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2 INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR JOSHI Organisational behaviour is a part of total management, but plays a very important role in every

area of management and has been accepted by all the people concerned. It is an accepted fact that an organisation can develop only when its people are developed. Study of their behaviour, therefore, becomes imperative for the development of people. The term 'Organisational Behaviour' actually refers to behaviour of people in the organisation because organisations themselves do not behave. Organisation behaviour thus, tries to understand human behaviour in the organisations. Human behaviour in a organisation is generally concerned with the thoughts, feelings, emotions and actions of the people working in it. To understand any one individual and his behaviour is in itself a challenge, but to understand group behaviour in an organisation is a very complex managerial task. That is why it is rightly said that the success of any organisation primarily depends upon the efficiency and effectiveness of the management, and the effectiveness of the management depends primarily on its human skills and how well it understands the needs and desires of the people working in the organisation. Human behaviour in organisation is a relatively new concept and it emerged as a distinct field of study in the late 1950's and early 1960's. This study has changed the traditional belief of the managers that all the managerial and organisational problems are technical in nature. The managers now understand that to make their organisations more effective, they have to understand and predict the human behaviour in the organisations. Organisational behaviour is directly concerned with the understanding, prediction and control of human behaviour in organisations. It is an area of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups and structure have on behaviour within organisations. A few definitions of organisational behaviour are as follows. According to Callahan, Fleenor and Kudson "Organisational behaviour is a subset of management activities concerned with understanding, predicting and influencing individual behaviour in organisational setting." According to Raman J. Aldag "Organisational behaviour is a branch of the Social Sciences that seeks to build theories that can be applied to predicting, understanding and controlling behaviour in work organisations." According to Newstrom and Davis "Organisational behaviour is the study and application of knowledge about how people act within an organisation. It is a human tool for human benefit. It applies broadly to the behaviour of people in all types of organisation." According to Fred Luthans "Organisational behaviour is directly concerned with the understanding, production and control of human behaviour in organisations." According to Stephens P. Robbins "Organisational behaviour is a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups and structure have on behaviour within the organisations for the purpose of applying such knowledge toward improving an organisation's effectiveness." In short, organisational behaviour revolves around two fundamental components (1) The

nature of the man and (2) the nature of the organisation. Organisational Psychology & Human Resource Management Organisational behaviour is generally confused with organisational theory. It helps in predicting the behaviour of individuals. Organisational behaviour is the basis of human resource management and development. The systemetic knowledge about human behaviour is a science and the application of behavioural knowledge and skills is an art. Organisational behaviour consists of a body of theory. The field of organisational behaviour embraces all these levels as being complementary to each other.g. Organisational theory focuses on the design and structure of the organisations. Organisational behaviour tries to understand the behaviour. research and application which helps in understanding the human . and human resource management. At best a manager can generalise to a limited extent and in many cases. technology. In other words. 2. The variables influencing human development are scientifically studied under organisational behaviour. research and application for the development of human resources and the organisation as a whole. Organisational behaviour is heavily influenced by several other social sciences viz. Human behaviour is generally taken in terms of cause and effect relationship and not in philosophical terms. Thus. is activated. Organisational behaviour is not an exact science because it cannot exactly predict the behaviour of people in organisations.A Science as well as an Art. Research and Application. psychology.A Body of Theory.Cause and Effect Relationship. Organisational Behaviour. 5. attitudes and performance of the people in organisations. Organisational psychology restricts itself to psychological factors only whereas organisational behaviour considers and combines all the branches of study e. It draws a rich array of research from these disciplines. 3. psychology and so on and so forth. organisational behaviour may be organisation of individual's behaviour in relation to physical means and resources so as to achieve the desired objective of the organisation. anthropology. Human resource management. he has to act on the basis of partial information. we can say that all these terms are interrelated but not synonymous with each other.Behavioural Approach to Management. directed and channelised by the application of the knowledge of organisational behaviour which has become a field of study. sociology and anthropology. Organisational behaviour encompasses the study of three levels of analysis namely individual behaviour. Organisational behaviour has emerged as a distinct field of study because of the importance of human behaviour in organisations. Organisational behaviour is a science as well as an art. The former is concept oriented whereas the latter is concerned with the technology of human development. Organisational Theory.Organisational Behaviour is a Branch of Social Sciences. Science. From the above definitions. the following features of organisational behaviour emerge : 1. 4. 6. organisational psychology. Organisational behaviour is that part of whole management which represents the behavioural approach to management. economics.Three Levels of Analysis. It provides generalisations that managers can use to anticipate the effect of certain activities on human behaviour. inter-individual behaviour and the behaviour of organisations themselves. Organisational theory is a macro study whereas organisational behaviour is a microstudy of people's behaviour.

