2009

Wanted: Knights Templar

FIGURE 1: JACQUES DE MOLAY, THE LAST GRANDMASTER OF THE KNIGHTS TEMPLAR

Corné van Klink Dhr. Klooster 17-12-2009

5 The Templar Fleet ........................................................................................................ 9 The arrest of members of the order ................................................................................................. 12 What happened to the Knights Templar in Scotland? ............................................................................................................................................................................. I found these proverbs on the internet and thought that they were appropriate...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6 What did the Knights Templar do during the Crusades?.................................................................................................................. I thought that it would be nice to put some wisdom in the form of English and (though it’s not one of my classes) Latin proverbs in my paper......................................................................... 4 The Templar wealth and treasure ............................................................. 13 Robert Bruce ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7 Templar Fortresses ............ 12 Templar Possesions ........................................................ 13 The Templar fleet .............................................................................................. 12 Templar Knights ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 16 Portugal ........................................................... 18 Logbook ................. 10 C II – The Knights Templar after the dissolution .................................................................................................................................................................................. 15 Conclusion ......................[WANTED: KNIGHTS TEMPLAR] 17 december 2009 INDEX Introduction ........ 17 Bibliography................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 14 What happened to the Knights Templar in Portugal? ......................................................................................................... 15 The Order of Christ .................................................................................................. 9 Who contributed to the dissolution of the order?.................................................................................................................... 16 Scotland ........................................................................................................... 12 What happened to the Knights Templar in Europe?.............................................................................. 4 Founding of the Order .......... 7 Why was the order dissolved and by whom? ........................................ 19 Small intro and info Since this is my profile paper......................................................................................................................................... 17 Figure-list ..... 7 Templar Army .................... Corné van Klink| Introduction 2 .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 13 The battle of Bannockburn. 16 Source Indication.......... 3 C I – The Knights Templar......................................... 4 Who were the Knights Templar and what was their task? ............................................................................. 17 Afterword ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

but I just saw this as a challenge.” (KNOWLEDGE HAS NO ENEMIES BUT THE IGNORANT) Of course. “SCIENTIA NON HABET INIMICUM NISI IGNORANTEM. I started reading articles on the internet and soon found a very interesting subject: the Knights Templar. “Landscape Architecture and Spatial Planning”. I would have to write my profile paper. Therefor I decided to go for this theme. Then I thought of my other zest. When I examined this possibility further. So I went on reading about the order and I got interested by the way the Order was dissolved and what happened to the members of the Order after the dissolution of the Order. I have always had an interest in the Dark Ages. This was all a bit mysterious. the order as a whole is not a good subject. I could start my paper. I came to the conclusion this was a bit too complicated. At first I thought of a subject that would relate to my university study. after consulting with Mr. and the Crusades in particular because back then there were still secrets. What happened to the Knights Templar in Scotland? b. So I kept on searching for a subject. Main question To what extent did the Knights Templar still have military-. After that I started looking for information and ‘drafting’ a main question and some part questions. Have fun learning about one of the most mysterious organizations of all time! Corné van Klink| Introduction 3 . why were they founded and what was their task? What did the Knights Templar do during the Crusades? Why was the order dissolved and by whom? What happened to the Knights Templar in Europe after the dissolution? a. history. Klooster. I decided that I would do my profile paper on my own. What happened to the Knights Templar in Portugal? I chose to focus on Scotland and Portugal because I had read about the Knights Templar in these two countries and was fascinated about the way the order ‘evolved’ after the dissolution. I hope you will find this paper interesting and (maybe even) fun to read. Then. This mysterious military order fascinated me very much. economical.and clerical power after the official dissolution of the order in 1312? Part questions 1) 2) 3) 4) Who were the Knights Templar. Attention: To make things easier I will name the Order of the Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon simply “the Order” (with a capital letter). so it might be hard to research. I did not yet posses the knowledge to write a profile paper about this yet.[WANTED: KNIGHTS TEMPLAR] 17 december 2009 INTRODUCTION I knew for a long time that in the end. This decision made the choice of a subject a lot easier.

