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CHAPTER I

THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING

Introduction

The Philippines is abundant in Ampalaya vegetable which is known as a very

nutritious vegetable. Ampalaya is the Tagalog word for bitter melon, or bitter

gourd or bitter cucumber. Its scientific name is Momordiacharantia. It can be

found in China, Japan, Indonesia, Vietnam and India. It is a greenish, oblong-

shaped fruit that grows on vines to about 20 centimeters long, with tapering ends.

Sour in taste, it has many culinary and medicinal uses in Asia and parts of South

America and the Carribean.

Filipino centenarians will remember being forced as children to eat ampalaya

sautéed with egg. They will also remember seeing "beef ampalaya" on the

menus of old and new Chinese restaurants, and the bitter taste in the ancient

Ilocano mixed-vegetable dish called "pinakbet."

Because of its bitterness, researcher came up of a project that use ampalaya

as the main ingredient despite of its bitter taste. Some believed that this project

may not work because of its complicated flavor. Others say that it will outcome

good result that most children would benefit.


This investigatory project will identify if truly the bitterness of Ampalaya would

not exist. Also through this, we can know what are its great effects in our lives

including its benefits in food economy and healthcare.

Statement of the Problem

In our modern day, health condition of the country is slowly deteriorating

because of the widespread of non nutritious foods consumed by people.

The researcher believes that she could provide a product that would best

answer on the aim of improving the health condition of our country.

This investigatory project aims to determine and to find out how the bitterness

of Ampalaya will work out on the product’s desire flavor and also on the benefits

that can make for our country.

Specifically, this project will seek to answer the following question:

1. What are the components of Ampalaya candy thatmakes it nutritious?

2. What are the ingredients of the product that make the bitter taste of

ampalaya lessened?

3. What are the advantages and disadvantages of making the Ampalaya

candy?

4. What is the level of acceptability of the product to theconsumer by

considering the following variables:

a. Taste

b. Odor
c. Texture

Significance of the study

This research project is worth makingbecause it will help in improving the

health condition of our country. Also in our economy, we can raise and recover it

as well. Diabetes, one of the certain and major diseases in the country, can be

prevented. Through this project, we can learn the benefits the Ampalaya candy

can produce for ourselves and for the others. Non nutritious foods that are fellow

men were eaten will be lessening. It can be suitable equipment for our future’s

generation food frugality.

Delimitation of the study

This paper will talk about the production of Ampalaya candy with its

advantages and disadvantages to our country and to us. This will also provide

information on determining Ampalaya candy for its acceptability to the consumer

by its taste, odor and texture. It will discuss how the bitterness of Ampalaya

consumed on making this project.

This paper will not include the parts of Ampalaya, kinds of candy and other

sources that you can use on making this project. This will only talk about

Ampalaya candy and its information.


Definition of Terms

To make this investigatory project more understandable to those who

might come across it, the researcher includes the definition of some term which

will enable to have aa clearer understanding of the problem they seek to answer.

The following are some of the words with their corresponding meanings and

explanation.

1. Ampalaya- a vegetable grown throughout the Philippines. As the English

name suggests (bitter melon), the melon has a bitter taste due to the

presence of momordicin.

2. Vigor- means physical strength and good health

3. Glucose- a variety of sugar occurring in nature very abundantly, as in ripe

grapes, and in honey, and produced in great quantities from starch, etc.,

by the action of heat and acids

4. Adjunct- a thing added to something else as a supplementary rather than

an essential part

5. Antineoplastic- Any of several drugs that control or kill neoplastic cells;

used in chemotherapy to kill cancer cells; all have unpleasant side effects

that may include nausea and vomiting and hair loss and suppression of

bone marrow function

6. Hypoglycemia- any of various agents that decrease the level of glucose in

the blood and are used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus

7. Favism- anemia resulting from eating fava beans; victims have an

inherited blood abnormality and enzyme deficiency.


8. Gastrointestinal- of or relating to the stomach and the intestines

9. Placebo- A harmless pill, medicine, or procedure prescribed more for the

psychological benefit to the patient than for any physiological effect

10. Diabetes Mellitus- The commonest form of diabetes, caused by a

deficiency of the pancreatic hormone insulin, which results in a failure to

metabolize sugars and starch.

