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USER GUIDE FurnaceCore on NukeX

Visual Effects Software

The Foundry

©2010 The Foundry Visionmongers Ltd. All rights reserved. FurnaceCore User Guide This manual, as well as the software described in it, is furnished under license and may only be used or copied in accordance with the terms of such license. This manual is provided for informational use only and is subject to change without notice. The Foundry assumes no responsibility or liability for any errors or inaccuracies that may appear in this book. No part of this manual may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form without the prior written permission of The Foundry. The Foundry logo is a trademark of The Foundry Visionmongers Ltd. Nuke is a registered trademark of The Foundry Visionmongers Ltd. All other products or brands are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective companies or organisations. The Foundry algorithms use the FFTW library developed by Matteo Frigo and Steven G. Johnson, copyright 2003 Matteo Frigo, copyright 2003 Massachusetts Institute of Technology. All rights reserved. Used under terms of a commercial license. http:// www.fftw.org. Software engineering: Simon Robinson, Ben Kent, Ralph McEntagart, Lucy Hallpike, Phil Parsonage, Andy Whitmore, Bruno Nicoletti, and Mailys Levassort. Algorithms: Dr. Bill Collis, Dr. Anil Kokaram of Trinity College Dublin, Prof. Paul White of the University of Southampton, Ben Kent, Phil Parsonage, and Dr. Francois Pitie. Product testing: Jack Binks, Dan Allum, Joel Braham, and Antony Nasce. Writing and layout design: Eija Narvanen using FrameMaker. Proof reading Eija Narvanen.

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Contents
Introduction
About this User Guide. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 OFX Plug-ins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 What’s New? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Installing FurnaceCore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Licensing FurnaceCore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 On-Screen Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Motion Vector Inputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Colour Space in FurnaceCore Plug-ins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Customer Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Other Foundry Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Grain Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Retiming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Removing Flicker and In-Scene Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Stabilisation and Alignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Grading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Quick Start . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Inputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Quick Start . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Inputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
FurnaceCore

Overview

Align

DeFlicker2

The Foundry

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Inputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Colour Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 DeGrain Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 The Foundry MotionBlur ReGrain FurnaceCore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Quick Start . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Colour Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Inputs . . 41 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Inputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Parameters . . . . . . . . . 32 Inputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Quick Start . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Quick Start . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . 62 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inputs . . 34 Parameters . . . . . . . . 59 Quick Start . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Quick Start . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Colour Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Quick Start . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 46 47 48 DeNoise Kronos MatchGrade Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . 105 Tracking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 Inputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Output. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Quick Start . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 Indicators on the On-Screen Wire Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Quick Start . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 RigRemoval Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 Quick Start . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Inputs . . 107 Inputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Quick Start . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 Inputs . . . . 72 Parameters . . . . . . 70 Proxy Resolutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Tracker Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 Introduction . . . . . 111 FurnaceCore Steadiness VectorGenerator WireRemoval The Foundry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Inputs . . . 83 Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Response. . . . . . . . . . 69 Checking the Result . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Introduction . . . . . . 101 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 Vector Field Representation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 Using Pre-Calculated Vector Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 End User License Agreement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 Controls . . . . .6 Global Motion Estimation Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 Background . . . . . 135 A-Z . . . . . . . 117 What is Global Motion Estimation? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 The Analysing Global Motion Estimation Effects . . . . . . 129 Release Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 Widgets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 Local Motion Estimation Appendix A Appendix B Index FurnaceCore The Foundry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

For a current list of supported host systems see http://www.thefoundry. The downloads are in FurnaceCore .uk. available as a download from our web site. Notation In this user guide.thefoundry.the twelve most popular Furnace plug-ins incorporated in NukeX. we will refer to machines running FurnaceCore and NukeX as clients and machines that are running the Foundry FLEXlm Tools as servers.co. About this User Guide This user guide describes FurnaceCore .INTRODUCTION About this User Guide 7 INTRODUCTION Welcome to this User Guide for FurnaceCore on NukeX. OFX Plug-ins These plug-ins have been written and compiled to the OFX plug-in standard. What’s New? Have a look at the new features and improvements in Appendix A. we assume you are familiar with the version of NukeX you are running. http://www. OFX is an open plug-in API for 2D visual effects.co.uk. Throughout this user guide. Installing FurnaceCore The Foundry FurnaceCore is installed automatically with the Nuke installation package.

see the Nuke user guide. For more information on licensing Nuke and NukeX. On Windows: C:\Program Files\Nuke6. The license key is a sequence of numbers and letters. and diagnose license problems can be downloaded from our web site. On-Screen Tools Some plug-ins have their own on-screen tools for region selection or to facilitate the changing of various parameters.co. and executable installer format for Windows machines. Tools to install license keys.thefoundry.app/Contents/MacOS/ plugins/ Licensing FurnaceCore To run the FurnaceCore plug-ins included in NukeX. FurnaceCore The Foundry . manage floating licenses. stored in a plain text file. that unlocks the software. see the Nuke User Guide.0v1. FurnaceCore gets installed into the following location. Default Install Directory By default. package format (dmg) for Mac OS X. For more information.0v1/Nuke6. you need a valid license key for NukeX.8 INTRODUCTION Licensing FurnaceCore compressed tar format (tgz) for Linux. http://www.0v1/plugins On Mac OS X: /Applications/Nuke6.uk/licensing.0v1\plugins\ or C:\Program Files (x86)\Nuke6.0v1\plugins\ On Linux: /usr/local/Nuke6.

as local motion estimation is computationally intensive.for sampling or analysis.INTRODUCTION Motion Vector Inputs 9 All on-screen tools are transparent when not active. such as F_Kronos. In this case. When selected. to allow you to reuse the results from previous analyses of the motion. When a region is selected. Colour Space in FurnaceCore Plugins Some of the algorithms in the FurnaceCore tool set are sensitive to the colour space of the source footage. Several of these plug-ins. The F_VectorGenerator plug-in allows you to do local motion estimation in isolation. The rectangular tools used to select a region . including F_Kronos. the on-screen tool will have continuous lines on this frame. If the footage is not in the expected colour space. the frame associated with it will be automatically updated to the current frame. you may get poor results from some of the plug-ins. so it makes sense to avoid doing these calculations more than once if possible. which is a per-pixel analysis of the motion between pairs of frames. they are extended out to the edges of the viewing area. FurnaceCore on NukeX expects all footage to be in Linear space. so that the results can then be passed to other FurnaceCore effects. now have optional motion vector inputs. for example . and dotted lines on all other frames. The Foundry FurnaceCore . Parts of the widget that can be moved become solid when the mouse is moved near to them. rely on Local Motion Estimation. Motion Vector Inputs Many FurnaceCore plug-ins. This is designed to save processing time.sometimes apply to a single frame only.

your footage should be Linear by the time it reaches the plug-in anyway. FurnaceCore The Foundry . and F_DeNoise also have additional pop-up menus to allow you to adjust the algorithm to get the best results when using footage that was originally in another colour space. you should use a Colorspace node before and after the plug-in to convert to and from Linear for processing. so unless you have changed the colour space in your Read nodes (or in the node tree by using a Colorspace node before a FurnaceCore plug-in).10 INTRODUCTION Customer Support NukeX converts all footage to Linear upon import. you can contact Customer Support directly via e-mail at support@thefoundry. Customer Support Should questions arise that this user guide fails to address. This should ensure optimal results.uk or via telephone to our London office on +44 (0)20 7434 0449 or to our Los Angeles office on (310) 399 4555 during office hours.co. Please take a moment to read through the relevant chapters in this manual for these plug-ins. to make sure you are aware of how they behave. F_DeGrain. F_ReGrain. Plug-ins most sensitive to colour space are: • F_DeGrain • F_DeNoise • F_MatchGrade • F_ReGrain If you know the input to one of these colour-space sensitive plug-ins isn’t Linear.

Shake. It has been used to create extraordinary images on scores of feature films including Australia. improve productivity in post production. Keylight is an industry-proven blue/green screen keyer. Autodesk® Media and Entertainment Systems. and Pirates of the Caribbean: At World’s End.uk. matte tools. giving results that look photographed. Its products include Nuke. Avid DS. and plug-ins.thefoundry. background generators. The Golden Compass.INTRODUCTION Other Foundry Products 11 Other Foundry Products The Foundry is a leading developer of plug-in visual effects for film and video post production. Ocula is a collection of tools that solve common problems with stereoscopic imagery. Ocula. colour tools. wipes. distortion effects. Nuke. including After Effects. not composited. paint effects. The Dark Knight. Keylight. Iron Man. For the full list of products and supported platforms see our web site http://www. Nuke is an Academy Award® winning compositor. and RollingShutter.co. The The Foundry FurnaceCore . lens flares and much more. Tinderbox. The plug-ins run on a variety of compositing platforms. a high-end compositing application. RollingShutter is a plug-in that tackles image-distortion problems often experienced by users of CMOS cameras. such as Furnace. Transformers. King Kong. Tinder and Tinderbox are collections of image processing effects including blurs. and Final Cut Pro. and ultimately help to deliver a more rewarding 3D-stereo viewing experience. Tinder. The Keylight algorithm was developed by the Computer Film Company who were honoured with a technical achievement award for digital compositing from the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences.

uk for further details. the RollingShutter plug-in compensates for local skewing and distortion in the scene.co.thefoundry. that stretch the image as a whole. Visit The Foundry’s web site at http://www. by correcting each object individually. FurnaceCore The Foundry . by either minimising or eradicating image distortions. Unlike solutions tied to camera stabilisation.12 INTRODUCTION Other Foundry Products plug-in will often vastly improve the look of distorted footage.

archive material. degraded. you’d replicate the grain from the still frame and generate further frames so that the grain appears to be in motion. FurnaceCore The Foundry . installed. click on it and you will be taken to the plug-in reference section for that tool.so you’ve just downloaded. so have a good play around with them. Please select an overview from the list of sections below. for example: • When comping (or even editing) two shots together it is very obvious to the viewer when the grain characteristics vary. and licensed up your copy of FurnaceCore. and the CG element will have no grain at all.OVERVIEW Grain Management 13 OVERVIEW Great . When you see an individual plug-in that you’d like to find out a little more about. many of the tools offer much greater flexibility than we can cover in this manual. So where (and why) would you want to manage grain? In a whole host of different places. comping a moving Computer Generated (CG) element against a still frame: the background still has static. but where do you start? In this section. broken down by what we would envision their application to be. Grain Management The FurnaceCore grain management tools allow you to quickly remove and replicate grain patterns from both modern day fine-grained film stock and old. for example. we’ll have a quick look at the plug-ins. take. Please bear in mind. Grain Management | Retiming | Removing Flicker and In-Scene Objects | Stabilisation and Alignment | Grading. In this circumstance. unmoving grain.