Their raison d’être was to protect pilgrims that traveled through the Holy Land to see the city of Jerusalem. also the archbishop of Pisa. Patriarch Dagobert provided them with their first insignia: the Cross of Lorraine. 1 The Order was founded by Hugues de Payens. 5 FIGURE 2: THE CROSS OF LORRAINE FIGURE 3: THE CROSS PATTÉE Baigent. p. p. Tirion. Baldwin II.. 2008. When Eugene III became pope. Kerkdriel. an area known to the Templar as the Solomon’s Temple. Librero. the Knights were allowed to wear a white robe over their armor. hun geschiedenis en mystieke verbanden. 54 2 Idem. 20. This place was in the palace that the king had turned the Al-Aqsa mosque into. 54 3 Hopkins. The following chapter is about the founding of the Order of Solomon’s Temple and its task. p.[WANTED: KNIGHTS TEMPLAR] 17 december 2009 C I – THE KNIGHTS TEMPLAR Before I will start my real ‘investigation’ I think the Knights Templar need a short introduction. M. 3 In 1120 the Order was acknowledged by the patriarch of Jerusalem. which was the official name of the order. which was conquered in 1099. M. was a nephew of Bernard of Clairvaux and the leading Catholic clergy in Jerusalem. WHO WERE THE KNIGHTS TEMPLAR AND WHAT WAS THEIR TASK? FOUNDING OF THE ORDER N o one knows exactly how the Order started. edition unknown (1st edition 1989). p. This man was therefore the first Grandmaster of the Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon. Dagobert. This Insignia can be seen on Figure 2.4 During the first nine years of the existence of the Order. 20 5 Idem. This however cannot be said for certain. van tempelridders tot vrijmetselarij. The more accurate sources are from far later times than the actual founding year of the Order. this was a sign of martership. R. unknown edition (1st edition 2006). 2007. In the ninth year. Dagobert. Baarn. 2 After the first knights of the Order arrived at Jerusalem they received a place to live from the king of Jerusalem. though evidence suggests that the Order might have been founded four years earlier. De Tempeliers. p. It was on the southern side of the Temple mount. Leigh. The most common version of the founding story is that the Order was founded in 1118. 21 1 Corné van Klink| C I – The Knights Templar 4 . the Knights Templar started using another insignia: the Cross Pattée (as seen on Figure 3). 20 4 Idem. De Tempel en de Loge. the knights wore the usual clothing of a medieval knight.

By the Order controlled routes were often used by merchants. which glorified the virtues of the order. scattered through whole of Europe. Cambridge. A history of the Order of the Temple. He asked him to help the Order with the ‘design’ of an order line: a series of rules and duties for all members of certain religious orders. Leigh. The Knights were experienced with gold and money transports through Europe to finance their activities in the Holy Land. M. Spain and Portugal. 70 6 7 Corné van Klink| C I – The Knights Templar 5 . M. The amount of gifts it received was so big that the Order had to postpone taking possession of some gifts because of a lack of manpower. The Templar took on the role of bankers. Not only received the Order a lot of applications of new members. 8 THE TEMPLAR WEALTH AND TREASURE The incoming wealth in the forms of money and possessions was the start of a very lucrative trade for the Order. By using the roads of the Order. kingdoms and city-states. M. 12 This was presumably one of the reasons of their downfall. In the first half of the 12th century Europe’s scene was largely taken in by fighting nobles. He also asked him if Papal Approval could be ‘achieved’. They copied their banking system from their Muslim adversaries. At one time they held a considerable amount of liquid wealth and negotiable assets in France. provided a starting point for pilgrim. with only the Pope as superior. 55 9 Hopkins. A strong growth of trade can’t hold without an efficient financial structure.and trading routes. The Order was becoming the richest and most powerful institution in all of Christendom. 69 11 Barber. The estates. also caused a large incoming flow of new recruits. (1st edition 1994). R. long distance trade became much safer. p. p. M. Germany. M. A traveler could deposit his money in Europe where he would receive a small encoded message they could show at arrival in the Holy Land at which they would receive their deposited amount of money. p. Long distance trade was mostly impossible. On the 31st of January Hugues de Payens appeared before the Council and Bernard presented to him the Order Line. De Tempeliers. On January the 14th 1129 the Council of Troyes started.[WANTED: KNIGHTS TEMPLAR] 17 december 2009 On request of the Grandmaster of the Order. Scotland. Cambridge University Press. 6 After this event the Order was offered a large amount of properties such as estates. p. Hungary and Constantinople. The Order of the Knights Templar soon became a noticeable power in Europe with many possessions and representatives of important aristocratic families within their ranks. De Tempeliers. p. 69 10 Idem. England. counties. De Tempeliers. De Tempel en de Loge. Within ten years these possessions would stretch all the way to Italy. castles. On top of that was the risk of being robbed by bandits. 2005. 298 12 Hopkins. the Order was expanding rapidly.. 24 Idem. 10 By this system of banking and through all of their estates the Knights Templar became very rich. 27 8 Baigent.7 From 1128 onward. High tolls charged by feudal nobles made trade expensive and therefore not very profitable. which I will discuss later. Luckily the presenting of the Order Line. Austria. 6th edition. merchants could transport their goods fairly safe across great distances. p.11 They lent the king of France considerable amounts of money. Within a year the Order was in possession of land in France. The new Knighthood. p.9 With the emergence of the Order and her vast number of estates. Hopkins. King Baldwin sent for help to Bernard of Clairvaux.