11. Diarrhea- a condition in which feces are discharged from the bowels

frequently and in a liquid form.

12. Nausea- a feeling of sickness with an inclination to vomit

13. Tepid- Only slightly warm; lukewarm

14. Pectin- A soluble gelatinous polysaccharide that is present in ripe fruits

and is extracted for use as a setting agent in jams and jellies


CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

This chapter reviews the work of the researcher on studies closely related

to the present day, as follows:

According to Daniel Paul Pascual, a student of Baguio City National High

school, ampalaya, amargoso or bitter gourd was one of the mostimportant

commercial and backyard fruit vegetables in the country today. It has

bothnutritive and medicinal use.These were rich in calcium,phosphorous, iron,

carbohydrates and vitaminB. It was also known to cure diabetes, arthritis,

rheumatism, asthma, warts, and ulcer. Making a candy within ampalaya was said

to be nutritious and delicious because of the nutrients that ampalaya have.

According to Dr. Galvez, the former secretary of the Separtment of Health,

ampalaya cannot cure diabetes, but it can help control the diseases. The action

of ampalaya on blood sugar is equivalent to the action of the medicine. In

response to the study, the Department of Health has elevated the status of

ampalaya from a mere nutritional supplement to a real medicine.

People find ways to counteract the bitter taste of ampalaya by cooking it

together with other recipes. Mixing the chopped ampalaya with eggs can turn its

taste delightful to the taste buds and at the same time reaping the many health

benefits of ampalaya.
Analyses of the fruit show that it is a good source of iron and calcium, and

a good source of phosphorus. Despite its bitter taste, extracts from plant parts

has become a popular drink for boosting vigor. In fact, the bitterer, the better, as

it is believed that the bitterness is proportionate to its potency according to

Galvez.

According to Dr. Raman and Dr. Lau of Pharmacognosy Research

Laboratories Department of Pharmacy King’s College London, United Kingdom,

oral administration of fruit juice or seed powder of ampalaya causes a reduction

in fasting blood glucose and improves glucose tolerance.

R. Rosales, MD and R. Fernando, MD, said thatAmpalaya fruit prepared

as a tea is well- tolerated and may be a useful dietary adjunct in the treatment of

type-2 diabetes. It has minor gastrointestinal side effects of increased bowel

frequency but beneficial to those diabetic patients who are constipated.

According to Basch, Gabardi and Ulbricht, Bitter melon (Momordica

charantia) is an alternative therapy that has primarily been used for lowering

blood glucose levels in patients with diabetes mellitus. Components of bitter

melon extract appear to have structural similarities to animal insulin. Antiviral and

antineoplastic activities have also been reported in vitro. Four clinical trials found

bitter melon juice, fruit and dried powder to have a moderate hypoglycemic

effect. These studies were small and were not randomized or double-blind,

however. Reported adverse effects of bitter melon include hypoglycemic coma

and convulsions in children, reduced fertility in mice, a favism-like synrome,


increases in γ-glutamyltransferase and alkaline phosphatase levels in animals

and headaches. Bitter melon may have additive effects when taken with other

glucose-lowering agents. Adequately powered, randomized, placebo-controlled

trials are needed to properly assess safety and efficacy before bitter melon can

be routinely recommended.

According to Jea Joy A. Muñoz of DOST in Region III, Momordica

Charantia or ampalaya is known for its power to improve numerous infections,

cancer and leukemia. It also has the ability to help a person recover from having

a deadly disease known as Diabetes Mellitus. These days, diabetes mellitus is a

disease that contributes to more than 25,000 deaths per year. It is caused by

hypoglycemia and the inability of the body to utilize insulin. People from the

different walks of life suffer from its harmful and dreadful effects. Many studies

regarding medicines against it were performed yet less were reached by ordinary

people and those who usually die amongst those unfortunate.

From the article “Super Food Ampalaya”, it was said that ampalaya was a

super food eaten by people of other countries as well as Filipinos because it

resembles a big cucumber with wartd on it. It is native to the trophics just like

mallunggay and always seen as one of the ingredient of pinakbet and also in

bagoong. It also said that the medical uses of ampalaya are more important than

the culinary uses because it’s bitter taste has different its nutrients that is very

helpful in our body.