Thus. both the individuals and the organisation are influenced by the external environment. formal policies and procedures of the organisation etc. Rational Thinking. 7. he is affected by his work experience and the organisation as well as his personal experiences and maturity. Organisational behaviour creates an atmosphere whereby both organisation and individuals are benefitted by each other. . Over the time. He comes into contact with other individuals and the organisation in a variety of ways. And these factors are influenced by the external environment in which the individuals and the organisation exist. On the other hand. The organisational behaviour must be studied from the perspective of the organisation itself because an organisation exists before a particular individual joins in and continues to exist after he or she has left the organisation. All these techniques help the managers to solve human problems in organisations. the individual-organisation interaction and the organisation itself. we can say that we cannot study individual behaviour completely without learning something about the organisation. Moreover. Organisational behaviour provides a rational thinking about people and their behaviour. A reasonable climate is created so that employees may get much needed satisfaction and the organisation may attain its objectives. The major objective of organisational behaviour is to explain and predict human behaviour in organisations. so that result yielding situations can be created. On the other hand. Organisational behaviour in the study of human behaviour in the organisations. 8. This is because the organisation influences and is influenced by the people working in it. Whenever an individual joins an organisation he brings with him unique set of personal characteristics. At the first stage organisational behaviour must look at the unique perspective that each individual brings to the work setting. experiences from other organisations and a personal background. This relationship can be explained with the help of the following figure. the field of organisational behaviour is a complex field. managers.behaviour in organisation. Beneficial to both Organisation and Individuals. we cannot study the organisations without studying the behaviour of the individuals working in it. Thus. The individual who joins a new organisation has to come into contact with the coworkers. It seeks to throw light on the entire canvas of human factor in the organisations which will include the causes and effects of such behaviour. Thus. No individual can work in isolation. OB is the study of human behaviour in the organisation. NATURE OF ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR Error: Reference source not found Thus. the organisation is also affected by the presence or absence of the individual. it is essential that OB must study the ways in which the individuals and organisation interact with each other. The second stage of organisational behaviour is to study the dynamics of how the incoming individuals interact with the broader organisation.

The relationship of OB with other field of study is as discussed below : The term 'psychology' is derived from the Greek World 'Psyche' which means 'soul' or 'spirit'. Group behaviour in the organisations is studied. status. theories. Socialisation is accepted for moulding the behaviour of people where the capacities of individuals to learn and respond to social systems. Anthropology influences the employees behaviour through motivation. their needs etc. conflicts and other related behaviour of employees. performance appraisals and reward systems are measured and directed with the use of psychological theories and models. Job satisfaction. called an applied behavioural science. We can conclude. Anthropology contributes in understanding the cultural effects on organisational behaviour. Sociology makes use of scientific methods in accumulating knowledge about the social behaviour of the groups. The attitudes and behavioural patterns of individuals and groups are greatly influenced by socialisation. decision making.Organisational behaviour is an interdisciplinary approach as it has borrowed concepts. explains and suggests the appropriate human behaviour. prestige etc. effects of value systems. coordinating and controlling. particularly under different working conditions. sentiments.g. Organisational behaviour studies human behaviour which is concerned mainly with the psychology of the people. especially their cultural environment. It studies the behaviour of the people in the society in relation to their fellow human beings. Sociology also has a major impact on the study of organisational behaviour. anthropology. Culture is a major influence on the structure of organisations as well as on the behaviour of people within organisations. in fact. that the contribution of psychology in the field of organisational behaviour is quite significant. Psychology. a mob or an organisation. Sociologists study social systems such as a family. Psychologists study behaviour and industrial or organisational psychologists deal specifically with the behaviour of people in organisational settings. learning. It specifically studies. Psychology as a science. models and practices of physical sciences as well as social sciences. especially. society. But . Industrial psychology understands people's behaviour at work. goal setting. norms and social roles are accelerated and appreciated. forms of cultures and their impact on individuals and groups. 'Anthropo' is a Greek word which means 'man' and 'logy' means 'Science'. It particularly studies civilisation. norms. stress. Thus. The communication system in the organisation. social mobility. attitudes of employees. In recent times. measures. Sociology contributes to organisational behaviour through its contribution to tHe study of interpersonal dynamics like leadership. motivation etc. customs. social classes. science. institutions. The organisational behaviour is studied in relation to psychology. Socialisation involves spreading of values and missions of organisation among employees. Individual behaviour is governed by perception. industrial or organisational psychology is the greatest contributor to the field of organisational behaviour. social behaviour. speech and relationship among languages. thought of as the study of political systems. interaction. biological features of man and evolutionary pattern. researched and moulded with the use of theories of Social Psychology. OB is. social groups. technology and environmental sciences. as a subject of social psychology have a great influence on behaviour. political science has also started interesting the organisational behaviourists. are also central to the students of organisational behaviour. Aristotle defined anthropology as a science of man's self understanding. Anthropology is concerned with the interactions between people and their environment. sociology. group dynamics. an occupational class. cohesion and interaction. many of the concepts which interest psychologists e. communication etc. Political Science is usually. economics. values. learning and personality. The main features of organisational behaviour are primarily based on behavioural sciences. political science.