If you want to remove grain from a single frame. By removing it beforehand. Grain management tools. If you want to remove grain from a sequence of frames. helping create the illusion that it was all shot in camera. good for everything from modern stock through to archival footage and video noise. or you can sample a plate of your choice and have ReGrain create a statistically identical moving grain sample. FurnaceCore The Foundry . useful for quickly cutting levels of grain on modern film stocks. A number of preset stocks are included. the grain will be the first part of the image that clips and otherwise introduces undesirable artefacts. DeGrain is a fast (spatial) grain suppression tool.14 OVERVIEW Grain Management This would then be applied back against both the original still and the CG element. DeNoise is a temporal grain and noise removal tool. Figure 1. this is the tool you need. ReGrain allows you to reapply grain to a source clip. this should be the tool of your choice. • When colour grading you’ll find that as you begin to push the processing. then replicating it on the finished shot you’ll save yourself a great deal of trouble.

and stray light. Removing Flicker and In-Scene Objects DeFlicker2 deals with film flicker from a variety of sources. RigRemoval Got an object moving in relation to the background (or vice versa). By making a best-guess about where objects move within a scene (motion estimation). that you want to get rid of? RigRemoval scans forwards and backwards within a sequence to find an area where the background in question was unobstructed by the object. MotionBlur allows you to add true-to-life motion blur to objects within a scene. Retiming tools. this was an ugly process which introduced juddery or artefact-ridden output. Historically. and then copies that back The Foundry FurnaceCore . Figure 2. It gives you full control over the speed of playback of your clip and allows you to add motion blur. we are able to create frames between existing ones. Once we know how these objects move. It works particularly well on in-scene flicker. to get either slow or fast motion. poorly synchronised light rigs. without the added complexity of the clip retiming controls. Kronos is FurnaceCore’s retimer. we are also able to add motion blur to these objects in motion as though it was shot in-camera.OVERVIEW Retiming 15 Retiming Retiming is the process of altering the speed of a clip.

WireRemoval That perennial paint favourite. Steadiness requires no tracking markers to be specified. and more. Stabilisation and Alignment So you’ve got something in a wobbly shot you want to repair? These tools are the answer. Not anymore! WireRemoval has a variety of different repair types to remove the wire automatically. Great for unwanted traffic. MatchGrade Got two shots from different times of day that FurnaceCore The Foundry . Grading Help speed up the grading process using this imageenhancing tool. cloning out. to locking your freshly generated clean plate to the original. Align Lock one shot of a scene against another. people. Handy for anything from doubling up the crowd size by comping together two shots. Steadiness Suppress wobbles in handheld footage or lock the sequence position against a certain frame (great for when a small shake hits an otherwise locked off shot). frame-by-frame. Figure 3. Clean-up tools. the wires used for death defying stunts.16 OVERVIEW Stabilisation and Alignment into place.

OVERVIEW Grading 17 need to be comped or edited together? This plug-in analyses the colour histogram of a reference image and automatically applies the result to your source sequence. The Foundry FurnaceCore . F_MatchGrade. Figure 4. This allows sequences that were shot with subtly different lighting to have the same ’look’.

18 OVERVIEW Grading FurnaceCore The Foundry .

Figure 6. but have slightly different camera motion and foreground objects. The result is the source image which has been repositioned to line up with the reference image. Introduction F_Align takes two sequences that were shot of the same scene and lines them up spatially. It uses Global Motion Estimation (GME) to calculate a four-corner pin so that each frame in one shot (the source input) will be aligned with the corresponding frame in a second shot (the reference input). Notice the position of the background. for example. Figure 5. for doubling up the crowd size by lining up and comping together two shots of the same scene. Source image. The Foundry FurnaceCore . or locking your freshly generated clean plate to the original.ALIGN Introduction 19 ALIGN This chapter looks at how to use F_Align to register (line up) two shots that are of the same scene. This can be useful. Reference image.

This analysis can be triggered for the complete sequence. The advantage of pressing Analyse is that during the analysis. The source image has been repositioned so that the background lines up with the reference image. as the ’on the fly’ calculations will have been lost and F_Align will have to analyse again. you won’t have direct access to the calculated corner pins. Figure 8. F_Align can use these key frames without having to calculate them again. Output from F_Align.20 ALIGN Introduction Figure 7. F_Align stores the calculated four-corner pin as key-framed parameters. The output of F_align comped together with the reference image. Alternatively. it can be done on the fly for a single frame when you move to a new frame on the timeline. To be able to align the sequences. or a single frame when you press the Analyse button in the F_Align controls. a warning will be posted and the effect will analyse on-the-fly during render. If at any stage you modify the effect in such a way to invalidate the key-framed analysis (for example by changing the Accuracy parameter). F_Align analyses them for global motion. When you then render the output of the plug-in later. specified frame range. If you analyse on the fly. ignoring the FurnaceCore The Foundry . Any re-rendering will also be significantly slower.

as in NukeX. The on-screen widget and the Analysis Region parameters are used to control which section of the Reference frame is being matched to each Source frame. do the following: 1. Quick Start This section gives a very brief outline of how to use the plug-in. Select Image > Read to load both these shots. Find two shots that are of the same scene. and a description of the common way of working many of these effects have. their functions are combined. a heavy mismatch in foreground detail may make it necessary to change the region to a section that is shared between shots. For more of an overview of Global Motion Effects. The transformation in F_Align is concatenated with other NukeX transform nodes. However. leaving the region at its default is good enough. there is no loss of image quality and processing time is decreased. Analysing with the Analyse button To align two shots and store the results as key-framed parameters. Because the image is only resampled once. including colour correction nodes. can break the concatenation. This means that if you add a row of F_Align and NukeX transform nodes to a tree. certain nodes. It covers both analysing using the Analyse button and analysing on the fly. However.ALIGN Quick Start 21 keyed analysis. The Foundry FurnaceCore . please see the Global Motion Estimation chapter on page 117. but have slightly different camera motion and foreground objects. Typically.

Depending on the exact difference between the two shots. the pins it has keyed until that point will be retained. View the output from the Merge node. Bottom Left. If you don’t want this to happen. 3. press M on the Node Graph to insert a Merge node. uncheck Render During Analysis. Bottom Right. You will find these parameters under Advanced > Four Corner Pin. leaving it at the default position works well for most shots. adjust the mix slider in 7. To see how closely the two clips have aligned. 6. However. You may also need to reposition the Analysis Region depending on the differences in foreground detail. However. The source will be immediately repositioned so that it aligns to the reference shot without any need for analysis. Analysing during render. you may need to enable the Scale and/or the Perspective toggles to get a decent alignment. Connect the shot you want to reposition to the source (Src) input of F_Align and the shot you want to match to the reference (Ref) input. and Top Right. Click on the Analyse button. figuring out the four-corner pin and writing it as key frames to the corner pin parameters. 5. FurnaceCore The Foundry . Connect the Merge node’s A input to F_Align and the B input to the reference image. View the output from F_Align.22 ALIGN Quick Start 2. Play or scrub through the aligned frames. 4. You will see the following banner in the overlay: Note: no valid key framed analysis found. F_Align will re-analyse that frame on the fly. Top Left. F_Align will now start analysing each frame in the shot. Then. Select Furnace > F_Align. The rendering will be faster as F_Align will no longer need to analyse on the fly. F_Align will update the timeline at each frame. and you will see the aligned image render in the output. If you interrupt the analysis. if you scrub to a frame where a corner pin has not been keyed.

You may also need to reposition the Analysis Region depending on the differences in foreground detail. Note: no valid key framed analysis found. Select Furnace > F_Align. Analysing On The Fly To align two shots and calculate the alignment on the fly. To see how closely the two clips have aligned. The Src will be immediately repositioned so that it aligns to the Reference shot without any need for analysis. you may need to enable the Scale and/or the Perspective toggles to get a decent alignment. View the output from the Merge node. Find two shots that are of the same scene. 3. Depending on the exact difference between the two shots. The Foundry FurnaceCore . 6. Then. press M on the Node Graph to insert a Merge node. do the following: 1. Analysing during render. 4. However. 5. View the output from F_Align. leaving it at the default position works well for most shots. Connect one of the shots to the source (Src) input of F_Align and the other to the reference (Ref) input. You will see the following banner in the overlay: 2. adjust the mix slider in the Merge controls to dissolve between F_Align’s output and the reference clip you wanted to match. Connect the Merge node’s A input to F_Align and the B input to the reference image.ALIGN Quick Start 23 the Merge controls to dissolve between F_Align’s output and the reference clip you wanted to match. Select Image > Read to load both these shots. but have slightly different camera motion and foreground objects.

Parameters The parameters for this plug-in are described below.If set. Analysis Range . so toggle this off to speed up the general analysis. Analyse . • Source Clip Range . Interrupting the analysis will not delete the corner pin keys that have already been calculated. this toggle will cause the effect to update the time line and render a freshly analysed frame in the Viewer so you can see the progress of the effect. allowing you to force a re-analysis if you feel the need to.This is a push button which will trigger an analysis of the input clips and calculate a corner pin. It can be one of: • Specified Range .Pressing this push button will delete all key frames from the corner pin parameters. Render During Analysis . Clear Analysis . This is useful for correcting any errors that may have occurred while analysing the entire clip.the analysis occurs only on the current frame. Doing so will slow down the analysis somewhat.which will look at the parameters Analysis Start and Analysis Stop for the range of frames to analyse.which will automatically determine the range of frames to analyse from the length of the input clip.This controls the range of frames any analysis will be run over.24 ALIGN Inputs Inputs F_Align has two input clips: the source (Src) input is moved so that each frame matches the reference (Ref) input frame. FurnaceCore The Foundry . • Current Frame .

A toggle that indicates whether the calculated corner pin can include rotations.A toggle that indicates whether the calculated corner pin can include translations in x and y.The first frame to analyse from if Analysis Range is set to Specified Range.The last frame to analyse from if Analysis Range is set to Specified Range. look at the reference clip and position the box over the area you want locked. Translate . but you have a better likelihood of a good result. Rotate .low quality but quick to render. Analysis Region . in which case.controls the position of the bottom left corner of the analysis region. Advanced . go to the lock frame. This is especially useful when doing any form of frame locking. Analysis Stop . The higher this is.ALIGN Parameters 25 Analysis Start .A toggle that indicates whether the calculated corner pin can include a scaling factor.controls the position of the top right corner of the analysis region.This is the region analysed to calculate the four-corner pin. the slower the analysis. Analysis Region BL . Filtering . Scale . The Foundry FurnaceCore .A toggle that indicates whether the calculated corner pin can include perspective transforms.This controls the time/accuracy trade off. Accuracy . • Low .The lesser used refinement controls. Analysis Region TR .Sets the filtering quality. Perspective .

the upper left corner pin. Top Right .uses a sinc filter to interpolate pixels giving a sharper repair.26 ALIGN Parameters • Medium .the lower left corner pin. Invert . Bottom Right .the upper right corner pin. then the inverse of the calculated four-corner pin is used during render. This gives good results and is quicker to render than high filtering. This gives the best results but takes longer to process.if set. Four Corner Pin . FurnaceCore The Foundry .The corner pins calculated during the analysis pass: Bottom Left .uses a bilinear filter.the lower right corner pin. Top Left . • High .

This problem could be alleviated by using local motion estimation before deflickering the frames. flicker that is not present across the whole of the image). It then tries to adjust the gain so that it varies smoothly over this frame range. It is particularly suitable for removing flicker that is localised and dependent on the geometry of the scene (that is. as the latter will already appear smooth over the small frame range and F_DeFlicker2 will leave it largely untouched. this process is complicated by the fact that the presence of flicker can adversely affect the results of the motion estimation. To use this approach. This chapter concentrates on removing flicker using F_DeFlicker2. First. Introduction F_Deflicker2 is used to remove flicker. Then. the normal deflickering process is performed. such as that caused by an unsynchronised fluorescent light in a shot. The deflicker calculation is then performed on the aligned frames to give the final result. The algorithm used by F_DeFlicker2 can introduce blurring in areas where there is rapid motion. F_DeFlicker2 therefore adopts a two-stage approach to this problem. It works by calculating the gain between the current frame and each frame in a small analysis range surrounding it. This means it is better at reducing fast flicker than flicker which varies slowly over the image sequence. the motion vectors for the sequence are calculated on the resulting deflickered frames. The Foundry FurnaceCore . you sometimes have to deal with shots that have a luminance flicker.DEFLICKER2 Introduction 27 DEFLICKER2 When working in film. and applied to the original frames in order to align them. However. turn on Use Motion in F_DeFlicker2.