In our country, there are areas of malnutrition in different provinces. The

State of the World’s Children says it is due to financial problem and also to the

food they eat. Children now seldom eats vegetables and fruits because of many

junk foods in the store that they are tempt to buy because of its delicious taste,

not knowing that it has bad effects on their health, especially if they eat too much

sweet which can cause tooth decay, tonsillitis and may turn out to be diabetes,

and if too much sour, it can also cause U.T.I and or kidney failure. It is not

advisable to each too much junk food because it will turn out to be very bad on

your health.

The researcher found out some disadvantages of ampalaya and ampalaya

candy such as:

Lars Tramilton said that the most common side effects from consuming

bitter melon are digestive problems. These side effects generally are minor and

no cause for alarm. They usually subside within a few days. They include

diarrhea, stomachache and bloating. There are some medications that have the

potential to bring upon negative interactions when taken alongside bitter melon.

Bitter melon might lower insulin and glucose levels, so people who have diabetes

should not take their diabetic medication simultaneously with bitter melon.

Upon its initial harvest, bitter melon is yellow-green in appearance, though

it turns yellowish-orange in color as it ripens. The inside of the melon is seedy,

with seeds of high fibrous content. However, according to InteliHealth, these


fibrous seeds and rind are extremely bitter and toxic if consumed, causing

headache and nausea.

Bitter melon has a primary use for effectively lowering high blood glucose

levels in diabetes mellitus patients, as it contains components with structural

similarities to insulin. Although bitter melon aids in the natural lowering of the

high blood glucose levels in diabetic patients, too much of it can lead to

hypoglycemic coma, among other serious health issues. Bitter melon is also

used as an "anti-viral and anti-neoplastic activities," as well as an anti-oxidant,

according to Zhion Health. Bitter melon juice is often consumed in its natural fruit

form, juice or added with water as a dried powder.

According to Zhion Health, there have been reported adverse effects of

bitter melon consumption, which included convulsions in children, reduced fertility

in mice, and headaches, in addition to coma. Bitter melon may also interfere with

normal glucose levels in non-diabetic individuals. Pregnant women should

abstain from consumption of bitter melon, as such may cause spontaneous

abortion, fetal-deformities and/or future infertility.


CHAPTER III

RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES

The research study uses the combination of quantitative analysis of

documentary materials such as records that already exists and experimental

method to determine the making of ampalaya candy. The researcher focused

mainly on the basic research process to gather necessary data and information

for the study. The completion was based mainly on the gathered information from

books and web pages from computer researchers.

Methodology

These are the methods and things that the researcher used in making

Ampalaya candy such as follows:

Things you will need:

 11-by-7-by-2-inch baking dish

 Aluminum foil

 Butter

 1 1/2 cups white sugar

 1 1/2 cups corn syrup

 Large saucepan

 Candy thermometer

 1 cup plus 2 tablespoons tepid water


 7 1/2 tablespoons pectin

 3/4 teaspoon baking soda

 1/4 cup fresh grated ampalaya

 3 tablespoons ampalaya powder

 5 teaspoons flavored extract (your choice)

 Corn starch

 Sharp knife

 Airtight container

Procedures:

1. Line the baking dish with aluminum foil. Fold the foil over the outside

edges of the baking dish. Grease the foil generously with unsalted butter

and set aside.

2. Grease the bottom and sides of a large saucepan heavily with unsalted

butter.

3. Combine 1 1/2 cups white sugar and 1 1/2 cups corn syrup in the buttered

saucepan.

4. Place the saucepan over medium-high heat and bring syrup/sugar mixture

to a boil. Stir constantly until sugar is completely dissolved.

5. Cook the sugar mixture until it reaches the soft-crack stage (270 to 290

degrees Fahrenheit). Keep track of the temperature with your candy

thermometer.
6. Combine 1 cup plus 2 tablespoons of tepid water, 7 1/2 tablespoons of

pectin, and 3/4 teaspoon of baking soda in a separate saucepan. It will

produce a head of foam.