The cause and effect relationship is also established in organisational behaviour like that of science. New scientific methods viz. To cope up with the technological development people have to become educated and/or technically skilled. tests theories. Scientific method is the backbone of organisational behaviour. work design. because they greatly influence the organisation. commercial and industrial activities which have greater influences on the behaviour of the people. organisational behaviour is dependent on engineering for these technical jobs. Political Science helps in the management of men in an effective and efficient manner. they are satisfied and become high performers. It becomes relatively easy to predict and mould the people at work. The study of technological development is becoming essential for understanding the organisational behaviour. In organisations. Personal bias. decision making. the behaviour of interest groups and coalition formation. The law and order of the country influence the people at work. production activities. Science is systemetised knowledge. The level of technological development affects the behaviour of the employees. These are also major areas of interest in organisational behaviour. work flow analysis. political behaviour. Consumption oriented society witnesses a different employee behaviour from that of a production oriented society. superflous conclusions and whimsical approaches are avoided in the study. behaviour. Engineering also influences the study of organisational behaviour. Some topics are common to engineering as well as organisational behaviour e. Human behaviour relations and environments develop as a result of technological innovations. Modern age is the age of computerisation. The verification of the relationship and its quantification has added to the importance of organisational behaviour. people strive for power and leadership recognition. Thus. The scientific methods attempt to produce information that is objective in the sense that it is certifiable and independent of a person's opinions or preferences. It has come within the framework of the model of organisational behaviour. productivity measurement. observation of facts and behaviour. The economic conditions of a country has long lasting impact on organisational behaviour. productivity. in the field of OB investigates new facts. Economic systems include financial. Specific principles of political science are observed in organisational behaviour for delegation of authority and responsibility. Technology changes consumer behaviour. distribution and storage activities. Political perspectives and government policies are thoroughly analysed for moulding and modifying the behaviour of people. They should have to be responsibility conscious and development oriented. conflict resolution and stress management. explanation of facts and relationships and coming to conclusion thereon have become important bases of the study of organisational behaviour. their relationships and predictions. A systemetised form of inquiry is used for the study of various problems. Organisational behaviour is based on the systemetised study of facts.g. conflict. The consumption pattern in society monitors the behaviour of employees. and cost benefit analysis. . because people are influenced by the technological development. job design and labour relations. improved organisational culture and helpful work environment. In fact. A researcher. Political parties and Government directly intervene in many activities of the organisation. human resource planning arid forecasting. work measurement. If psychological and economic expectations of employees are met. Unskilled or irresponsible will have no place in the modern innovative age. Economists study the production. technological development leads to effective work behaviour. Students of organisational behaviour share the economist's interest in such areas as labour market dynamics. distribution and consumption of goods and services.political scientists are interested in how and why people acquire power. hypothesis and models.

which helps the managers in understanding human behaviour in all the directions in which the human beings interact. Organisational behaviour is concerned with understanding and describing human behaviour in an organisational setting. role analysis. Thus. transaction analysis etc. medicine has also come in connection with the study of human behaviour at work.Nowadays. they must first understand the people who make up the organisations. Human can be studied from the point of view of the following four levels:— (i) Individual Behaviour The main focus of behavioural sciences is on the study of individual behaviour. interpersonal and intergroup. This is discussed in detail as follows :— Organisations are people and without people there would be no organisations. In organisations. It is called a social science because its main concern is people and their behaviour. groups. The techniques. Organisational behaviour is the tool. This will help in improving interpersonal relations also. it can be concluded that organisational behaviour has an interdisciplinary focus. By studying behavioural sciences. two person relationship is inevitable. the managers can understand themselves and the others better. is affected by a number of psychological. It tries to analyse why and how an individual behaves in a particular way in a given situation. Organisational behaviour is concerned with the behaviour of individuals and groups and the impact of structural design on the behaviour of individuals and groups. social and cultural factors. is important for the well being of the individual as well as the organisations. (ii) Interpersonal Behaviour Behavioural Sciences also provide means for understanding interpersonal behaviour in the organisations. Thus. The job of organisational behaviourist is to integrate these factors to help in understanding human behaviour. It draws from a variety of other fields and attempts to describe behaviour as opposed to prescribing how behaviour can be changed in consistent and predictable ways. Stress is becoming a very common problem in the organisations as well as in the people working in the organisations. It seeks to shed light on the complex human factor in organisations by identifying causes and effects of human behaviour. Interpersonal interaction represents man's most natural attempt at socialisation. The behaviour of individuals. Medicine helps in the control of stress as well as stress related problems. used for studying interpersonal behaviour are study of perception. generally. Organisational behaviour studies four determinants of behaviour in organisations-individuals. . the role of managers include understanding the human behaviour and influencing the human behaviour. The knowledge of all these is applied to the organisation to make the organisation work more effectively. Research shows that controlling the causes and consequences of stress in and out of organisational settings. If the managers are to understand the organisations in which they work.