M. 15 Another advantage of this port is that. the dangerous Strait of Gibraltar. the Order’s Fleet was no longer just a necessity. p. and the Temple.G. p. At a given time. It was for Templar knights much cheaper to transport men and material to the Holy Land with their own ships rather than to rent ships from merchants. the Fleet could also transport pilgrims. De Tempel en de Loge. controlled by the Saracens. 1997. C.13 The Order. from it. the Order was transporting 6000 pilgrims a year to Palestine from their ports in Spain. France and Italy. Kempton. 77.14 A picture of the headquarters of the Knights Templar can be seen on Figure 4. The history of the Knights Templar. p. This way. Leigh. products could be transported over land to a Mediterranean port. Adventures Unlimited Press. All this was a welcome form of income for the Order. the Temple Church. Their first and largest port in the Atlantic Ocean was the port of La Rochelle.[WANTED: KNIGHTS TEMPLAR] 17 december 2009 THE TEMPLAR FLEET By the middle of the 13th century. R. 15 13 14 Corné van Klink| C I – The Knights Templar 6 . Mostly. Overall. the Order was focusing its activities on the Mediterranean. the supply of the Holy Land.16 FIGURE 4: TEMPLAR HEADQUARTERS IN LA ROCHELLE Baigent. could be avoided. 78 16 Addison. On top of that. p. The Templar Cross can easily be recognized. the Fleet could be used to transport someone else’s men or materials. was exempted from taxes. This made trading a very profitable business. 78 15Idem. 78 Idem. It had become one of the main advantages of the Order.. From this port trade was establish with England and probably with the Hanseatic League. unknown edition (1st edition 1842). being a religious order.

The castles can be easily differentiated from original castles from Armenian Cilicia. Knights Templar: Their Rise and Fall. p. approximately ten years after the founding of the order. The result of this idea was that in a single battle half of the knights might be killed.[WANTED: KNIGHTS TEMPLAR] 17 december 2009 WHAT DID THE KNIGHTS TEMPLAR DO DURING THE CRUSADES? As I already told. 55 18 Idem. M. p. p. G.20 Many of the fortresses were built just after the First Crusade. They were built by Franks. 68 19 Hopkins. It is therefore more likely that they rebuilt existing castles to fit their own ‘taste’. the Order only had knights in its ranks. chaplains and sergeants. p. were undermanned in such a way that they could never occupy a whole city wall. Knights Templar: Their Rise and Fall. 79 21 Campbell. DEMONS. Kessinger Publishing. 43 20 Barber. 17 The size of their army was largely dependent on new recruits from the West. The first castles date back to 1130 and it is improbable that the Order had sufficient resources and manpower back then to build their own castles. but it was not good for their numbers.21 The Franks. The new Knighthood. 86 Corné van Klink| C I – The Knights Templar 7 . G. After that the organization consisted of three main classes: Knights. TEMPLAR ARMY Until 1128. Therefore. BAD PEOPLE WHO LIVE IN CASTLES ON INACCESSIBLE. It is however unlikely that the Order built all of its castles on its own. unknown edition (1st edition unknown).A. M. Each victory on the military order was therefore greatly celebrated. 18 “REBELS. Whitefish. The Order acquired them both by purchase and by gift. This chapter tells of those activities. who built the castles. STEEP ROCKS WHERE WILD BEASTS DWELL” SALADIN’S SECRETARY The Knights Templar have always been considered as a serious threat by their Muslim adversaries. who made up the main body of the First crusading army. 2003. the activities of the Order were focused on fighting the Muslims in the Holy Land. The thought that it was glorious to die in battle was a noble idea. De Tempeliers. The castles were remarkable buildings as the style of the buildings was influenced by both Arabian and Byzantic models. p. they focused on strengthening the castles that protected almost every Syrian town.A. 17 FIGURE 5: TEMPLAR FORTRESSES IN THE HOLY LAND Campbell.19 TEMPLAR FORTRESSES The Order’s castles and fortresses can be identified by the specific techniques of construction and by masonry patterns.

79 Corné van Klink| C I – The Knights Templar 8 . The new Knighthood. 22 On figure 5 a map of the fortresses of the Order of the Temple. This fortress protected Antioch (present-day Turkey). Baghras (figure 6) was the most important fortress. the castle itself would serve as a refuge for civilians. p.[WANTED: KNIGHTS TEMPLAR] 17 december 2009 These castles were separated from the town they protected by battlements (walls). When the rest of the town might easily be captured.23 FIGURE 6: THE RUINS OF THE CASTLE OF BAGHRAS Unfortunately I could not find any adequate information about any military campaigns the Knight Templar commanded. G. an important city during the Crusades. In the North. Knights Templar: Their Rise and Fall. 87 Barber. M. p. They had their own gate which provided access to the country and had their own water supply.A. 22 23 Campbell.