If you’re not happy with the results. Quick Start To remove flicker from a sequence: 1. 2. 3. Block Size . View its output. Parameters The parameters for this plug-in are described below. the deflicker algorithm looks for a block of pixels centered around that pixel. adjust the DeFlicker2 parameters. Select Image > Write to insert a Write node and render the result. It is strongly advised therefore. Select Image > Read to load the sequence you want to remove flicker from. 4. Inputs F_DeFlicker2 has a single input: the sequence to deflicker. DeFlicker Amount . On rare FurnaceCore The Foundry . The available parameters are described below. it can be a computationally expensive plug-in. that you render each instance out separately. using more than two instances of F_DeFlicker2 in a node tree will dramatically increase render times. As such. smaller values mean more will be left behind.To find where a certain pixel is located in the analysis range.Use this to reduce flicker without removing it entirely. Select Furnace > DeFlicker2 to apply DeFlicker2.28 DEFLICKER2 Quick Start Note that because F_DeFlicker2 looks at input frames outside the current frame when performing its calculation. Block size defines the width and height of these blocks (in pixels).

Determines the density of the motion vectors used when Use Motion is turned on. A value of 0. This will produce the most accurate vectors but will take longer to render. this value very rarely needs editing.DEFLICKER2 Parameters 29 occasions. where the initial deflicker pass can introduce blurring. In most cases. This is because a small feature can fit into a large block. The Foundry FurnaceCore . the default value is small enough so that details aren’t lost. Use Motion . A small value.Turn this on to do a second deflicker pass using motion-compensated frames. The maximum value of 1 will generate one vector per pixel. as there aren’t enough constraints in a small block to fit the motion accurately. and the smoothing step of the algorithm ensures the motion field isn’t too noisy.The number of frames searched each side of the current frame when calculating the flicker. Vector Detail .5 will generate a vector at every other pixel. however. causing the motion estimation to concentrate on the background motion and ignore the small feature. a large block size can produce data that’s lacking in detail. can produce a noisy motion field. Analysis Range . Higher values may give better results. but can also bring in erroneus information and take longer to process. This can improve results in areas where there is fast motion. Therefore. instead.

30 DEFLICKER2 Parameters FurnaceCore The Foundry .

This can lead to the blurring of the image. we would recommend using F_DeGrain to achieve the best results. if you are looking to remove noise or grain from a sequence of images. to keep this to a minimum. Test grain image. Introduction F_DeGrain is used to remove grain from a frame. if you have just a single frame to work on. better results are likely to obtained by using the Furnace plug-in F_DeNoise. F_DeGrain’s spatial filtering involves averaging pixels within the same frame. Figure 9. a wavelet based technique is used. As a general guideline. The high frequency spectrum can be The Foundry FurnaceCore . However. This decomposes the image into a number of different frequencies and scales before attempting to remove the grain.DEGRAIN Introduction 31 DEGRAIN This chapter looks at removing noise or grain using F_DeGrain. which is a fully motion-compensated noise reducer (described on page 39). and so. The aim is to remove as much grain as possible whilst doing as little damage to the image as possible.

32

DEGRAIN Colour Space

isolated and processed using the Process Small Frequencies and Small Amount parameters. The low frequencies are processed using the Process Large Frequencies and Large Amount parameter. This allows you to select the frequencies that contain grain, process them by as much as you think is best, and leave details in the other frequencies untouched.

Colour Space

F_DeGrain works best when the colour space of the footage is the same as the ‘colour space the grain exists in’. An example might make more sense here. If you have a film scan, it’s most likely to be in log (or Cineon) colour space, as it represents the print density of the film. When you import this into NukeX, NukeX converts it into Linear space. Because the noise in the plate is from the film itself, this conversion exaggerates the noise in the highlights. Because the F_DeGrain plug-in receives this Linear data from NukeX, you need to use the Original Colour Space menu in the F_DeGrain controls to tell the plug-in what colour space the image was originally in. In the case of our film scan, this would be Cineon. If you had footage from a digital video camera, this would most likely be sRGB. If this isn't set correctly, you’ll probably see that F_DeGrain doesn’t remove grain very well in certain parts of the image as it’s trying to remove the exaggerated grain.

Quick Start
FurnaceCore

To remove grain from an image, do the following:

The Foundry

DEGRAIN Quick Start

33

1. 2. 3.

Select Image > Read to load the single-frame image you wish to remove the grain from. Select Furnace > F_DeGrain to add an F_DeGrain node after your image. View the output from F_DeGrain. Position the selection box over a plain area of the image (Figure 11).

Figure 10. Bad sample position. Figure 11. Good sample position. Note

It is very important to position the selection box over a region with little image detail. Failure to do this will give poor results as the algorithm will think the image detail is grain and remove it.
The sample selection automatically updates not only the Analysis Region BL and Analysis Region TR parameters in the Analysis Region group but the frame from which the sample is taken. Whenever the sample rectangle is altered, the internal analysis of the grain in that region reoccurs. The sample analysis data is saved into hidden data for distribution across render farms.

Fine Tuning

If either not enough grain has been removed or the picture has been softened by removing too much grain, it will be necessary to fine tune the parameters:
1.

Increase DeGrain Amount to remove more grain, reduce it to remove less. This is a fairly crude way of setting the parameters. Below, there are more advanced controls.

The Foundry

FurnaceCore

34

DEGRAIN Inputs

2.

The easiest way to find the optimal setting for F_DeGrain is to look at what is removed from the image. To do this, change the Output parameter to Grain. This will display the grain that is being subtracted from the original image. If necessary, increase Exaggerate Grain to make it more obvious. Only grain should be visible in this image. If you can see a lot of picture detail, it means the degrainer is working too hard and removing too much of the image, which will lead to a soft result.

3.

The degrainer works by decomposing the image into four levels - Small, Medium, Large and Huge. To set the first level, make sure Process Huge Frequencies is the only Process control checked, and adjust Huge Amount until the image is only just visible. Then, repeat for Large Amount, Medium Amount, and Small Amount. Often, the blue channel will contain more grain than the red and green. This can be checked by viewing the individual colour channels. If this is the case, increase Blue Amount until enough grain is being removed. When you are happy with the settings, make sure you have checked Process Small Frequencies, Process Medium Frequencies, Process Large Frequencies, and Process Huge Frequencies.

4.

5.

Inputs

F_DeGrain has one input: the image to be degrained.

Parameters

The parameters for this plug-in are described below. Original Colour Space - This tells F_DeGrain what colour space the footage was where the grain originated. It makes sure that the grain isn’t exaggerated by any colour space conversions prior to processing. • Cineon

FurnaceCore

The Foundry

Whether to output the degrained image or the grain that was removed.output the result of degraining the source.This is the coarse adjustment control. • Grain . Analyse . Output .When displaying the removed grain.output the grain that was removed from the source. you will see the following warning in the Viewer: The clip from which the grain was analysed has changed. Analysis Region . It is important that this part of the frame contains no image detail.controls the position of the top right corner of the sample region. Press Analyse or move the analysis region to re-analyse grain. only grain. Analysis Region BL . The Foundry FurnaceCore . Analysis Region TR . increase this parameter to make it more visible.DEGRAIN Parameters 35 • sRGB • Linear DeGrain Amount . • Result . Whenever the input clip changes. Press this button if the input clip from which the grain was analysed has changed but you do not want to move the analysis region to trigger re-analysis. Exaggerate Grain .controls the position of the bottom left corner of the sample region. Increasing tune will remove more grain and decreasing it will leave more in.This is a push button which will trigger an analysis of the input clip.The selection box that marks the region of the image used to analyse the grain and to set the internal degraining parameters automatically.

toggle this on if you want the largest scale grain removed.increases or decreases the amount of grain removed in the green channel.increases or decreases the amount of grain removed in the red channel.increases or decreases the amount of huge grain removed. you can remove and process only the large grain leaving the others untouched.The lesser used refinement controls.sets the frame from which the sample rectangle should be taken. Channels . normally you would remove grain throughout the frequency spectrum.toggle this on if you want the large scale grain removed.toggle this on if you want the small scale grain removed. Process Small Frequencies .increases or decreases the amount of medium grain removed.increases or decreases the amount of small grain removed. Red Amount .increases or decreases the amount of large grain removed. Medium Amount . Green Amount .Sets the amount of grain removed from the individual colour channels. FurnaceCore The Foundry . Large Amount . Process Medium Frequencies .36 DEGRAIN Parameters Analysis Frame . Small Amount . Huge Amount .toggle this on if you want the medium scale grain removed. Process Large Frequencies . Advanced . Frequencies .Sets which of the frequencies to process and the amount of grain removed. In other words. Process Huge Frequencies . However.

increases or decreases the amount of grain removed in the blue channel. The Foundry FurnaceCore .DEGRAIN Parameters 37 Blue Amount .

38 DEGRAIN Parameters FurnaceCore The Foundry .

it is very good at removing noise or grain from a sequence. However. the averaged image will be blurred as the image appears at different locations in each frame. If you just have a single frame. This is a powerful wavelet-based spatial noise reducer and is likely to give better results on single images.DENOISE Introduction 39 DENOISE This chapter looks at removing noise or grain using F_DeNoise. it is possible to compensate for any motion and average frames temporally without introducing any blurring artefacts. Colour Space F_DeNoise works best when processing footage in the same colour space that the noise naturally exists in. Introduction F_DeNoise is designed to remove noise or grain from a clip. Converting footage between colour spaces can distort the profile of the The Foundry FurnaceCore . As F_DeNoise is a fully motion compensated noise reducer. Temporal averaging is far superior to averaging pixels from within the same frame (spatial averaging) as it doesn’t soften the image. Unfortunately. you should use the FurnaceCore plug-in F_DeGrain (described on page 31). if there is motion in the sequence. by estimating the motion in the sequence using The Foundry’s advanced motion estimation technology. Assuming there is no motion in a sequence. the best way to reduce the noise is to take an average across a number of frames (temporal averaging). The noise which is different on each frame will be reduced and the picture which is the same will be reinforced.

3. Select Image > Read to load the footage to be noise reduced. and make removing noise more difficult. 5. flat area of the image. Select the Plate Size of your input frame. move the on-screen sample box over a plain area of the image. To remove more noise. This should generally be set to the original colour space of the footage. To get a good result. The output should now show the denoised frame. Select Furnace > F_DeNoise to apply F_DeNoise. it is important that this area is free from image detail. try moving the sample box to a different. You can also remove different amounts of noise from the red. simply increase the DeNoise Amount parameter. 2. 4. or analysing on a different frame. so no textures or edges. green. and blue channels by altering the Red The Foundry FurnaceCore . Plate Size should still be set to 2k. 6. the F_DeNoise plug-in provides the Original Colour Space pop-up menu to allow you to tell the plug-in which colour space the noise originally exists in. do the following: 1. and view the output. In some cases. To set the sample region. Quick Start To remove noise from a sequence. Note that this refers to the original size of the plate so even if you are working on a cropped part of a 2k plate. F_DeNoise works by analysing the grain structure inside the sample region. Because NukeX linearises footage internally. it may be worth experimenting with this to see which gives you the best results. If you are not satisfied with the results. F_DeNoise will reanalyse the grain structure every time the Plate Size parameter is changed or the Analysis Centre is repositioned.40 DENOISE Quick Start noise across the image.

