabidopsis genome is entirely in the public domain. corn. Plants hold great potential as sources of renewable energy. One result of the research has been crops that are more resistant to the cold.

with the field of "bioinformatics" producing morepowerful databases and pattern recognition tools for DNA analysis. We found evidence for expression of 10 different genes related to the MHC.2*.882. Christopher N Balakrishnan3.439 kb. The total length of all contigs was 7. suggesting that genes with a specialized function are evolving at a higher rate (or with less constraint) than genes with a more general function. including MHC class I also showed expression in brain. Several MHC genes. Figure 1) and a mean of 15 reads per contig. For read and contig statistics for each tissue separately see Additional file 1: Appendix s2. indicating a transcriptome coverage of about 65%. In line with this. 741. After trimming and removal of contaminant sequences a total of 1.439 reads were available. MHC genes showed relatively tissue specific expression levels and were in general primarily expressed in spleen.segment of IT users in the scientific community. Terry Burke1.917 of these reads were assembled (Additional file 1: Appendix s1) de-novo (the rest were kept as singletons) into 49. There was a positive correlation between the tissue specificity of gene expression and nonsynonymous to synonymous nucleotide substitution ratio of genes. with a mean read length of 83 nucleotides. A total of 11. as indicated by gaps in alignments between the contig and one or more of the reads that contribute to that contig. Digital gene expression analysis of the zebra finch genome Robert Ekblom1. Figure 1 Distribution of contig lengths (log) from 454 sequencing reads of all tissues combined .793 zebra finch transcripts were represented in this EST data. 582 (1. Jon Slate1 Almost 2 million 454-sequencing reads from cDNA of six different tissues were assembled and analysed.953. for all genes with highest levels of expression in spleen there was an overrepresentation of several gene ontology terms related to immune function.2%) of the contigs showed signatures of multiple splice variants. there was also a negative correlation between overall expression levels and expression specificity of contigs. Furthermore.606 contigs with a mean contig length of 150 nucleotides (range 41-2.