The job of a manager in the organisation is to get things done through others. Group behaviour has a synergic impact on the performance. After understanding the human behaviour in the organisations the next job of the managers is to influence the behaviour so that it conforms to the standards required for achieving the organisational objectives. rotation of members among groups. An organisation can achieve success only with the right type of leadership. Human beings work not only for money but also for getting job satisfaction.Introduction to Organisational Behaviour (iii) Group Behaviour 2. Leadership Leadership helps the management in bringing human behaviour in tune with the organisational requirements. Organisational behaviour helps the managers in achieving cooperative group relationships through interaction. There are trait. coordination and conflicts within groups influence performances. The leadership theories are perpetually accepted by an organisation for smooth performance of their activities. A competent leader uses all the human and physical resources at the maximum levels for achieving the organisational goals. It is very important for the managers to understand the group relationships. Organisational behaviour helps the managers in understanding the needs and desires of the subordinates and other factors which affect their motivation. effective leadership and building high morale. Group formation. . Motivation Motivation in an organisation is essential for ongoing work. He will be successful in his job when he can motivate his subordinates to work for organisational goals. groups and various other aspects of the organisation. His behaviour is often modified by group norms. An organisation must have effective leadership for its survival and growth. goal and situational approaches for the development of leadership. Management can use group dynamics for better communication. Managers can influence the behaviour through control and direction. (iv) Inter Group Behaviour Organisations consist of a large number of groups. Organisational behaviour helps the managers in influencing the behaviour in the following ways: 1. which leads to complexity of relationships.9 Hawthorne studies have proven that an individual behaves differently as an individual and as a member of the group. The monetary and non-monetary awards are used as incentives to motivate the subordinates. The cooperation. behaviour and interactions are studied in the course of the organisational process. avoidance of win-lose situation and focus on total group objectives. Leadership serves as the link among the individuals. 2.

recognised the importance of individual. 4. however. Organisational behaviour views organisational climate in totality rather than merely improving physical working conditions. thus. Organisational Climate Organisational climate is the sum total of all the organisational situations affecting human behaviour. it helps in understanding and managing human behaviour. Robert Owen a British industrialist tried to improve the condition of industrial workers in the early ninteenth century. The benefits of change should be highlighted and information should be shared with all those likely to be affected by the change. group and social processes in the organisation. To achieve organisational effectiveness. Organisational Change and Development Organisational development is needed for the change and development of individuals. Mary Parker Follet was another writer who believed that management should become more democratic in its dealing with employees. she made several basic and enduring observations about organisations and management during the mid 1920s to the early 1930s. conflict and leadership. Organisations have to undergo changes as a result of social. The organisational change and development are successfully handled by the use of behavioural science knowledge. Organisational climate is the creation of an atmosphere of effective supervision. Communication People come in contact with each other through communication. the roles of individuals and groups were ignored altogether or at the most. adequate compensation and better equipments for the job. Specifically. She also . political and other environmental factors. the opportunity for the realisation of personal goals. Organisational behaviour creates an atmosphere of participative leadership. technological. To conclude. Organisational behaviour analyses the factors that affect communication so as to make it more effective. Early in the twentieth century the noted German Psychologist Hugo Musterberg argued that the field of psychology should provide important insights into areas such as motivation and the recruitment of new employees.3. the communication must be effective. good relations with others at the work place and sense of accomplishment. A few writers and managers. it can be said that organisational behaviour is an exciting field of study which can help the managers in effective handling of human resources for the realisation of organisational goals. The communication process and how it works in interpersonal dynamics is evaluated by behavioural sciences.given minimum attention. Change can be introduced through group dynamics and proper education of employees through effective communication. or increasing employees satisfaction by changing isolated work process. She worked mainly as a social worker among the poor in the Roxbury Section of Boston. In the classical theories of organisation as well as management. Organisational climate. takes a systems perspective and affects human behaviour. Although. two way communication. Three of her observations about organisations and management were-power. thus. Behavioural sciences help in improving communication in the organisation. her work career did not involve management. which provides a base for what we know today. Modern organisational behaviour has a rich intellectual history. She had a positive view of power and saw it as basic to organisations and management. 5. communication is known as the building block of the organisation.