113 24 25 Corné van Klink| C I – The Knights Templar 9 . M. devalued the national currency several times and he arrested people from whom he had lent money. The Grandmaster. Despite numerous efforts to preserve power in the Levant. His kingdom was in a financial crisis. This is important to know as he set a condition to the pope in exchange for his support. a terrible atrocity. When he got into a financial crisis and needed money he remembered the amounts of gold and other treasure stored in the Temple in Paris. 112. For both these purposes they were envied. Due to very high requirements he was rejected and this left him bitter and revengeful. 111 27 Idem. p. Philip tried to solve his problems in a couple of different ways: He charged the church with 10 percent extra taxes. This reduction had been caused by the generous gifts from their predecessors to the Order. De Tempeliers. was also arrested along with twenty-four other knights from the inner organization of the Order. He was very much impressed by the amount of treasure that was stored there. Their enormous wealth and immense possessions woke jealousy in many. The letter stated: “A bitter case. Knights Templar: Their Rise and Fall. 25 One of these nobles was Philip IV of France.24 The Knights Templar had also become unpopular with the European nobles. After he had done all the above he no longer had any debts and he had even acquired a decent income. something almost inhuman.” On the 13th October of 1307. the last Christian territory was lost and with this the Order lost its ‘raison d’être’. only a clerical and economical purpose. The clergy regarded the Order with envy for their privileges they possessed of celebrating divine service during interdict (excommunication). which has nothing to do with humanity. He thought that the treasure of the Knights Templar would solve all his money-problems. G. Philip wanted to join the Knights Templar. When he was young.27 Campbell. he desperately needed money. Philip was chased and he sought refuge in the Temple in Paris. all but 24 knights from the Order were arrested in France. p. WHO CONTRIBUTED TO THE DISSOLUTION OF THE ORDER? It can be said that when the last territory in Palestine was lost to the Muslims the fall of the Order began. Now. p. the Order had no longer any military purpose. 237 26 Hopkins. Once. p. too much to think about. charged foreign merchants extra.26 All this time. In this chapter I will try to explain why he did this and by whom he was put under extreme pressure. Every serious hope of ever recapturing the Holy City (Jerusalem) was lost.A. The profits of the nobles had been somewhat reduced. 237 Idem. Jacques de Molay.[WANTED: KNIGHTS TEMPLAR] 17 december 2009 WHY WAS THE ORDER DISSOLVED AND BY WHOM? In 1312 the Order was dissolved by Pope Clement V. too terrible to hear. Philip was in serious trouble. He sent letters all around his kingdom issuing the arrest of the entire Order. during a riot. Philip had been busy with the appointing of a new pope. These problems worsened when he got involved in several wars.

he hesitated. 269 32 Idem. G. He could not believe that the Order’s brethren would be capable of doing the things for which they were charged. 268. He issued a Papal Bull which said that. p. letters were already underway to all Christian kingdoms. M. 269 28 29 Corné van Klink| C I – The Knights Templar 10 . On the 20th of November he replied to Philip IV that he was going to summon the Seneschal of Agen (an important steward) to explain about the charges against the Knights Templar. it was performed under direct authority of the French king. 32 Edward also wrote a letter to the Pope on December 4th asking him to stand in defense of the Order. De Tempeliers. Ritual murder.A. He tried to regain control of the situation on 22nd November of 1307 by instructing all Christian sovereigns to arrest all Templar knights and confiscating all Templar possessions. 114. 117. being assured of Templar support. p. Knights Templar: Their Rise and Fall. 118 30 Campbell. accused the knights of the Order of heresy. At the time the letter was received. The offering of a perverted sacrament. There were countless more specific charges: The renouncing of Christ by Order members. One of the charges against the Templar stated that they “inflicted more serious wounds to Jesus Christ than the ones he suffered on the Cross”. He also sent messages to other kingdoms. Pope Clement had neither the will nor the power to resist the order of the king to arrest the Knights Templar. the Pope had already capitulated to the will of Philip IV. they waited for the Pope to respond. If the Knights Templar in other countries would not be captured there was a chance that these knights would come to France in order to aid their brethren. since there had long Hopkins. This letter arrived too late. He hoped that the kings and princes would accept and arrest all of the Knights Templar in their kingdom. first heard of the arrests in France.28 It has never been really proven if any of the charges against the Knights Templar were true. Another possibility was that other countries would see their chance to attack France. asking them not to act until further notice. 115 Idem. king of France. Most of them did not. 268 31 Idem. The desecration of the Cross by Order members. sodomy and blasphemy. p. Immorality and treason and so on… The list of charges against the Templar was virtually endless.30 Philip had thought about this threat and on the 13th October. the day of the arrest. p. He wanted the Order to be abolished in all Christian countries. p. The worship of an idol (Baphomet) by Order Members. Edward II. The changing of the Mass ritual. The procedure of arrest did not proceed as usual. In this letter he explained the charges against the Knights Templar and urged them to arrest the knights as well.29 Philip IV was not satisfied with the suppression of the Order in France.[WANTED: KNIGHTS TEMPLAR] 17 december 2009 THE ARREST OF MEMBERS OF THE ORDER Philip IV. They were charged by the headinquisitor of France: Guillaume de Plaisians. He was the one that sanctioned the order of arrest.31 When the English king.