8. rather than the Src clip. check Supress Ringing. so the two resulting images can then be recombined in such a way as to reduce these artefacts. If necessary. Original Colour Space . When a Noise clip is supplied. The output from this will be the noise that has been subtracted from the original image by F_DeNoise. as F_DeNoise will not then have to perform the motion estimation a second time. If the motion in your input sequence has been estimated before and you have the motion vectors available. increase Exaggerate Noise to make the noise easier to see.DENOISE Inputs 41 Amount. you can connect them to the Vecs input. The second pass is designed to give good results in the regions where spurious rings tend to appear in the first pass. Inputs F_DeNoise has three inputs: • The source (Src) clip from which to remove the noise. • An optional motion vector input (Vecs). If ringing artefacts appear around edges. This will save processing time. This way.This tells F_DeNoise what colour The Foundry FurnaceCore . • An optional Noise input. Green Amount. set the Output parameter to Noise. Parameters The parameters for this plug-in are described below. and Blue Amount parameters in the Advanced parameter group. 7. the noise will be analysed in this clip. To view the removed noise. the plug-in will do two separate denoise passes over the image. The Noise clip should have similar noise characteristics to the Src clip and should be used when your Src clip does not contain a suitable flat region on which to do the analysis.

Output . Exaggerate Noise . It makes sure that the noise isn’t exaggerated by any colour space conversions prior to processing. Select PAL or NTSC.42 DENOISE Parameters space the footage was where the noise originated. As you may be processing a cropped region.output the denoised source image. Increase this value to remove more noise. we do not necessarily know this from the image size.The algorithm automatically sets some parameters depending on the expected size of the noise and grain which can be related to the size of the image. 1K. • Result . • Cineon • sRGB • Linear DeNoise Amount .output the noise that was removed from the source image.Switch this on to remove the ringing that can be introduced near to edges in the denoised image. increase this parameter to make it more obvious. 2K.If you have chosen to output the noise.Whether to output the denoised image or the noise that was removed. Suppress Ringing . or 4K depending on the original size of the scan. Press this button if the input clip from which the noise was analysed has changed but you do not want to move the analysis region to trigger re-analysis. • Noise . Analyse .This adjusts the overall amount of noise or grain that is removed. FurnaceCore The Foundry .This is a push button which will trigger an analysis of the input clip. Plate Size .

The Foundry FurnaceCore . Green Amount . in order to improve the noise reduction. Red Amount . Press Analyse or move the analysis region to re-analyse noise. Advanced .These parameters allow you to remove different amounts of noise in each of the colour channels. Blue Amount .The position of the centre of the analysis region. Analysis Centre .The frame to analyse on. Analysis Frame .DENOISE Parameters 43 Whenever the input clip changes.increases or decreases the amount of noise removed in the red channel.These parameters allow you to change the region used to analyse the grain. you will see the following warning in the Viewer: The clip from which the noise was analysed has changed. Analysis Region .increases or decreases the amount of noise removed in the blue channel.increases or decreases the amount of noise removed in the green channel.

44 DENOISE Parameters FurnaceCore The Foundry .

These motion vectors describe how each pixel moves from frame to frame. it is possible to generate an output image at any point in time throughout the sequence by interpolating along the direction of the motion. By default.KRONOS Introduction 45 KRONOS This chapter looks at retiming sequences using F_Kronos. The Foundry FurnaceCore .25 and 0. Introduction F_Kronos is FurnaceCore’s re-timer and is designed to slow down or speed up footage. Figure 13. It works by calculating the motion in the sequence in order to generate motion vectors. Figure 12. F_Kronos is set to perform a half speed slow down.75 between the original frames at 0 and 1. This is achieved by generating a new frame at position 0. Frames are created at a quarter and three quarters instead of zero (an original frame) and a half so as not to include any original frames in the re-timed sequence. This avoids the pulsing that would otherwise be seen on every other frame on a half speed slowdown. With accurate motion vectors. Simple mix of two frames to achieve an inbetween frame. Kronos vector interpolation of the same two frames.

Render the retimed sequence using the default parameter settings. 0. Values below 1 slow down the clip.25. To adjust the slow down or to speed the sequence up. 2. see “Varying the Speed” below. To do so. 3. set Timing to Source Frame.46 KRONOS Quick Start When F_Kronos is used to speed up motion. to slow down a 50 frame clip by half. Select Furnace > F_Kronos to apply F_Kronos and view the output. Go to a frame in the timeline. 5. enter a new value for the Speed control. The default value. Quarter speed would be 0. Alternatively. Values above 1 speed up movement. you can set Frame to 1 at frame 1. do the following: 1. Quick Start To retime a sequence. motion blur will be seen. To create an arbitrarily changing speed for the sequence. F_Kronos contains a number of controls to allow you to trade off render time versus accuracy of vectors. and to 50 at frame 100. If you are not happy with the results.5. 4. created the half speed slow down. For example. the Speed control will be set to perform a half speed slow down. and set Frame to the input frame you want to appear at that output position. “Local Motion Estimation” on page 125. For more information on vectors and local motion estimation in general. you can describe the retiming in terms of ‘at frame 100 in the output clip. Select Image > Read to load the sequence you wish to retime. The Foundry FurnaceCore . By default. adjust the Vector Generation Parameters described under “Local Motion Estimation” on page 125. You’ll need to set at least two key frames for this to retime the clip. I want to see frame 50 of the source clip‘.

and set Frame to 5. you can create an arbitrarily changing speed for the sequence.If supplied. For example. From the animation menu next to the Frame parameter. In that case. In the F_Kronos controls. choose Source Frame as the Timing method. I want to see frame 50 of the source clip‘. do the following: 1. Animate the Frame parameter. By using the Curve Editor to adjust this curve. motion vectors will be calculated from this sequence and applied to the input sequence. move to frame 19.KRONOS Inputs 47 Varying the Speed To vary the speed in your sequence. This can improve the motion estimation by reducing the dragging of pixels that can occur between foreground and background objects. You should now have a linear time curve. This allows you to describe the retiming in terms of ‘at frame 100 in the output clip. move to frame 1 and set Frame to 1.This sequence will be used as a foreground matte. FurnaceCore The Foundry . 2. • Motion Source (MoSrc) . select Set key from the animation menu. select Set key. Select an output frame from the timeline and set Frame to the input frame you want to appear at that output position. for example. to do a four times slow down. as too much noise interferes with the motion estimation. Instead of animating the Frame parameter.The source image to retime. A key frame is set automatically. Move to another frame on the timeline and set Frame to the input frame you want to appear at that position. your input sequence is very noisy. you should supply a smoothed version of the sequence here. and animate the Speed parameter. which you can see if you select Curve editor from the animation menu next to Frame. you can also switch Timing to Speed. • Matte . This can be useful if. Inputs F_Kronos has the following inputs: • Source (Src) .

and let F_Kronos generate the motion vectors. In this case. • Nearest Frame .the nearest original frame is displayed.a mix between two frames is used for the inbetween frame. Method . you should also supply the foreground matte sequence used to create the vectors as the Matte input.If the motion in your input sequence has been estimated before (for example. you can supply one or more vector sequences to F_Kronos.Sets how to control the new timing of the clip. you can connect it into either the Background Vectors or Foreground Vectors input. If your vectors were calculated using a foreground matte. as F_Kronos will not then have to perform the motion estimation a second time. FurnaceCore The Foundry . • Motion Estimation . you can ignore the vector inputs. • Frame Blending .vector interpolation is used to calculate the in-between frame.48 KRONOS Parameters • Background Vectors (BgVec) and Foreground Vectors (FgVec) . This will save processing time. This is quick to render and useful when tweaking the timing on the curve before setting Method to Motion Estimation. Timing . using F_VectorGenerator) and you have the motion vectors available. If you have no precalculated vectors.Sets the interpolation algorithm. you should supply the background and foreground vector sequences as Background Vectors and Foreground Vectors respectively. If you have a single set of vectors. Parameters The parameters for this plug-in are described below.

This parameter is only active if Timing is set to Speed. set this value to 0. Values above 1 speed up movement. A value of 0.25. I want to see frame 50 of the source clip‘. i. Use this to specify the source frame at the current frame in the timeline. the greater the processing time. Speed . to slow down a 50 frame clip by half set the Source Frame to 1 at frame 1 and the Source Frame to 50 at frame 100.KRONOS Parameters 49 • Speed . The larger vector detail is. Quarter speed would be 0.Adjust this to vary the density of the vector field. Vector Detail . For example.select this if you wish to describe the retiming in terms of ‘at frame 100 in the output clip. double speed will halve the duration of the clip or half speed will double the duration of the clip. For some sequences.5 will generate a vector at every other pixel. The default expression will result in a half-speed retime.e. Smoothness . and often a low value is more appropriate. • Source Frame . Frame .5. Values below 1 slow down the clip.This parameter is active only if Timing is set to Source Frame. For example. to slow down the clip by a factor of two (half speed).Vector fields usually have two important qualities: they should accurately match similar pixels in one image to another and they should be smooth rather than The Foundry FurnaceCore .select this if you wish to describe the retiming in terms of overall duration. a high vector detail near 1. A value of 1.0 generates too much unwanted local motion detail.0 will generate a vector at each pixel. You’ll need to set at least 2 key frames for this to retime the clip. but the more detailed the vectors should be.

Figure 15.Sets the equivalent shutter time of the retimed sequence. Imagine a grey rectangle moving left to right horizontally across the screen. Shutter Time 1. A shutter time of 1 is equivalent to averaging over plus and minus half an input frame which is equivalent to a shutter angle of 360 degrees. A shutter time of 0. Shutter .5.50 KRONOS Parameters noisy. Figure 14 and Figure 15 show how Shutter Time affects the retimed rectangle. Shutter Time . Figure 14. A high smoothness will miss lots of local detail. FurnaceCore The Foundry . it is necessary to trade one of these qualities off against the other.5 is equivalent to a shutter angle of 180 degrees.5 should work well for most sequences. but is less likely to provide you with the odd spurious vector (think of it as if the vectors were combed until they are smooth with respect to their neighbours). even if the resulting field is jagged. The default value of 0. Often. A low smoothness will concentrate on detail matching.Controls for adjusting the shutter time and the smoothness of the motion blur. Shutter Time 0.

and black areas The Foundry FurnaceCore . This is on by default. Shutter Samples 2. Output .The Matte input can be used to help the motion estimation algorithm understand what is foreground and background in the image so that the dragging of pixels between overlapping objects can be reduced. Figure 17.KRONOS Parameters 51 Shutter Samples .displays the retimed foreground .Automatically varies the Shutter Time throughout the sequence. Increase this value for smoother motion blur.the background regions outside the matte input may show garbage. Figure 16. White areas of the matte are considered to be foreground. • Result .displays the retimed background . Automatic Shutter Time .Sets the final output display for the re-timed image. • Matte . • Foreground .the foreground regions inside the matte input may show garbage. Shutter Samples 20. Selecting anything other than Result is only useful when a Matte Component is used. • Background .Sets the number of in-between images used to create an output image during the shutter time.displays the retimed Source image. Matte Component .displays the retimed Matte input.