but still the productivity went up. Regarding conflicts. In another major experiment. a coactive not a coercive power. People wanted more than monetary incentives for working. conflict is put to work to help discover new. like Relay Assembly test room experiments and mass interviewing . Fritz Roethlisberger. Proponents of scientific management would have expected each man to work as hard as he could to maximise his own personal income. as a worker approached the acceptable level each day he slowed down so as not to over produce. The results of these experiments baffled the investigators. Thus. whose purpose was to study the different levels of lighting on productivity.believed that power should be a jointly developed power. Both parties get what they want. tactfulness. The experimental design used a control group where the lighting was not varied." The views of Robert Owen. Several researchers were involved in this study. steadtastness of purpose. "Tenacity. when lighting was subsequently reduced. With integration. could not be avoided. In the 1930s a series of research studies led to the emergence of organisational behaviour as a field of study. Previously interaction between superiors and workers was limited. These people conducted a series of experimental and observational studies in the plant and conducted employee interviews between 1924 and 1932. But the Hawthorne researchers found instead that the group as a whole established an acceptable level of output for its members. As lighting was increased for the experiemental group the productivity went up. steadiness in stormy period. she believed that conflicts. in the organisations. The First major experiment was ILLUMINATION EXPERIMENT (1924-27). creative solutions to problems and issues in organisations. A discussion of major findings of researches relevant to the development of organisational behaviour is as follows : The Hawthorne Studies were a large research programme conducted between 1927 and 1932 at Western Electric's Hawthorne plant near Chicago. Their goal was to understand the factors that contributed to differences in human productivity. Several other studies. An individual who wanted to be accepted by the group could not produce at too high or too low a level. It had focussed mainly on the work and not on the workers themselves. They were not widely accepted by practicing managers. This research was a landmark work done in the Social Sciences in the United States. This approach finds a solution that fully meets the goals of each party in dispute. the productivity again went up. the best known being Elton Mayo. The lighting for the control group was not changed. Follett's view of the personal qualities of a leader gives a vivid picture of the characteristics of a good leader. The researchers concluded that a more people oriented form of management led to more productivity than a directive. Harvard Faculty members and consultants and William Dickson. The plant produced various parts for telephone Switching Systems. It was concluded that to be accepted as a part of the group evidently meant more to the workers than earning extra money. Hugo Musterberg and Mary Follett hold minority views. several researchers from Harvard University began studying some groups of workers in the plant. Chief of Hawthorne's Employee Relations Research Department. Eventually. Not much change took place till the 1930s in the management's perception of the relationship between the individual and the work place. a Piecework Incentive System was established for a nine man group that assembled terminal banks for telephone exchanges. Instead of running from conflicts managers should put conflict to" use in their organisations. Her creative suggestion was that the integration of desires was the way to manage the conflicts. An experimental group experienced changes in lighting level. which focussed new and greater attention on the workers increased productivity. authoritarian and money oriented form of management. Following the illumination experiments. the researchers concluded that Simply being part of the experiment.

The Hawthorne Studies created quite a stir among managers and management researchers. Organisational behaviour began to emerge as a mature field of study in the late 1950s and . The Theory Y assumptions are : — i) The average person does not dislike work. In 1943. Theory Y. The labour shortage during the Second World War gave further fillip to the concept and philosophy with the result that human relations approach became the focal point of the principles and practice of management. {iii) The average person wants security. who proposed two sets of assumptions about human motivation that a manager can hold.programme. their potentials are underutilised. avoids responsibility and has little ambition. design and research results. In 1950s the human relations approach became the core of managerial dynamics. it is as natural as a play. (ii) Because people dislike working. the managers have to control. They are assumptions or beliefs about human motivation that can strongly affect management behaviour. academicians and labour unions. direct and coerce and threaten employees to get them to work towards organisational goals. In many ways it is consistent with the presumptions of Scientific Management. the studies were an impetus to further developing our understanding about organisational behaviour. Theory Y gives a more optimistic and positive view of employees. was the approach McGregor himself advocated. in fact. These two sets of assumptions prevailed for many years. which received support from business leaders. supported the conclusion that individual and social processes are too important to ignore. The Theory X assumptions are :— (i) The average person dislikes work and will avoid it if possible. The importance of Hawthorne studies in developing our understanding of organisations cannot be diminished by such criticisms. ii) People are internally motivated to reach objectives to which they are committed. Theory X takes a very negative and pessimistic view of human nature and employee behaviour. vi) People are bright. They were widely accepted by practising managers. As the needs at each level are satisfied. McGregor called the assumptions Theory X and Theory Y. an MIT psychologist. v) People have the capacity to be innovative in solving organisational problems. The values of human relations approach are exemplified in the work of Douglas McGregor. that motivation depends more on social needs than economic needs and that satisfied employees work harder than unsatisfied employees. The Hawthorne Studies have been criticised by the people. Abraham Maslow published a pioneering theory of employee motivation that became well known and widely accepted among managers. but under most organisational conditions. iv) People will both seek and accept responsibility under favourable conditions. being the representative of the human relations perspective. The basic principles underlying the human relations movement were that people respond primarily to their social environment. A manager's behaviour toward his workers and his management style will differ based on the assumptions guiding his behaviour. iii) People are committed to goals to the degree that they receive personal rewards when they reach their objectives. Maslow's theory assumes that motivation arises from a hierarchical series of needs. This provided the foundation for the human relations approach. Critics site deficiencies in the research methods. Although strong conclusions cannot be drawn directly from the research. the individual progresses to the next higher level. Although called a theory these are not theories.