7. Place pectin mixture over high heat, stirring constantly, until it boils (three

to five minutes). Continue to stir until foam disappears. Lower heat to

medium. Keep the pectin mixture simmering until the sugar mixture

reaches the soft-crack stage.

8. Pour the pectin mixture into the sugar mixture as you continue to stir.

Once the mixtures are combined, stir constantly for another three minutes.

9. Remove candy mixture from heat. Immediately stir in 1/4 cup of fresh

grated ampalaya, 3 tablespoons of ampalaya powder, and 5 teaspoons of

the flavored extract of your choice.

10. Pour the mixture into the foil-lined baking dish. Allow the candy to set at

room temperature for three and a half hours or until firm.

11. Dust your work surface with corn starch. Lift the candy from the baking

dish using the aluminum foil. Turn it out onto the dusted work surface.

12. Slice the candy into 1/2-inch squares with a sharp knife dusted with

cornstarch.

13. Pour 1 cup white sugar into a shallow bowl. Roll each ampalaya square in

the sugar. Store at room temperature in an airtight container.


CHAPTER IV

PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

1. Ampalya candy is made up of such nutritious ingredients such as ampalaya,

honey as the alternative substance for corn syrup and apple pectin.

Ampalaya is rich in soluble fiber, as well as potassium, iron, folic acid,

calcium and phosphorus. It also contains high levels of vitamins A, B and C

as well as in honey. On the other hand, apple pectin assists in reducing bad

cholesterol because it forms a fiber barrier in the intestinal wall preventing

the absorption of cholesterol and other fats, and it reduces the absorption of

glucose.

2. The ingredients of the product that makes the bitter taste of ampalaya

lessened are the sugar and the honey. Because of the sweetness of these

two, less bitterness were tasted. Also there are more substances of it that

were use than in ampalaya.

3. Making Ampalaya candy can be an improvised material for anyone who

doesn’t eat ampalaya directly. It helps kids and fellow man to eat ampalaya

in a delicious way. It is very nutritiousbecause of the substances and some

of the alternatives we use. Unlike other candies, its nutrients are natural and

good to our body. On the other hand, too much consuming of Ampalaya

candy is harmful. It can lead to diabetes, diarrhea and some digestive

problems.
4. As we tasted it to others, most people rated theproduct very good. From its

color, they say it’s good and more like a chocolate. On it’s odor, they say it’s

like a true candy and can smell the sweetness and on it’s taste it’s good. A

little bit sticky but nutritious.


CHAPTER V

SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Conclusion

Based on the observationof the researchers, the ampalaya candy is


delicious but also nutritious that is valuable than the ordinary candy. It contains
nutrients needed by the body. The product is favorable for them and its bitter
taste as been lessened. Most of the people liked the productconsidering its taste,
odor, and texture. It is easy to made and very convenient.

Recommendation

Based on the results of this product, the following recommendations are

hereby given:

1. Add some vegetables on the Ampalaya Candy or more nutrients and best

effect.

2. Determine the nutritional contents of Ampalaya Candy.

3. The making of Ampalaya Candy is another way to earn a living


4. Ampalaya candy is an excelent substitute for imported prunes or other
delicacies.
Sources:

http://www.charantia.com/ampalaya_archive/Advanced%20Search.htm

http://www.charantia.com/about-ampalaya/

http://www.untwistedvortex.com/super-food-ampalaya/

http://www.ehow.com/how_5732555_make-ampalaya-candy.html

http://www.ampalaya.com/

http:// www. globalpinoy.com/pinoyhealth/ph_gamotpinoy/ampalaya.htm

http://region3.dost.gov.ph/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=215:

momocha-momordica-charantia-chips&catid=22:medicine-and-health&Itemid=45

http://www.ehow.com/about_5041044_bitter-melon-side-effects.html

http://www.ehow.com/list_7456604_bitter-melon-disadvantages.html

http://www.ehow.com/how_5732555_make-ampalaya-candy.html
AMPALAYA AS A CANDY

CARL GALLOS FERNANDEZ

RONALYN DUBLIN MACABATA

LOVELY ORIENDO GREGORIO

A Science Investigation Project submitted to Santa Maria National High

School

In partial fulfilment for our subject

January 12, 2018