213 41 Idem. 125. were very happy with this event. some of them must be true and had to be corrected. 126 37 Idem. p. The Essential guide to the people. places.36 He said: “BEFORE HEAVEN AND EARTH AND WITH ALL OF YOU HERE AS MY WITNESSES… I DECLARE. ITS PURITY AND SAINTLINESS ARE BEYOND QUESTION. HOWEVER.39 In early 1311.[WANTED: KNIGHTS TEMPLAR] 17 december 2009 been rumors around the Knights Templar.” THE PAPAL COMMISION ON THE KNIGHTS TEMPLAR CASE41 Idem. Jacques de Molay was being prosecuted. G. M.34 He issued instructions to the sheriffs of England to arrest the Knights Templar and to take charge of all of their properties. 270 36 Ralls. Knights Templar: Their Rise and Fall. AND I MUST DECLARE. he cursed the French king and the Pope. Franklin Lakes. The main reason of him issuing a Papal Bull was his fear of Philip of France. 269 Hopkins. p. Knights Templar Encyclopedia. He answered the Pope that action against the Knights Templar would be undertaken in an as swift and best possible manner. 213 33 34 Corné van Klink| C I – The Knights Templar 11 . On the 5th of June in the same year. 118 35 Campbell. the Grandmaster of the Order. However. De Tempeliers.35 Meanwhile in France. during his trial he recanted his confessions. THAT THE ORDER IS INNOCENT. THE INNOCENCE OF SOME INDIVIDUALS INSIDE THE ORDER. Because of his confessions he was to be put away in prison for life. instead of being sentenced to death. K. The Order had by then already been dissolved. 126 38 Hopkins. Enemies of Christendom. p. IS QUESTIONED. p. the Pope declared in public that the dissolution of the Order was over. K. 1st edition. Before he died. M. p. the papal commission published its findings in the Knights Templar case. p. FIGURE 7: JACQUES DE MOLAY BEING BURNED TO DEATH “THE ORDER ITSELF HAS NOT BEEN FOUND GUILTY.” JACQUES DE MOLAY37 After this trial he was slowly burnt to death. p. 38 The trial took place in Paris in 1314. 2007. 213 40 Idem. The Career Press.p. p. 33 When Edward II got the Papal Bull. it left him no other possibility. Saracen armies. events and symbols of the Order of the Temple. which he made under torture. 117.A. He called them to appear in front of God within the year. Below is the commission verdict. Knights Templar Encyclopedia. De Tempeliers. 119 39 Ralls. They both died within a year from his execution.40 The commission concluded that the case against the Knights Templar was not proven.

43 An exception to this Bull was the Iberian Peninsula. p. 42 The Pope decided this because all of the properties were given to the Order for support for the Order’s Crusade. The Ad providam ordered that all Templar property had to be turned over to the Knights Hospitaller. 214 44 Idem. Now my main research comes up. In the Spanish and Portuguese lands. M. 213 Idem. 45 Ralls. p. The Knights Hospitaller attained Malta and Rhodes and used these islands as a base to eradicate Saracen piracy. For the Teutonic Knights. 214 45 Hopkins.44 I will discuss this later in my paper. TEMPLAR KNIGHTS Some of the knights joined the Knights Hospitaller. the properties of the Order were transferred to local orders or new orders would be formed. Both these orders had made sure that their orders would survive and that they still had a raison d’être. What happened to the Knights Templar after the dissolution of the Order? WHAT HAPPENED TO THE KNIGHTS TEMPLAR IN EUROPE? TEMPLAR POSSESIONS In May 1312 an important papal Bull was issued. I also described why the Order of Solomon’s Temple was dissolved in . the Pope thought it should continue to be used for this purpose. other the Teutonic Knights. the Order’s rival order. K. p. Knights Templar Encyclopedia. De Tempeliers. p. 121 42 43 Corné van Klink| C II – The Knights Templar after the dissolution 12 .[WANTED: KNIGHTS TEMPLAR] 17 december 2009 C II – THE KNIGHTS TEMPLAR AFTER THE DISSOLUTION You have read about whom the Knights Templar were and what they did. this was the expulsion of pagans from the Baltic area and the founding of their own state: Prussia.