a large block size can produce data that’s lacking in detail.use the inverted luminance of the matte input.52 KRONOS Parameters background. • Matte Inverted Luminance . causing the motion estimation to concentrate on the background motion and ignore the small feature.To find where a certain pixel is located in the analysis range.use the inverted alpha of the source input.The lesser used refinement controls. • Matte Luminance . Grey areas are used to attenuate between foreground and background.use the alpha of the matte input. the vector generation algorithm looks for a block of pixels centered around that pixel. • Matte Alpha . Advanced .use the luminance of the matte input.don’t mask. On rare occasions. • None . Block size defines the width and height of these blocks (in pixels). as there aren’t enough constraints in a small block to fit the motion accurately. Therefore. and the smoothing step of the algorithm ensures the motion field isn’t too noisy. • Src Inverted Alpha . A small value. this parameter controls how the pixel values in the matte are used to do the masking. however.use the inverted alpha of the matte input. the default value is small enough so that details aren’t lost. In most cases. • Matte Inverted Alpha . instead. Block Size . this value very rarely needs editing. • Src Alpha . When the matte input is filled with an appropriate clip. This is because a small feature can fit into a large block. FurnaceCore The Foundry . can produce a noisy motion field.use the alpha of the source input.

if you have a problem sequence that looks too ’broken up’ in the retime. • Extreme . This generates highly smooth vector fields (as if the vectors were combed several times with a fine-toothed comb). It attempts to reduce the level of background dragging that occurs between foreground and background objects. • Simple .this is the standard option.This option is similar to Occlusions.Sets how to control the new timing of the clip. Filtering . • Sharp Occlusions . • Occlusions .this is an advanced option that can improve the results when not doing a separated picture build with multiple vector sequences and mattes.uses a sinc interpolation filter to give a sharper picture but takes a lot longer to render. However. with more optimal treatment of moving objects and image edges. The Foundry FurnaceCore .use bilinear interpolation which gives good results and is a lot quicker than Extreme.this is the quickest option. but may also sacrifice a lot of required detail.This is a computationally intensive smoothing operation that performs a different vectorsmoothing operation to normal.Sets the quality of filtering when producing inbetween frames.KRONOS Parameters 53 Over smooth . this level of smoothing isn’t necessary. you may want to toggle Over smooth on. In most cases. • Normal . but produces fewer artifacts where the vector fields are generated from 3D CG sources. Warp Mode . but may produce less than optimal results around moving objects and image edges. • Normal .

using monochrome images.that is. at the cost of the rest of the items in a shot.for example a highlight moving across the bodywork of a car . Tolerances . Weight Red Weight Green Weight Blue FurnaceCore The Foundry .For efficiency. much of the LME is done on luminance only . The luminance of a shot can come from other sources too . for example.Switch this on to display the vectors on the screen. Where brightness varies rapidly . Luminance Correct .such as an overall flicker problem. However. The tolerances allow you to tune the weight of each colour channel when calculating the image luminance. These parameters rarely need tuning. wish to increase the red weighting Weight Red to allow the algorithm to concentrate on getting the motion of a primarily red object correct. you may.LME is highly dependent upon the idea that the brightness of objects doesn’t vary through a sequence. toggling this control on will allow the LME algorithm to take account of overall brightness changes between frames.54 KRONOS Parameters Show Vectors .the motion calculation will perform poorly. In these cases where there is a global luminance shift.

of course. Figure 18. Reference image. The Foundry FurnaceCore . You can. you will inevitably get colour and luminance differences that will have to be corrected if the sequences are to be composited or edited together. Figure 19. F_MatchGrade does it all for you by automatically modifying the colour histogram of an image to match a reference image. use colour correction tools and trial and error to try and match the clips. When filming outside at different times of the day. This plug-in can also be used to boost desaturated images.MATCHGRADE Introduction 55 MATCHGRADE This chapter looks at automatic colour matching using F_MatchGrade. Source image. But this tends to be timeconsuming and requires some considerable skill. Introduction It is often necessary to match the colours of one clip with those of another.

the transformation is temporally uniform. Quick Start To match the colours of one clip with those of another. 3. if you want the colour transfer to update according to the current frame of the source and target clips. do the following: 1. try increasing Iterations. load the clip whose colours you want to match (reference clip). 4. F_MatchGrade calculates the transform needed to match the source image frame to the target image frame. you can set the Source Colour From and Target Colour From parameters to Current Frame. View the output which should now match the look of the Target input. and the reference clip to the Target input. More iterations should produce a better match but will take longer. If the match isn’t close enough. 2.56 MATCHGRADE Quick Start Figure 20. and applies this transform to every frame of the source sequence. This increases the number of refinement passes. However. Select Image > Read to load the clip whose colours you want to change (source clip). Then. This way. 5. Output image. Connect the source clip to F_MatchGrade’s Apply To input. If you have already spent some time on a specific frame to FurnaceCore The Foundry . Select Furnace > F_MatchGrade. By default.

this transform will make each frame of the Apply To sequence match the Target input. F_MatchGrade will calculate the transform that matches the Colour input to the Target input. Iterations . F_MatchGrade will calculate the transform needed to match the Colour frame to the Target frame. Parameters The parameters for this plug-in are described below. Connect the single original frame to the source colour (Colour) input. Advanced . do the following: 1. If only the first two inputs are supplied. The Foundry FurnaceCore . Connect the clip whose colours you want to adjust to F_MatchGrade’s Apply To input. Apply To input. and then apply that transform to each frame of the Apply To sequence. is supplied. Target input. is the sequence whose colours F_MatchGrade will try to match.The number of refinement passes. and apply this transform to every frame of the Apply To sequence. Colour input. Inputs F_MatchGrade has three inputs: • The first.the lesser used refinement controls. is the sequence to which a colour transform will be applied.MATCHGRADE Inputs 57 make it look right and want to apply the same colour transform to the rest of the clip. and the modified frame to the target colour (Target) input. • If a third. More iterations should produce a better match but will take longer. • The second. 2.

Target Colour From . By default. FurnaceCore The Foundry . this is set to frame 0. You can specify this frame using the Source Frame parameter below. This parameter is only available if a Source input is connected. which means frame 1 in NukeX.58 MATCHGRADE Parameters Source Colour From .sets how the target clip is used to calculate the colour transformation. This is the default. This is the default. By default. which means frame 1 in NukeX. this is set to frame 0. • Current Frame .the colour transformation is calculated so that it updates according to the frames in the target clip. • Specified Frame . This parameter is only available if a Source input is connected.sets how the source clip is used to calculate the colour transformation. • Current Frame . You can specify this frame using the Target Frame parameter below. Target Frame .the colour transformation is calculated using a single frame from the target clip.sets the target clip frame that is used to calculate the colour transformation.sets the source clip frame that is used to calculate the colour transformation. • Specified Frame .the colour transformation is calculated so that it updates according to the frames in the source clip.the colour transformation is calculated using a single frame from the source clip. Source Frame .

Select Image > Read to load the clip you want to add motion blur to. or a large temporal range (that is. if you need precise control over the motion vectors used for adding blur. View its output. Before F_MotionBlur. do the following: 1. a very high shutter time). 2. Introduction F_MotionBlur uses the Foundry’s advanced motion estimation technology to add realistic motion blur to a sequence. However. Quick Start To add motion blur to a sequence. F_MotionBlur uses the same techniques and technology as the motion blur found in F_Kronos (see “Kronos” on page 45). The Foundry FurnaceCore . Figure 21. Select Furnace > F_MotionBlur to apply F_MotionBlur. Figure 22.MOTIONBLUR Introduction 59 MOTIONBLUR This chapter looks at adding motion blur using F_MotionBlur. you should use F_Kronos. After F_MotionBlur. but presents the controls in a less complex. more user friendly way.

4. Shutter Samples = 4. Figure 25. If you can see that the motion blur has been created from a few discreet images. depending on the amount of blur you wish to add. FurnaceCore The Foundry . try increasing Shutter Samples. A high Shutter Time value. This will result in more in-between images being used to generate the motion blur and so result in a smoother blur. A low Shutter Time.60 MOTIONBLUR Quick Start 3. 5. Figure 26. Figure 23. Render the sequence to see the motion blurred result. Select a suitable Shutter Time. Shutter Samples = 2. Figure 24.

This will force the motion of the foreground to be calculated separately to the motion of the background and so should produce less artefacts in the motion blur. you can do the following: 1. Use Matte Component to select which component of the matte to use. • In addition. • Matte is an optional matte of the foreground to help improve the motion blur at foreground/background boundaries. 2. the motion estimation is likely to get confused at the edge between the two. Inputs F_MotionBlur has four inputs: • Src is the sequence to add motion blur to. If your sequence is composed of a foreground object moving over a background. You can generate precalculated motion vectors using F_VectorGenerator (see “VectorGenerator” on page 95) or third-party software. The Foundry FurnaceCore . To fix this. Add a matte of the foreground region to the Matte input. Background Vectors (BgVec) and Foreground Vectors (FgVec). Shutter Samples = 30.MOTIONBLUR Inputs 61 Figure 27. Shutter Samples = 8. you can supply pre-calculated motion vectors to the vector inputs. Figure 28.

Sets the number of in-between images used to create an output image during the shutter time. you should connect them to the appropriate inputs and supply the matte that was used to generate them to the Matte input. If you have a single set of vectors.Sets the equivalent shutter time of the retimed sequence. A shutter time of 0. A shutter time of 1 is equivalent to averaging over plus and minus half an input frame which is equivalent to a shutter angle of 360 degrees. Figure 29 and Figure 30 show how Shutter Time affects the retimed rectangle.5 is equivalent to a shutter angle of 180 degrees. Shutter Time 1.5. Parameters The parameters for this plug-in are described below. Imagine a grey rectangle moving left to right horizontally across the screen. Shutter Samples . Shutter Time 0. Figure 29.62 MOTIONBLUR Parameters If you have separate vectors for the background and foreground. Shutter Time . Figure 30. you can connect it to either of the vector inputs. FurnaceCore The Foundry .

• None . • Matte Luminance . The larger vector detail is. A value of 1. Figure 31.use the luminance of the Matte input. • Matte Alpha . For some sequences. the greater the processing time. Matte Component .don’t use a matte.What to use as the (optional) foreground matte for the motion estimation.use the inverted luminance of the Matte input. • Matte Inverted Alpha . but the more detailed the vectors should be.use the inverted alpha of the source input.MOTIONBLUR Parameters 63 Increase this value for smoother motion blur. a high vector detail near 1.0 generates too much unwanted local motion detail. Shutter Samples 2. Shutter Samples 20. • Src Inverted Alpha .use the inverted alpha of the Matte input.Adjust this to vary the density of the vector field. • Src Alpha . Figure 32.0 will generate a vector at each pixel.5 will generate a vector at every other pixel. Vector Detail .use the alpha of the source input. and often a low value is more appropriate. The Foundry FurnaceCore . • Matte Inverted Luminance . A value of 0.use the alpha of the Matte input.

64 MOTIONBLUR Parameters FurnaceCore The Foundry .

Figure 35 is a sample from Kodak 500 film stock The Foundry FurnaceCore . It has been designed to sample an area of grain from one image and then to generate unlimited amounts of this grain with exactly the same statistics as the original. Figure 34. Figure 33 shows an enlarged and exaggerated sample of grain from Kodak 320 film stock. Kodak 320. Figure 33. F_ReGrain. This new grain can then be applied to another image. F_ReGrain was used to sample the original Kodak 320 stock and synthesize a plate of grain. The result is shown in Figure 34. Note that the grain characteristics closely match the original. Introduction F_ReGrain is used to add grain to a sequence.REGRAIN Introduction 65 REGRAIN This chapter looks at adding grain to sequences using F_ReGrain. Similarly.