The traditional concept of productivity was concerned with economic inputs and output only. Thus. instead of controlling the employees. but on employee's feelings about how they were treated and their perceptions of the behaviour of their supervisors towards them.early 1960s. Human resources approach provides for the changes in the managerial role. the nature of the job and technology. greater is the efficiency and effectiveness of the management. this approach gives the managers a way of looking at the organisation as a whole. organisational behaviour as a scientific field of inquiry has made considerable strides. social and economic issues. a human output or benefit occurs. But nowadays human and social inputs and outputs are equally important. recognised that the performance at work depended not merely on the environment. should provide active support to them by treating them as part of the group. the human relations Era came into being. It requires that the managers.Contingency Approach. The methods of behaviours which work effectively in one situation may fail in another. it would automatically result in increased performance provided the workers are trained for the new environment and they are suitably rewarded. Any action taken to solve the problems in one subsystem will have its effect on the other subsystems as well.Productivity Approach. Thus the study of management shifted from STIMULUSRESPONSE notion to understanding the STIMULUS-the workers feelings and reactions. The manager's task therefore.Human Resources Approach. All this gave rise to the following approaches to the study of organisational behaviour : 1. Higher the value of this ratio. System Approach. organisations can increase productivity and at the same time meet the needs of individuals for independence and growth. is recognised and discussed extensively. whole group. That period saw the field's evolution from the simple assumptions and behaviourial models of human relationships to the concepts and methodologies of a scientific discipline. Effective management processes will vary in different situations depending on the individuals and groups in the organisation. 2. is to identify which method will. a significant part of organisational behaviour decisions. . Thus. best contribute to the attainment of organisation's goals. Their development will contribute to the success of the organisation. The superiors and managers should practice a style where workers are given the opportunities and encouragement to perform under loose supervision. It was understood that workers also have needs and wants and they want to be accepted by others as a member of the group. But after the classical theories. although there have been occasional steps backwards as well. in a particular situation. These decisions relate to human. This approach recognises that human resources in an organisation are the central force. evolving from the Hawthorne studies. training or pay. Productivity. under particular circumstances and at a particular time. since all the parts of the organisation are closely connected. The approach stresses that there is no single way to manage effectively under all circumstances. 3. Since that time. The organisational structure and the processes of management are governed by the external environment and several aspects of the internal environment. 4. the environment facing the organisation and its structure. For example if better organisational behaviour can reduce worker's turnover or the number of absentees. By treating individuals as mature adults. The human relations school. the manager will have to analyse each situation prior to action and different managerial practices and styles are needed for effective management. The systems approach is of the view that an organisation is a powerful system with several subsystems which are highly and closely interconnected. Productivity means the numerical value of the ratio of output to input. The classical theories of organisation stressed that if appropriate changes were made in the working environment with regard to the job.

and the whole social system. Systems approach has become an integral part of .

explain and predict human behaviour. . Some of these generalisations may prove effective in explaining and predicting the human behaviour. The other subsystems are integral part of overall organisations. it is required that a systematic approach should be there to understand. The behaviour of an individual is caused by a number of variables. in general and organisational behaviour in particular is an essential job of the managers. To understand the true nature of human behaviour. Organisations are termed as complex systems comprising of interrelated and interlocking systems.15 modern organisational theory. A lot of generalisations have been developed about the human behaviour. Therefore. It is easy to understand the behaviour of a person if we know what caused it or what made the person behave in a particular way. that is why this process is called S-R process.Introduction to Organisational Behaviour 2. This model assumes that the reasons which cause human behaviour are of two types : (i) Internal Feeling (ii) External Environment Internal feelings of a person may relate to his motivational factor whereas the external environment which is also called the stimulus directly influences the activity of a person. The stimulus may be in the form of heat. light. etc. the following specific models have been developed : 1. There is a direct relation between stimulus and response. The S-R Model. but some of these generalisations may not be so effective in explaining why do people do what they do. A general system model of organisation as drawn by Kast and Rosenzwerg (1966) is in the following figure: Error: Reference source not found The public and government have been included keeping in view the relationship between organisation and external environment. To identify the major variables and to show how they relate to each other. which have been based either on personal experience or the experience of others. According to this approach. behaviour is determined by the stimulus or in other words the external environment forces determine the behaviour of a person at any given moment.

The stimulus is very comprehensive and all encompassing in nature. talking. actions of supervisors or other aspects of environment to which a person is sensitive. Whereas in reality the person concerned piays an important role in behaviour which is influenced by the internal feelings of the person. the same behaviour may have different causes. knowledge. attitudes. When behaviour. maturity. 2. facial expressions. any change in S and O will definitely influence the behaviour. The S in this model stands for stimulus or the external environmental situation. but it is a mediating. All these factors takers together complicate the ability of the managers to understand and manage people in . Gregory Moorhead and Ricky Griffin : Organisational Behaviour. It is the study of human behaviour in organisations. in turn. The stimulus incorporates all aspects of the environment-immediate stimulus. The double headed arrow between S and O indicates the interaction between the situation and organism. thus. The following figure shows this interrelationship clearly: Error: Reference source not found Source. sentiments and thinking The response of organism indicated by a single headed arrow is the behaviour. interrupt what they are doing and help them to make their choices. Error: Reference source not found Since behaviour is influenced by the interaction of S with O. S-O-B-A Model. it leads to accomplishment as shown by single headed arrow. Similarly. It stimulates the organism or person into action. It includes light. This model. physical environment and socio-cultural environment. emotions.. A number of variables and concepts accompany the above interactions. values. perceptions. heredity. S-O-B-A model is a comprehensive model of human behaviour which combines the S-R situation and human being. The O in this mode! stands for the organism as the person. Further. It is manager's job to decide when to change the S and to change O. to a person. In order to adequately understand and evaluate the behaviour. acts on the outside world. sound. But one must analyse the conditions carefully so that the changes introduced are in the right direction and do not give rise to worse problems.Error: Reference source not found The basic drawback of this model is that organism or person is immobile and passive. The A stands for accomplishments and consequences. maintenance and adjustive function between S and R. personality and motivation. the same cause may have many behaviours. Behaviour is anything that a person does. It ia assumed that the accomplishments may further change the stimulating conditions and thereby influence the subsequent behaviour or it may create new stimulus leading to new behaviour. But O in this model is not passive or immobile. it is essential to determine which cause is involved in a particular instance. heat. The type of treatment of the S or of the O that will work in one cause may not work in another cause or even with the same cause on different occasions. The B stands for behaviour. The field of organisational behaviour is both exciting and complex. Models are the techniques which help us to understand complex things and ideas in a clear manner.g. It includes both overt and cover! behaviour such as body movements. skills. But this O does not stand for only the physiological being but also it includes the processes within the person e. does not give a complete picture as to what caused the person to act in a particular way in a particular situation. it is not something that is doru. the interface between human behaviour and the organisation and the organisation itself.