[WANTED: KNIGHTS TEMPLAR] 17 december 2009 WHAT HAPPENED TO THE KNIGHTS TEMPLAR IN SCOTLAND? To explain what happened to the Knights Templar in Scotland. however. Scotland as a whole was excommunicated. Baigent. place of publication unknown. 44 Idem. the weapons which the army received from the Irish were of very good quality. p.47 In 1309. 24 46 47 Corné van Klink| C II – The Knights Templar after the dissolution 13 . 1st edition. De Tempel en de Loge. The big confrontation between these two armies took place near the castle of Stirling on the 24th of June. by other heads of state except by the new king of England Edward II and the Pope. this was a political threat as the English king wanted Scotland for himself. He did not want a restored Celtic monarchy. king of Celtic Scotland. p. which was to be expected.50 Again. Bruce was forced to flee to Argyll and later Ulster. I cannot give any hard facts as I cannot find any evidence. Bruce was officially appointed “King of Scotland” by the Scottish Parliament in St. In February 1307 he restarted his campaign against the English in company of some Irish noblemen and their followers.46 50 Gourdin. and Bruce. 48 The Scottish army was getting better. from his point of view. These weapons may have come from the Knights Templar in Ireland. The reactions of this ‘sanction’ were. 1835. p. Or the army was being trained by fugitive Knights Templar. p. indifferent. but then a fresh force arrived at the battlefield to give the English a finishing blow. Edward Bruce.46 On the 19th of June it came to a confrontation between Edward II.S. For this reason. 45 49 Idem. rebelling Scots. M. this could have had a few possible causes: The army was just becoming more experienced. A crushing defeat for the Scots was the outcome of this confrontation near Methuen. the English king saw this as a threat. ROBERT BRUCE When in 1306 Robert Bruce was crowned King of Celtic Scotland. In the winter of 1310-1311 Edward II began a new offensive against the. Therefore he set out with an army which historians estimate consisted of 20 000 men. 45. Historical sketch of the order of the Knights Templar. 44 48 Idem. The Scottish army consisted of ‘only’ 7 000 to 10 000 men. Legend goes this force was a group of Knights Templar. Leigh. The Pope even saw this as a ‘resurrection’ of the old.49 THE BATTLE OF BANNOCKBURN By the end of 1313 a small English garrison was besieged by Bruce’s brother. T. After an entire day of battle the Scottish army was losing. He was accepted in this position by his people. heretical Celtic Church of Scotland. I will first tell something about the situation and balance of power. king of England.. Walker & Evans. p. Andrews. R. Edward of England could not tolerate this. From Ulster he tried to gain Irish support for his cause. which had excommunicated him.

Leigh. The most probable option is the one of Scotland. they could reach the Atlantic Ocean. However. De Tempel en de Loge. the downside was that this would attract a lot of attention. So. The Templar Treasure. Over the Seine. but there would not have been enough manpower to surprise the English army at Bannockburn.[WANTED: KNIGHTS TEMPLAR] 17 december 2009 THE TEMPLAR FLEET When records show Templar activity in Scotland. if his most Baigent. Scandinavia could also have been suggested. So. R. There is no trace of them in any historical archive. M. there were two ways of escape: By land By boat on the Seine For the Knights. 79 53 Idem. the question arises: How did the Knights Templar get in Scotland? The Order did posses property there.51 From this we can conclude that these disappearances are connected. so the Papal bull against the Knights would not apply there. This rules out the Iberian countries.53 To sum up: It can’t be proven where the Knights Templar fled. the option that was chosen was the Seine. A good option was Scotland. since Scandinavia did not have a lot of inhabitants the Knights could not have fled there unnoticed. It was excommunicated. we have to make an educated guess: - FIGURE 8: THE SEINE. Furthermore. England was by this time also sentencing Knights Templar. they were fleeing. Robert wanted their relation to get better.. On 13th October 1307. the city where most of the Knights resided. this fleet was nowhere to be found. 78. had vanished too. If the Pope found out that he was ‘collaborating’ with the Knights their relation would become even worse. From Paris. p. the Order was in the possession of a considerable fleet. p. There was also a great number of Knights (possibly more than 1000) that ‘vanished’ in France. he would want to keep that quiet. in fact. 79 51 52 Corné van Klink| C II – The Knights Templar after the dissolution 14 . FROM PARIS TO THE ATLANTIC - They could go to Spain or Portugal. the route by land was not possible as the area around Paris was heavily guarded by the Kings men. it were the Knights Templar that helped Robert Bruce. where larger ships would lie waiting to travel to a previously determined destination. As I told before. The Knights did not want this. It had ‘simply’ vanished into thin air. So. Also it could explain the unexpected help that Robert Bruce received at the Battle of Bannockburn. If. It can however be concluded in retrospective. it was still an escape-attempt. 76 Idem. p. this was not an option. one of the reasons for Philip’s arrest of the Knights.52 The destination of this possible journey are not documented anywhere.