F_ReGrain. Kodak 500. There is a menu in the Response section of the F_ReGrain controls which allows you to match or override this. Figure 35. this would most likely be sRGB. For example. It defaults to applying the grain in the same space as the sample. which are in sRGB. if you are sampling grain from your own plate. Figure 36. so the sample isn’t distorted.66 REGRAIN Colour Space and Figure 36 shows this replicated using F_ReGrain. F_ReGrain will automatically set the right colour space when using one of the pre-sampled grain clips. This is accomplished by setting the Grain Colour Space menu in the F_ReGrain controls to the right space. and by default. FurnaceCore The Foundry . you would want to set this to Cineon. if you were sampling grain from a film scan. F_ReGrain also works best when applying grain in the same colour space that the sampled grain originally existed. If you had footage from a digital video camera. Colour Space Because colour space transformations can distort the look of grain. NukeX converts your footage to linear. you need to make sure you tell the plug-in what space the plate was in originally.

Then. The better this initial selection. Connect the sequence that you want to have grain to F_ReGrain’s source (Src) input. Select Image > Read to load the sequence you want to add grain to. then try other frames from the same film stock. Then. (See “Proxy Resolutions” on page 71. You should avoid any image detail or even a plain area that has luminance variations underneath the grain. Make sure you are working at full resolution and not proxy resolution. The default size of the sample area should be enough to gather information about the grain characteristics of your image. See Figure 37. load the image you want to sample grain from. F_ReGrain will not work at proxy resolution. connect the sequence you want to sample grain from to the Grain input. The Foundry FurnaceCore . If you can’t find a decent sample area on the current frame.) Select Furnace > F_ReGrain. 2. View the output from F_ReGrain. you may need to 3. the better the result will be. Position the on-screen sample region over an area of the Grain sequence just containing grain and no picture detail.REGRAIN Quick Start 67 Quick Start Adding Sampled Grain To add grain to a sequence. 5. Set Grain Type to From Grain Clip. 4. do the following: 1. However. It is important to get your selection right. 6.

It helps to view the Grain input while editing the parameters of F_ReGrain. The output will now contain the Src image with grain from the Grain image applied. Figure 37. If the sample area you select is too small. This shows two possible selection regions that contain no edge detail and little luminance variation. (See “Proxy Resolutions” on page 71.68 REGRAIN Quick Start change its size and shape to fit over a plain area free of image detail. you will see a warning message which prompts you to select a larger region. The grain is sampled on a single frame which is set when you adjust the sample area (or by manual adjustment of the Analysis Frame parameter). View the output of F_ReGrain to judge the results. Although it is sampled on only FurnaceCore The Foundry .) 7. Warning! There is a minimum size of this sample area below which the statistical analysis of the grain will be unreliable. Both the size and the luminance of the new grain can be manually tweaked using Grain Size and Grain Amount respectively.

Select Image > Read to load the sequence you want to add grain to. (See “Proxy Resolutions” on page 71. F_ReGrain will not work at proxy resolution. 6. 4K. Try the different grain types using the Preset Stock menu. you can also select from a variety of pre-sampled. aperture corrected. Response In its default setting.) Select Furnace > F_ReGrain. Using Pre-Sampled. the algorithmically created grain will change from frame to frame but mirror the characteristics of the sample grain. Various parameters in the Grain Response group allow you to adjust how the amount of grain added varies with luminance: • Pressing Sample Grain Response will cause the variation of the amount of grain with luminance to be calculated from the Grain input. Do the following: 1. Connect the sequence that you want to have grain to F_ReGrain’s source (Src) input. 4. F_ReGrain adds the same amount of grain over the whole image. the amount of grain on an image is normally a function of luminance. Individual colour channels can be selected and adjusted using the Advanced parameters. and non aperture corrected stocks are included. 5.REGRAIN Response 69 one frame. Make sure you are working at full resolution and not proxy resolution. Standard Grain Types If you don’t have an image to sample grain from. However. 2K. and switching on Use Sampled Response will apply these curves to the grain added to the Src sequence. FurnaceCore The Foundry . 3. Set Grain Type to Preset Stock. 2. standard grain types.

midtones and highlights of the image can be adjusted using the Low Gain. This generates a sheet of grain with the same luminance level as the mean of the sample region. • The amount of grain added to the lowlights. The x axis represents luminance and the y axis the amount of grain. switch on Draw Response. Mid Gain and High Gain parameters. This shows an example of the grain reponse with luminance. set Output to Grain Plate. The effect of adjusting these can also be seen on the response curves. Figure 38. Figure 39 shows a good selection area giving a good test FurnaceCore The Foundry . The sample region with the original grain is also displayed. It should be impossible to differentiate between the two regions. an example is shown in Figure 38.70 REGRAIN Checking the Result • To view the sampled response curves. Checking the Result To test that the new grain is the same as the old grain.

. . . Figure 39.. Figure 42 shows the resulting test plate which clearly highlights the problem.producing a good test plate of grain. Figure 41.producing a poor result. Good selection area. and making this area larger may drag in unwanted detail from the FurnaceCore The Foundry ..REGRAIN Proxy Resolutions 71 plate of grain in Figure 40... Proxy Resolutions Grain manipulation at proxy resolution should be avoided as the results are unreliable. The grain selection area may be too small at proxy resolution to give a good result. Bad selection area... free of artefacts. Figure 40. Figure 42.. Figure 41 shows a poor selection area since it contains image detail.

If you try to use F_ReGrain at proxy resolution. which is about 37x37 at base resolution. If the box you select is smaller. You can. We decided that this was preferable behaviour to doing poor grain replication at proxy resolution. • The Grain is the image from which grain will be sampled. When a Grain input is supplied. the supplied grain stocks are still available. you will get this warning along the top of the viewer: Sample box is too small . FurnaceCore The Foundry . There is a minimum size for the selection box. the plug-in will automatically switch to using grain sampled from this input.72 REGRAIN Inputs image. Inputs F_ReGrain has two inputs: • The source (Src) is the image to which the grain will be added.Selects whether the grain is sampled from the Grain image (From Grain Clip) or from a set of standard stocks. However. of course. Parameters The parameters for this plug-in are described below: Grain Type . we simply pass the image through untouched and issue the following warning: Cannot work at proxy scale. crop the input clip and work with that rather than the proxy.please select a larger sample of the grain.

• From Grain Clip . non aperture corrected. Preset Stock . Analyse . This test image is composed from a section of the input image surrounded by a uniform solid colour sampled from the image with the grain applied (Figure 42 on page 71). Grain Amount . Common Fuji and Kodak stocks are supplied.Adjusts the brightness of the grain. aperture corrected and non aperture corrected stocks are supplied. Grain Size . if left blank. Although standard stocks are included. If the inner area is indistinguishable from the outer area. then you have a good grain sample (Figure 40 on page 71).REGRAIN Parameters 73 • Preset Stock .The film stock the grain characteristics are sampled from when Grain Type has been set to Preset Stock. • Result . Setting this to 0 means no grain is added. or. it is recommended where possible that you sample from the film stock you are trying to match.shows the Source image with the grain applied. FUJIF500 2K refers to the grain characteristics sampled from a 2K plate of Fuji Film 500 film stock non aperture corrected. The size is either 2K or 4K pixels. • Grain Plate . 4K.shows a test image with the grain applied.grain characteristics are sampled from a supplied film stock.samples and reconstructs the grain characteristics from the Grain input.This is a push button which will trigger an analysis The Foundry FurnaceCore . For example. 2K. The larger the value. over.Sets whether to render the result or a test image. the bigger and softer the granules.Adjusts the size of the grain granules. The exposure can be under. Output .

Grain Colour Space . you will see the following warning in the Viewer: The clip from which the grain was analysed has changed. Analysis Region TR . Red Amount .sets the brightness of the grain in the red channel. Analysis Frame .74 REGRAIN Parameters of the input clip. Press Analyse or move the analysis region to re-analyse grain.) Analysis Region BL .This tells F_ReGrain what colour space the grain sample clip was in when the grain originated. • Cineon • sRGB • Linear Advanced . FurnaceCore The Foundry . Press this button if the input clip from which the grain was analysed has changed but you do not want to move the analysis region to trigger re-analysis. This part of the frame must contain no image detail.A selection box that marks the region of image used to analyse the grain when Grain Type is set to From Grain Clip.sets the frame to sample the grain from. Setting this correctly ensures that the grain is not exaggerated by any colour space conversions prior to sampling. (Figure 39 on page 71.controls the position of the bottom left corner of the analysis region.The parameters under Advanced allow detailed adjustment of the grain.Switch this on to process the red channel.controls the position of the top right corner of the analysis region. only grain. Process Red . Whenever the input clip changes. Analysis Region .

Mid Gain . Process Green . Green Size .adjusts the gain of the grain in the lowlights.This controls what colour space the grain sample is re-applied to the image. The Foundry FurnaceCore . Process Blue .adjusts the gain of the grain in the midtones. Apply Grain In .Switch this on to process the blue channel. Blue Amount . Grain Response . Low Gain .REGRAIN Parameters 75 Red Size . this should be set to Grain Colour Space to ensure the most accurate recreation.adjusts the gain of the grain in the highlights. • Cineon / sRGB / Linear .The parameters under Grain Response allow the amount of grain added to be varied as a function of the image luminance. Generally. Green Amount . High Gain . Blue Size .The grain sample will be applied in the specified space. You may want to override this though for some looks or special cases.adjusts the size of the grain granules in the green channel.adjusts the size of the grain granules in the red channel.sets the brightness of the grain in the blue channel.The Grain sample will be applied in the colour space set in the Grain Colour Space menu. • Grain Colour Space . in the Grain Sample section.Switch this on to process the green channel.sets the brightness of the grain in the green channel.adjusts the size of the grain granules in the blue channel.

press this to update the response curves from the current frame. Reset Grain Response . at 0. they have no effect on the output.this control is usually set to 1.press this to reset the grain curves to their default (flat) response. This parameter is only available if Use Sampled Response is on. Sampled Response Mix . This parameter is only available if Use Sampled Response is on.76 REGRAIN Parameters Use Sampled Response . FurnaceCore The Foundry . Multiple presses accumulate the grain response rather than resetting every time. Sample Grain Response . Decreasing it reduces the effect of the response curves until. This parameter is only available if Use Sampled Response is on.overlays the response curves on the bottom left corner of the viewer. Draw Response . This parameter is only available if Use Sampled Response is on.switch this on to scale the brightness of the grain as a function of the luminance of the Grain image.

The plugin will only work satisfactorily if it is possible to model the background motion by a global 3D transform. Before with taxi. Figure 43. Figure 46. After applying F_RigRemoval. Introduction In this context. if the background contains multiple objects moving in different FurnaceCore The Foundry . After applying F_RigRemoval. For example. Before with bird. Figure 45. Figure 44. we define a rig as a foreground element in a sequence that moves over a background element.RIGREMOVAL Introduction 77 RIGREMOVAL This chapter looks at the removal of unwanted objects (rigs) from image sequences without accurate rotoscoping or keying to produce a clean plate.

However. set Rig Region to Src Alpha. the results will be poor. and then using the motion information to look forward and backward in the sequence in order to find the correct piece of background to fill in the missing region. • You can use the on-screen rectangle to define the area to be repaired. View the output of F_RigRemoval. 2. • Using F_RigRemoval’s RigMask input. To use this matte. define the area that will be repaired. To do so. To do so. Select Furnace > F_RigRemoval and connect your image sequence to F_RigRemoval’s Src input. this plug-in should make the process quicker and easier. The rig removal algorithm works by estimating the background motion between successive frames. good results will only be achieved in situations where a skilled artist could generate. On each frame. The Foundry 3. Select Image > Read to load the sequence with an unwanted object. then you can use that alpha to define the area to be repaired. Typically. Quick Start To remove an unwanted object from an image sequence. a clean plate in order to repair the sequence. do the following: 1. The size of the missing region and the speed of the background dictate how far away from the current frame it is necessary to search to find the correct information. You can do this in the following three ways: • If the image sequence has an embedded alpha channel. and track in. set Rig Region to Box. Position the on-screen rectangle on top of the unwanted object. ignoring the foreground object. set Rig Region to Rig Mask Alpha (or one of the other Rig Mask options).78 RIGREMOVAL Quick Start directions. you can feed in a matte sequence to define the area to be repaired. FurnaceCore .