To dispel this feeling of insecurity and frustration. the custodial model came into existence. some people like to work under strong authority because they feel that their boss is a natural born leader. the following four models of organisational behaviour exist : 1.W. (iv) The leadership in an autocratic model is negative because the employees are uninformed. the workers are educated and organised. thus they cannot be dictated to by the managers all the time. This authority is delegated by the right of command over the people to whom it applies. This conventional view leads to tight control of employees at work. The model that a manager holds is based upon certain assumptions about the people working in that organisation and it leads to interpretations of events. insecure and afraid. Autocratic Model. generally. fire and perspire employees. The employees depend upon the boss and are paid minimum wages for minimum performance. will be in a position to carry out his own will despite resistance. Some of the important features of this model are as explained below : . This theory of scientific management was developed by F. The employees sometimes give minimum performance. (v) Nowadays. persuaded and pushed into performance. The models are unconscious but powerful guide to managerial behaviour . (iii) The autocratic model has been successful in some situations where the workers are actually lazy and have a tendency to shirk work. The basis of this model is the power of the boss. 2. Some employees give higher performance because of a drive to overcome challenges. "the probability that one actor. McClelland of Harvard University. Taylor as the conventional view of management. To understand the complexity of human behaviour and to explain it in a clear manner. though relutantly because they have to satisfy the subsistence needs of themselves and their families. According to the research of David C. The insecurity and frustration felt by the workers under the autocratic model sometimes led to aggression towards the boss and their families. Different models are being followed by the management in different organisations. they need not be respectful to him. the need was felt to develop models of organisation behaviour. This view of managing organisations has been developed by D. "the ability to influence flow of available energy and resources towards certain goals as opposed to other goals. To overcome the shortcomings of the Autocratic model." Walternord defined power as. the need was felt to develop a model which will improve the employer-employee relations. the managers cannot threaten to cut down the wages or rewards of the workers. It assumes that the employees have to be directed. In the modern organisations. The threat generally used by the managers is that the reward or wages will be withheld if the workers donot obey them.organisations. Management does the thinking and employees obey the orders. Thus. It is also required in the situations where the work to be done is time bound. this model is not applicable in strict sense because there are minimum wages laws in most of the countries. (ii) Under autocratic model. that is why these models are highly significant." The essential features of this model are as follows : (i) Organisation with an autocratic environment is authority oriented. The Custodial Model. The custodial model was used by the progressive managers. Power is assumed to be exercised only when these goals are atleast partially in conflict with each other. The bosses have absolute power to hire. The management believes that it is the best judge to determine what is better for the health of both the organisation and its participants and that the employees' obligation is to follow orders. Max Weber defined power as. Moreover. within a social relationship. the employee's orientation is obedience to the boss. McGregor in his theory X.

(v) The difficulty. the employees are satisfied and happy and they are not strongly motivated. As is clear from the meaning. and one which builds and maintains his sense of personal worth and importance. with this model is that it depends upon material rewards only to motivate the employees." The main features of this model are as follows : (i) The Supportive Model depends on leadership instead of power or money. in the light of his background. where the majority of the workers are below the poverty line. view the experience as supportive. make their contributions and improve themselves. values and expectations. job satisfaction etc. (v) This model is an improvement over the earlier two models. each member will. rather than simply giving them payments and benefits as in the custodial approach. But it has limited application in India. So they give only passive cooperation. with the help of leadership try to create a favourable organisational climate in which the employees are helped to grow to the greater capacities and achieve things of which they have the capability. 3. more concerned about their psychological needs like high self esteem. The Collegia! Model. (iv) This model takes care of the psychological needs of the employees in addition to their subsistence and security needs. This model has been found to be effective in affluent countries where the workers are. Due to the drawbacks of this method. But the workers have their psychological needs also. (iv) The main benefit of this model is that it brings security and satisfaction to the employees. The supportive model has originated from the 'Principles of Supportive Relationships. If properly motivated. For them. the most important requirement is the satisfaction of their physiological needs and security. they can be self directed and creative to the organisation. "The leadership and other processes of the organisation must be such as to ensure a maximum probability that in all interactions and all relationships with the organisation. 4. It is similar to McGregor's theory and the human resources approach to people. They do not work more vigorously than under the autocratic approach. a search began to find out the best way to motivate the workers so that they produce with their full capacity and capabilities. The features of this model are as follows : (i) This model creates a favourable climate in the organisation as the workers feel that they are the partners in the organisation. It is assumed that the workers are not lazy and work shirkers by nature. Management. they cannot afford to leave the organisation. They are not much concerned about the psychological needs. The collegial model is an extension of the supportive model. (iii) Under this model. The Supportive Model. Since employee's physiological needs are already met the employer looks to security needs as a motivating force. if given a chance." According to Rensis Likert.(i) The success of the Custodial Model depends upon the economic resources because this model emphasises the economic rewards and benefits. If the organisation has got good welfare and development programmes for the employees. this model is based upon the partnership between employees and the management. They don't see the managers as their bosses but as joint . Supportive behaviour helps in creating friendly superior-subordinate interaction with a high degree of confidence and trust. (ii) The employees under Custodial Model depend upon organisation rather than their boss. (ii) The leader assumes that the worker will take responsibility. in compliance with the goals of the organisation. The Dictionary meaning of collegial is a body of persons having a common purpose. (iii) It should be the orientation of the management to support the employees' job performance.