I will therefore make no notice of it in this paper. situated in the furthest southeastern tip of Portugal. in 1312. When. By taking this step. 1st edition.57 Baigent. 1st edition. “Order of Christ” 57 Idem 54 55 Corné van Klink| C II – The Knights Templar after the dissolution 15 . FIGURE 9: TOMAR CASTLE. THE ORDER OF CHRIST In 1319. The Encyclopedia Press. 54 Templar presence in Scotland is believed to have led to Freemasonry. p. this would do serious damage to their alliance. The Muslims. In Portugal this arrangement was made by the king himself. C.M. for the Knights Templar in the Hispanic region an arrangement was made. 2000. 33 56 Herbermann.G. Leigh. p. The History of Portugal. M. the order had a small ‘problem’. New York. Philip IV of France. De Tempel en de Loge. Westport. the Pope agreed and ‘from the ashes’ of the Knights Templar a new order arose: The Order of Christ. As we can see. the Knights of Christ had settled. He proposed a plan to the Pope.55 A lot of the former Knights Templar swiftly became Knights of Christ. HEADQUARTERS OF THE ORDER OF CHRIST Prince Henry of Portugal solved this problem by giving the order a new task: fighting the Muslims on their own soil.[WANTED: KNIGHTS TEMPLAR] 17 december 2009 important ally. the Order of the Knights Templar was abolished by Pope Clement V the property of the Order in the Hispanic States was given to the king of these states. King Dinis (Denis in English) had a different idea. their headquarters were definitively situated in the monastery and castle of Tomar. the Order of Christ can be simply said to be a continuation of the Order of the Temple in Portugal. Portugal was well on his way of becoming the great Empire it would become. By the time. Greenwood Press.56 The Order of Christ’s Headquarters was seated in Castro Marino. The order immediately took over all Templar possessions in Portugal that had not been confiscated by the crown. would notice that Bruce was working together with the Order. I do not know if this is true and as far as I read I cannot prove this. 49 Anderson. He wanted a new order to be created. WHAT HAPPENED TO THE KNIGHTS TEMPLAR IN PORTUGAL? As I told before. J.. 1914. Later. current Castro Marim. the enemies the order was supposed to protect Portugal from had been driven from Portugal. The Portuguese king fell heir to the castles of the Templar castles on the territory. R. (Old) Catholic Encyclopedia.

economical and a military way. In this army they. This Order was the first of its kind. secretly. He could use them to defend against the infidels: the Saracen Muslims. PORTUGAL In Portugal. Philip IV had financial problems and he thought that the awesome wealth of the Knights could solve his problems. in the Battle of Bannockburn they assisted the Scottish king in defeating the English. They most likely went to Scotland and they took all their treasure. the Knights Templar practically continued under another name: the Order of Christ. He had great influence on the Pope and he ‘forced’ him to abolish the Order of the Knights Templar When the Pope published a Papal Bull which said the Order was dissolved and had become illegal. To what extent did the Knights Templar still have military-. Therefore he started ‘campaigning’ against the Order. They later became a military clerical order. When the Muslims had been driven from Portugal. Later. SCOTLAND The Knights Templar probably went here in search for refuge.and clerical power after the official dissolution of the order in 1312? In mainland-Europe their power was gone. In other parts of the world their power was not thriving as it used to. All the Order’s possessions were ‘inherited’ by the Knights Hospitaller because of a Papal Bull. trained the Scottish troops. In some countries the Knights merged into other orders. but it was still there. King Diniz had arranged this. However. They found this in the army of Robert Bruce. economical. the king of a country took hold of the vast estates of the Templar. the Knights Templar had to flee. The Order became very powerful in a clerical. the conquering of the Iberian Island on the Muslims. Corné van Klink| Conclusion 16 . things started going downhill for the Order.[WANTED: KNIGHTS TEMPLAR] 17 december 2009 CONCLUSION The Order of the Knights Templar were founded in 1118 to protect pilgrims in and around Jerusalem. In a short amount of time they became so powerful that the only one who was allowed to give the Knights Templar orders was the Pope. the order was put to work in an attack on the soil of the Saracens: Africa. In some cases. when the last Christian territory in the Levant was lost and Philip IV of France started interfering in the business of the Pope. He did not mind the auxiliary army in his country. In Spain the Order dissolved into smaller military orders that were to help with the Reconquista.

. M..................................... 4 FIGURE 4: TEMPLAR HEADQUARTERS IN LA ROCHELLE ........................... C............ 1 FIGURE 3: THE CROSS PATTÉE .............. BIBLIOGRAPHY Addison........................... My other sources were all books............................. 14 FIGURE 9: TOMAR CASTLE..M... Historical sketch of the order of the Knights Templar.................... the Temple Church.................. 8 FIGURE 7: JACQUES DE MOLAY BEING BURNED TO DEATH .. Cambridge............................. I used Google Books a lot..................... K.......... 6th edition.... events and symbols of the Order of the Temple.... Kempton... M....... and the Temple...... New York.................... edition unknown (1st edition 2006) Ralls..... 6 FIGURE 5: TEMPLAR FORTRESSES IN THE HOLY LAND ..................... 2007................................. M...... edition unknown (1st edition 1989) Barber........................ Most of these books.. G.................... edition unknown (1st edition 1842) Anderson... Librero... The new Knighthood.....................................A........ Baarn....... 1st edition FIGURE-LIST FIGURE 1: JACQUES DE MOLAY................ Westport...... edition unknown (1st edition unknown) Gourdin.. 1835...... Knights Templar Encyclopedia...... 2007...... 2003....... however. THE LAST GRANDMASTER OF THE KNIGHTS TEMPLAR ..... place of publication unknown.. Cambridge University Press................. 2000.. J.. Campbell.... T..G........ 11 FIGURE 8: THE SEINE.................... Kerkdriel.......... 1914.... came from the internet.. Tirion..... The History of Portugal........ this is a service by Google in which a lot of books are digitalized... Kessinger Publishing................. Walker & Evans................... Greenwood Press... 1997......... This way I could use sources I would normally never get my hands on..... FROM PARIS TO THE ATLANTIC ........ Whitefish... A history of the Order of the Temple.............. Adventures Unlimited Press. 1st edition Hopkins. The Essential guide to the people...... Knights Templar: Their Rise and Fall...... 4 FIGURE 2: THE CROSS OF LORRAINE ....... Leigh. C..... De Tempel en de Loge...................... De Tempeliers..........[WANTED: KNIGHTS TEMPLAR] 17 december 2009 SOURCE INDICATION All of my pictures I got from Wikipedia............. hun geschiedenis en mystieke verbanden.. van tempelridders tot vrijmetselarij........ places.. 1st edition Baigent........................................................................... The history of the Knights Templar........ 15 Corné van Klink| Source Indication 17 ...... 2005.................. The Encyclopedia Press... Franklin Lakes. The Career Press........ 2008.................... R............ 7 FIGURE 6: THE RUINS OF THE CASTLE OF BAGHRAS ......... 1st edition Herbermann...... HEADQUARTERS OF THE ORDER OF CHRIST ......... (Old) Catholic Encyclopedia.... (1st edition 1994)...............S.......G...