However. A new key frame is set automatically. Subsequent frames will be much quicker. gathers pixels from other frames and improves the 5. select Set key from the animation menus next to Rig Region BL and Rig Region TR in the Rig Region Box parameter group. The Foundry FurnaceCore . Repeat as necessary until the rectangle covers the object on every frame you want to remove the object from. If it has not been possible to replace all the foreground pixels. Try to adjust Frame Range until no red pixels are visible and then render the sequence.RIGREMOVAL Quick Start 79 To key-frame the position to follow the object. set Frame Range to the number of frames that the plug-in needs to analyse forwards and backwards to find enough data to repair the sequence. Move to a new frame and reposition the on-screen rectangle. and Frame Range is set to zero. but just a rough outline. either because Frame Range was set too low or the background information does not exist anywhere within the sequence. Increasing this value. the pixels will be displayed in red. the region does not need to be the exact foreground region. as shown in Figure 48. In Figure 47. we are using a box to define the pixels to replace. Having defined the region to repair throughout the clip. Whichever method you choose. this will be quite time consuming as the algorithm needs to estimate the motion between each pair of frames. On the first frame. you should avoid making it unnecessarily large as this will increase rendering time. 4.

Figure 49. View the results. Frame Range = 3. Original image. Frame Range = 0. animate the rectangular region over the foreground object you’re trying FurnaceCore The Foundry . Tip F_RigRemoval is fairly slow to process. Figure 48. Sometimes. the easiest way to adjust the region is to load up F_RigRemoval. Then. Figure 47. The output of F_RigRemoval. which can make the initial keyframing of the rectangular region frustrating. and to view the source so the effect is not processed. Figure 50. you’d need a Frame Range value of 5. To completely remove the red pixels. 6.80 RIGREMOVAL Quick Start result. but the parameters are visible.

When you’re happy with the region position. it is possible to mark regions of the image as not to be used for repair by setting their alpha value to mid grey. Therefore. If there is another foreground object in the sequence that moves through the background region that is being used in the repair. Slowly increase the Frame Range parameter until the whole region is repaired.RIGREMOVAL Quick Start 81 to remove throughout the sequence. click back onto F_RigRemoval’s output and wait for it to update. Note F_RigRemoval uses frames from a wide range around the current frame. as the second F_RigRemoval node will require the first F_RigRemoval node to calculate all its frames before passing the result on. Feeding the output of one F_RigRemoval node into another will greatly increase the memory over head. Occlusions The algorithm used in F_RigRemoval is unable to differentiate between multiple foreground objects. we are trying to remove the woman in the centre of the screen as she walks from left to right down the street. it is strongly recommended that you process out the first result and then use the processed result with the second F_RigRemoval node. then check the output on other frames. This will ensure that spurious bits of other foreground objects do not appear in the repair. At this frame. To try and assist in these situations. a man walks in the opposite direction The Foundry FurnaceCore . resulting in an incorrect repair. In Figure 51. this second foreground object will also be cut up and used.

Figure 51. The output. The normal matte. Note that the man’s head interferes with the repair and the reconstruction of the pavement is particularly bad. Note that the repair on the pavement is improved. Figure 52 shows the normal matte for the woman. probably due to the man becoming the dominant motion source. Figure 53. we can adapt the matte to include a mid grey area over the man. and the result is shown in Figure 55. and Figure 53 shows the result of using this in F_RigRemoval.82 RIGREMOVAL Quick Start and her feet and his head overlap. To fix this. and the man is FurnaceCore The Foundry . This matte is shown in Figure 54. Original shot. Figure 52. This tells the rig removal algorithm to ignore that area in the repair.

repair the region defined by the inverted alpha of the source input. The matte with a midgrey area.RIGREMOVAL Inputs 83 simply clipped rather than being used in the repair. The Foundry FurnaceCore . Inputs F_RigRemoval has two inputs: • The source (Src) image with the unwanted object (rig). • Src Alpha . Figure 55. The output. • Src Inverted Alpha .Defines the area to repair. • The optional RigMask to designate the rig area to be removed. Rig Region .repair the area inside a rectangular box. Figure 54. The source may contain an alpha channel to define the rig area. Parameters The parameters for this plug-in are described below. controlled by the box parameters below or the on-screen box. • Box .repair the region defined by the alpha of the source input.

Frames Searched .use every fourth frame in the searched frame range to construct the repair. the rendering time can be prohibitive. • RigMask Alpha . or in both directions to find missing data. However. • Half of Frames . this may reduce the quality of the result. Frames Used in Range can speed up the repair by not using every frame to fill the foreground region. • RigMask Inverted Alpha . • Backward . effectively skipping frames. • Forward .use every frame in the searched frame range to construct the repair.searches before and after the current frame. If you are getting red pixels.If Frame Range has to be set to a large number to make an effective repair.Sets the number of frames the algorithm should look forwards and backwards in the sequence to find the missing data.84 RIGREMOVAL Parameters • RigMask Luminance . • Quarter of Frames . Frames Used in Range .repair the region defined by the luminance of the Rig Mask input.repair the region defined by the inverted luminance of the Rig Mask input.repair the region defined by the inverted alpha of the Rig Mask input. • Forward and Backward .searches frames after the current frame. backwards. then increase this value. Frame Range . • All Frames .use every other frame in the searched frame range to construct the repair. See Figure 48 on page 80. FurnaceCore The Foundry .repair the region defined by the alpha of the Rig Mask input.searches frames before the current frame.Sets whether to search forwards. • RigMask Inverted Luminance .

This gives the best results but takes longer to process. Advanced . Rig Region TR .RIGREMOVAL Parameters 85 • 10% of Frames .uses a bilinear filter. high values can introduce perspective problems. However. Rig Region Box .The rectangular area used to define the repair when Rig Region is set to Box.use every tenth frame in the searched frame range to construct the repair. This gives good results and is quicker to render than high filtering. F_RigRemoval searches for the missing data inside an area immediately around the rig region.controls the position of the top right corner of the rig region.controls the position of the bottom left corner of the rig region. because the area used for the repair may be from a different part of the image. The Foundry FurnaceCore .Switch this on to correct for luminance changes from information taken from other frames.low quality but quick to render. • Max 25 Frames . • Medium .use no more than 25 frames from the searched frame range to construct the repair. • High .Sets the filtering quality. Fast movement in the Src footage requires a higher value than slow movement. Max Rig Movement . This option can be useful if Frame Range has been set to a very large number.To avoid perspective changes. Rig Region BL . • Low . Max Rig Movement defines the width of this area (in pixels). Luminance Correct . Filtering .uses a sinc filter to interpolate pixels giving a sharper repair.The lesser used refinement controls.

Preserve Alpha . Overlap Correct . Repair Fail Marker Opacity . this is switched off. FurnaceCore The Foundry .Switch this on to correct for minor perspective changes.Sets the level of transparency of the red pixels used to show where the repair has failed.The repair is built up using slices of information from other frames in the sequence. Increasing this parameter too much will degrade image sharpness. This parameter controls how much the regions overlap. and the alpha channel is set to white where the repair has failed and black everywhere else.86 RIGREMOVAL Parameters This is particularly important if the lighting changes throughout the sequence. Perspective Correct . By default.Switch this on to preserve the original alpha channel. These slices can be overlapped and blended to give a more natural looking repair.

Use this to completely remove camera motion from the sequence. In lock mode. each frame in the clip must share a substantial amount of the scene with the lock frame. Without having performed an analysis pass. Use this to keep the overall camera motion. This analysis is done when you press Analyse in the F_Steadiness controls. Lock . These are: 1.A range of frames around each frame is analysed for motion and an average of that motion used to calculate the corner pin.STEADINESS Introduction 87 STEADINESS This chapter looks at how to stabilise a shot using F_Steadiness. F_Steadiness will not do anything useful on render. so you can’t lock each frame in a 360 degree pan to the first one. During the analysis. Introduction F_Steadiness uses Global Motion Estimation (GME) to calculate a four-corner pin. because F_Steadiness is only working on a small window of frames around the current frame.A lock frame is specified and steadiness attempts to register each individual frame to that lock frame. F_Steadiness needs to analyse the input clip before it can render useful output. in smooth mode. you can The Foundry FurnaceCore . However. so that camera motion within a single shot can be smoothed out over a range of frames or removed by locking to a specific frame. Smooth . F_Steadiness can work in two ways. but to smooth out sharp bumps and kicks. 2. F_Steadiness key-frames a four-corner pin which will stabilise the clip in subsequent renders.

the reference is the lock frame. and a description of the common way Global Motion Effects work. as in NukeX. do the following: 1. However. FurnaceCore The Foundry . it looks at the incremental differences between frames. This means that if you add a row of F_Steadiness and NukeX transform nodes to a tree. Because the image is only resampled once. Quick Start This section gives a very brief outline of how to use the plug-in. in which case you should place the analysis region in the area you want to appear with smooth motion. The transformation in F_Steadiness is concatenated with other NukeX transform nodes. In smooth mode. their functions are combined. The analysis region is used to control which section of the reference frame is being matched to each source frame.88 STEADINESS Quick Start use it in shots which change completely over time. In lock mode. certain nodes. there is no loss of image quality and processing time is decreased. including colour correction nodes. Smoothing Out Camera Motion To keep the overall camera motion but to smooth out sharp bumps and kicks. so you should position the analysis region when looking at the lock frame. Find a shot that has some camera shake in it and select Image > Read to load it. For an overview of Global Motion Estimation. please see “Global Motion Estimation” on page 117. can break the concatenation.

You will see the following banner in the overlay: The Foundry FurnaceCore . 4. as F_Steadiness has kept the raw inter-frame transforms cached away. Bottom Left. F_Steadiness will now start analysing each frame in the shot. Select Furnace > F_Steadiness to apply F_Steadiness. Select Furnace > F_Steadiness to apply F_Steadiness. and view its output. After a brief pause (while F_Steadiness calculates the transforms in the frame range). If at any point you interrupt the analysis. Top Left. do the following: 1. figuring out the smoothing corner pin and writing it as key frames to the corner pin parameters. F_Steadiness will update the timeline and you will see the steadied image render in the viewer. Click on the Analyse button. If you want to make the result smoother. please press Analyse. and Top Right. Locking To A Frame To completely remove camera motion from a sequence. 6. make sure Mode has been set to Smooth.STEADINESS Quick Start 89 2. Play or scrub through the stabilised frames. In the Advanced F_Steadiness controls. Bottom Right. the pins it has calculated until that point will be retained. all it needs to do is re-write the keys for the average smoothing pin. increase the Smoothing parameter in the Advanced parameter group and the corner pin will be recalculated immediately to give a smoother shot. and view its output. You don’t need to re-analyse the sequence if you do this. 2. You will see the following banner in the overlay: No valid key framed analysis found. Find a shot that has camera shake but where all frames share scene information and select Image > Read to load it. 3. 5.

please press Analyse. Hit Analyse. 5.If set. 7. so toggle this off to FurnaceCore The Foundry . this toggle will cause the effect to update the time line and render a freshly analysed frame so you can see the progress of the effect. Scrub back and forth through the shot and look for a region of the shot that is shared by all frames and doesn’t change much (for example. position the on-screen widget for the Analysis Region over that region. Interrupting the analysis will not delete the corner pin keys that have already been calculated. 3. then backwards from it. set Mode to Incremental Lock. Whilst looking at the lock frame. The timeline will immediately update to give you feedback in the viewer.90 STEADINESS Inputs No valid key framed analysis found. In the Advanced F_Steadiness controls. Parameters The parameters for this plug-in are dewscribed below. and set the Lock Frame parameter to that frame. avoid a region with people walking in front of it). Inputs F_Steadiness has a single input: the shot to stabilise. The effect will start to analyse. until all frames to be analysed are done. 6. Doing so will slow down the analysis somewhat.This is a push button which will trigger an analysis of the input clip and calculate a corner pin. 4. Render During Analysis . Analyse . working first forward from the lock frame. Choose a frame somewhere in the middle of the sequence that you want to lock to.