No business enterprise can exist in a vacuum. In the modern day world. It has to continuously interact with the environment. The managers will have to make use of a combination of models depending upon the circumstances of the case. when the environmental factors are assuming a lot of importance. Whereas the ecological model accepts that the environment is complex and changes keep on taking place. This model deals with situations like single nation. But keeping in view the emergence of professional management. (iv) The collegial model is especially useful in research laboratories and similar work situations. All the functions of the organisation are affected by the environment as the environment supplies the inputs which are converted by the organisation into outputs. the empirical models describe the activities the employees actually perform. This model does not help in generalising that what will happen in future. laws. biography. historical episode etc. Some models of organisational behaviour can also be classified by a number of approaches. This helps in developing a system of self discipline in the organisation. (v) Ideographic Models. (vj) Nomothetic Models. These are concerned with generalisations. single group. cross organisation. These models deal with situations like cross country. the workers have job satisfaction. As the name suggests this model is the opposite of ecological model. After studying all the four models it becomes very clear that there is no single model which is best suited to the requirements of all the organisations. individual. Other Models. This interaction between the organisation and environment is known as ecological interaction and this is the crux of ecological approach. These models deal with general situations. job commitment and some degree of fulfilment.contributors. not because that they will be punished by the management. single organisation. the non-models assume stability in the environment and that everything will remain the same. this model is not very useful. Models which deal with the changes which take place in the environment and which understand the complexities of environment are ecological models. hypothesis which indicate regularity of behaviour and correlation between variables. This model becomes an integral part of organisational behaviour because organisational behaviour is concerned with what is actually taking place in the organisations and how do people actually behave. (ii) The collegial model inculcates the team spirit in an organisation. (i) Normative Models. When the organisational behaviour is concerned with micro-level analysis this model is generally used. While the normative models are concerned with what should be done. cross group. The workers accept responsibilities because they find it their obligation to do so. Most of the management theories are comprised of the normative models. (iii) In this kind of collegial environment. Both the management and workers accept and respect each other. we can say that the use of Supportive and Collegial will be more as compared to the Autocratic and Custodial Models. (ii) Empirical Models. because while preparing the plans and policies the management is more concerned with what should be done or what should not be done by the managers and the employees. cross individual analysis of organisational system. A few of these models are as explained below. These are concerned with theory building on the macro level basis. (iv) Non-Ecological Models. The normative models seek to find out that what should be done to produce optimum results. 5. These models are concerned with the determination of optimum actions. job involvement. The models that are developed to deal with specific cases or unique situations are called ideographic models. Through a process of feed back output causes the emergence of new inputs. . (iii) Ecological Models.

Discuss the role of organisational behaviour in an organisation. 11."Organisational behaviour represents interaction among individuals.Explain the different approaches to the study of OB. 6.How do you think human relations approach.What is organisational behaviour ? What is its scope ? What is the necessity of studying this subject ? 3.To summarise. we can say that organisational behaviour is a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals. DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 1. 4. . But. 5. groups and the organisation.What is organisational behaviour ? Discuss its nature. Organisational behaviour offers both challenges and opportunities for the managers and it also offers guidance to the managers in creating an ethically healthy working environment. 2. because each organisation is different from the other one.Discuss in brief the foundations of organisational behaviour. we have to find organisational behaviour model which will suit that particular organisation.How does the classical school of thought fit with the systems approach ? 10.What are the various determinants of organisational behaviour ? Discuss the general conclusions you draw from the models of organisational behaviour. group and organisational levels. groups and structure have on behaviour within an organisation and then the results of the investigations are applied to make organisations work more effectively. 7.Explain a few models of organisational behaviour. What are the contributing disciplines to OB ? List their contribution at the individual.Explain the process of human behaviour. Organisational behaviour uses systemic studies to improve predictions of behaviour that would be made from instructions of the management alone." Elucidate this statement.can be differentiated from the human resource approach to management ? 9. Do you agree with the statement that "Behaviour is generally predictable" ? 8.