simply not true. I understood why so many things were misunderstood. which makes sense since it was a flight. now this subject has so interested me and I invested so much time in investigating it I will keep reading about it. It feels my research is not quite finished yet. Though I knew people had done this before me. When I came to the part of the research where I had to investigate where they had fled to. Not everything they did was on record. At first I just thought: “Why not?”. however. but this was after all my main research. “CRESCAT SCIENTIA VITA EXCOLATUR” (LET KNOWLEDGE GROW. I do think. I got the feeling I was ‘unveiling history’. I am also very glad it’s finished now.[WANTED: KNIGHTS TEMPLAR] 17 december 2009 AFTERWORD I really liked working on this Profile Paper. The last thing I would like to say is that I have also learned a lot from using the English language for this paper. and I handed in this Paper I do feel I could have done much more if I had had the time. Corné van Klink| Afterword 18 . The Knights Templar is a surprisingly modern subject. There were no records of them. Now I am finished I am happy I used English. I decided I wanted to make things clear for myself and started doing research. like Dan Brown’s books. When I started. A lot of the things people think are. This also made it interesting. I was puzzled. The Knights Templar were simply shrouded in mystery. I hope you learned from it and that you found it was interesting. LET LIFE BE ENRICHED) Now I have finished. This was not a piece of cake. but it was easier than part two: What happened after the dissolution? This was harder to find. I would like to take this opportunity to thank you for reading my Profile Paper. The general information about the Knights Templar could ‘easily’ be found. It is a whole different ‘experience’ and I feel I learned a lot from it. it still gave a good feeling. These things are mostly prose. I knew before I started the research it would be hard.

now I only have to fill it Working on chapter I / writing preface / writing introduction Working on chapter I and II Searching info (Google Books) Working on part question III Working on part question I.[WANTED: KNIGHTS TEMPLAR] 17 december 2009 LOGBOOK Date 09-06-2009 10-06-2009 12-06-2009 15-07-2009 17-07-2009 22-07-2009 14-09-2009 15-09-2009 02-10-2009 18-10-2009 19-10-2009 22-10-2009 23-10-2009 25-10-2009 22-11-2009 30-11-2009 01-12-2009 04-12-2009 05-12-2009 06-12-2009 07-12-2009 08-12-2009 11-12-2009 12-12-2009 13-12-2009 14-12-2009 15-12-2009 16-12-2009 04-02-2009 10-02-2009 11-02-2009 11-02-2009 Time 2 hours 2 hours 2 hours 3 hour 3 hour 2 hours 2 hours 1 hour 2 hours 1 hour 1 hour 1 hour 1 hour 2 hours 3 hours 3 hours 2 hours 2 hours 2 hours 4 hours 1 hour 2 hours 2 hours 4 hours 6 hours 2 hours 4 hours 3 hours 2 hours 3 hours 1 hour 1 hour Occupation Thinking of my final subject / watch documentary Reading about Knights Templar in book: “De tempel en de loge” Reading about Knights Templar in book: “De tempel en de loge” Reading about Knights Templar in book: “De tempel en de loge” Reading about Knights Templar in book: “De tempel en de loge” Reading about Knights Templar in book: “De tempel en de loge” Reading about Knights Templar on the internet (Wikipedia) Formulating part and main question Looking for sources Reading about subject Reading about subject / working on part question I Reading about subject / working on part question I Reading about subject / working on part question I and II Already putting together entire paper. conclusion and afterword Working on source indication. printing 70 hours Total hours (so far): Corné van Klink| Logbook 19 . II and III Working on part question II and III Working on part question II Working on part question III and IV Working on part question III and IV Working on part question IV Working on part question II and IV Working on part question IV. conclusion and afterword Finishing touch. printing Correcting mistakes Correcting mistakes Adding a clear summary to my conclusion Second finishing touch.

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