A toggle that indicates whether the calculated corner pin can include translations in x and y. Analysis Region . It can be one of: • Specified Range .This is the region analysed to calculate the The Foundry FurnaceCore . Analysis Range . Analysis Start .A toggle that indicates whether the calculated corner pin can include perspective transforms. Scale . Clear Analysis . Rotate .which will look at the parameters Analysis Start and Analysis Stop for the range of frames to analyse. allowing you to force a re-analysis if you feel the need to.The last frame to analyse from if Analysis Range is set to Specified Range. Translate .The first frame to analyse from if Analysis Range is set to Specified Range.STEADINESS Parameters 91 speed up the general analysis.Pressing this push button will delete all key frames from the corner pin parameters. Perspective . Analysis Stop .which will automatically determine the range of frames to analyse from the length of the input clip. • Source Clip Range .A toggle that indicates whether the calculated corner pin can include a scaling factor.A toggle that indicates whether the calculated corner pin can include rotations.This controls the range of frames any analysis will be run over.

Mode . It can be set to: • Incremental Lock .in which case.in which case.the lesser used refinement controls. It can be used to keep the overall camera motion. This calculates the pin by working from the lock frame out to each frame.This parameter controls whether F_Steadiness is smoothing the shot while keeping the overall camera motion.controls the position of the bottom left corner of the analysis region. However. If. Analysis Region TR . are often more accurate. we are smoothing the shot for a range of frames described by the Smoothing parameter. it does so by doing GME directly from the frame in question directly to the lock frame. • Smooth . This is the default value. go to the lock frame. • Absolute Lock . whilst absolute locks work better in others. when they work.this also calculates a pin that takes each frame to the lock frame.92 STEADINESS Parameters four-corner pin. absolute locks. However. Incremental locks work better in some situations. you want to get a lock between frame 0 and frame FurnaceCore The Foundry . it will calculate the pin that takes each frame to the lock frame. for example. Advanced . This is especially useful when doing any form of frame locking. calculating the GME between each frame incrementally and accumulating it to create the corner pin. but to smooth out sharp bumps and kicks. Analysis Region BL .controls the position of the top right corner of the analysis region. look at the reference clip and position the box over the area you want locked. in which case. or locking the shot to a single frame to completely remove camera motion.

Sets the filtering quality. • Low . Note that what is frame 0 for F_Steadiness is frame 1 in NukeX. then the inverse of the calculated four-corner pin is used during render. This works best with the lock modes.To smooth out or remove camera motion.If set. you need to enter 2 as the Lock Frame value. this is set to 0. If absolute lock doesn't work. This gives good results and is quicker to render than high filtering. try using absolute lock first. Therefore. • Medium . Accuracy . incremental lock can help if there is a gradual spatial progression from frame 0 to frame 100. By default.uses a bilinear filter.uses a sinc filter to interpolate pixels giving a sharper repair. Smoothing . This gives the best results but takes longer to process. but you have a better likelihood of a good result. The Foundry FurnaceCore . Auto Scale . Invert . it can be because frame 0 and frame 100 are too different.low quality but quick to render.This controls the time/accuracy trade off. Lock Frame . The default value is 10. In this case.This controls the range of frames to average motion over when Mode is set to Smooth. if you are looking at frame 3 in the Viewer and want to use that frame as the lock frame. The higher this is.STEADINESS Parameters 93 100. the slower the analysis. and can be used to track static locked-off plates back into a shot. Filtering .This controls the frame which will be locked to when Mode is set to either of the lock modes. • High .

Auto Scale uses the minimum scale necessary to remove the black gaps at the edges to preserve as much detail as possible. Four Corner Pin .the lower left corner pin.94 STEADINESS Parameters F_Steadiness translates and rotates the frames in the source clip. FurnaceCore The Foundry .the lower right corner pin. Bottom Right . Top Left . whereas a value of 0 disables scaling and leaves the black edges untouched. A value of 1 (the default) scales the image up until no black is visible. This leaves black pixels around the image. Top Right .the upper left corner pin. The Auto Scale parameter lets you fill in the black gaps at the edges by scaling the output image up.The corner pins calculated during the analysis pass: Bottom Left .the upper right corner pin.

so that the results can then be reused by other FurnaceCore effects. Later. see “Quick Start” on The Foundry FurnaceCore . F_Kronos. In general. For information on how to generate motion vector fields and render them as an . whenever you use the same image sequence. Introduction Many of the FurnaceCore plug-ins rely on motion estimation to produce their output. they might well be performing identical motion estimation tasks. once you have generated a sequence of motion vector fields that describe the motion in a particular clip well. F_VectorGenerator is a utility plug-in designed to save processing time by allowing you to perform the motion estimation separately. For more information about motion vector fields. and F_MotionBlur. This format allows for the storage of an image with multiple channel sets embedded in it. they will be suitable for use in any FurnaceCore plug-ins which can take vector inputs. please refer to the chapter on Local Motion Estimation on page 125. This means there is some overlap in the work they do: if you have more than one FurnaceCore effect in your project with one or more of the same inputs. the motion vector fields will be loaded into NukeX together with the sequence and are readily available for the FurnaceCore plug-ins. We recommend that you insert a Write node after F_VectorGenerator to render the original images and the vector channels as an .exr file. These include F_DeNoise.VECTORGENERATOR Introduction 95 VECTORGENERATOR This chapter looks at producing images containing motion vector fields using F_VectorGenerator.exr file.

Figure 58. The backward vector field: the x and y offsets per pixel that. The forward vector field: the x and y offsets needed to transform the next frame into an approximation to the current one. Output The output from F_VectorGenerator consists of two sets of motion vectors for each frame. and Figure 59 show the different vector images for the jet clip shown in Figure 56.96 VECTORGENERATOR Output page 97. Jet sequence. 2. forward. Forward and backward motion vectors for the jet sequence. when applied to the previous frame in the sequence. Figure 56. you need to select motion. The closeness of the approximation in each case can be controlled by altering the plug-in’s parameters. To see the output inside NukeX. or backward from the channel menu at the top left of the viewer (or press page down until the data appears). FurnaceCore The Foundry . These are: 1. Figure 57. allow you to reconstruct an approximation to the current frame. Figure 57. Note that the output from F_VectorGenerator will be stored in the vector channels. so you might not see any image data appear when you first render the effect.

If the calculated motion vector fields do not produce the results you’re after when used with the other FurnaceCore plug-ins. set channels to all and file type to exr in the Write node controls. If you want to embed the vector channels in the image sequence. F_VectorGenerator calculates the motion vector fields and stores them in the vector channels. 4. The available parameters are described below. Backward motion vectors.VECTORGENERATOR Quick Start 97 Figure 58. connect a viewer to F_VectorGenerator’s output and select forward or backward from the channels menu. If you want to view the motion vector fields. When you need to manipulate the same sequence again later. Select Image > Write to render the motion vector fields. Connect your image sequence to F_VectorGenerator’s Source input. 3. Figure 59. the newly created vector channels will be saved in the channels of the image sequence. the motion vectors will be loaded into NukeX together with the sequence. The Foundry FurnaceCore . Select Furnace > F_VectorGenerator. Select Image > Read to load the sequence you wish to calculate the motion in. do the following: 1. 2. Forward motion vectors. This way. Quick Start To generate motion vector fields for an image sequence. use the F_VectorGenerator parameters to adjust the way the vector fields are calculated.

98 VECTORGENERATOR Inputs Inputs F_VectorGenerator has two inputs: • The sequence from which to generate motion vectors. This will produce the most accurate vectors but will take longer to render. A low smoothness will concentrate on FurnaceCore The Foundry . Source. A high smoothness will mean the output vector fields are less detailed. This can be used to help the motion estimation algorithm inside F_VectorGenerator understand what is foreground and background in the image. Smoothness . With the exception of Output. so that the dragging of pixels between overlapping objects can be reduced.This determines the accuracy of the motion vectors. White areas of the matte are considered to be foreground.Vector fields usually have two important qualities: they should accurately match similar pixels in one image to another and they should be smooth rather than noisy. Often. Grey areas are used to attenuate between foreground and background. The maximum value of 1 will generate one vector per pixel. Parameters The parameters for this plug-in are described below. Vector Detail . it is necessary to trade one of these qualities off against the other. so please see the chapter on Local Motion Estimation on page 125 for a more detailed description of their effects. • An optional foreground matte (Matte). and black areas background. but is less likely to provide you with the odd spurious vector (think of it as if the vectors were combed until they are smooth with respect to their neighbours). all of the parameters control the Local Motion Estimation algorithm used inside F_VectorGenerator.

VECTORGENERATOR Parameters 99 detail matching. Advanced . Block size defines the width and height of these blocks (in pixels). • None .use the inverted alpha of the source.the lesser used refinement controls. Output .the vectors for the foreground motion are output. a large block size can produce data that’s lacking in detail. causing the motion estimation to concentrate on the background motion and ignore the The Foundry FurnaceCore .the vectors for the background motion are output. • Background .where to get the (optional) foreground mask to use for motion estimation. Matte Component . Block Size .5 should work well for most sequences. This is because a small feature can fit into a large block.use the alpha of the source.use the alpha of the matte. • Matte Inverted Alpha . • Source Inverted Alpha . • Matte Alpha .use the inverted luminance of the matte.When a matte input is supplied.use the luminance of the matte. • Foreground . • Matte Inverted Luminance . On rare occasions.use the inverted alpha of the matte.don’t use a foreground mask. • Matte Luminance . • Source Alpha . this determines whether the motion vectors corresponding to the background or the foreground regions are output. even if the resulting field is jagged.To find where a certain pixel is located in the analysis range. the vector generation algorithm looks for a block of pixels centered around that pixel. The default value of 0.

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small feature. A small value, instead, can produce a noisy motion field, as there aren’t enough constraints in a small block to fit the motion accurately. In most cases, however, the default value is small enough so that details aren’t lost, and the smoothing step of the algorithm ensures the motion field isn’t too noisy. Therefore, this value very rarely needs editing. Over Smooth - This is a computationally intensive smoothing operation that performs a different vectorsmoothing operation to normal. This generates highly smooth vector fields (as if the vectors were combed several times with a fine-toothed comb), but may also sacrifice a lot of required detail. In most cases, this level of smoothing isn’t necessary. Tolerances - By default we analyse motion based on the brightness of the image. Specifically this is the mean of the red, green and blue channels. However, we can bias this using the red weight, green weight, and blue weight parameters. For example, if we set the red and green weight parameters to zero, we will only look for motion in the blue channel. Weight Red - sets the contribution the red channel will make in the calculation of the motion vectors. Weight Green - sets the contribution the green channel will make in the calculation of the motion vectors. Weight Blue - sets the contribution the blue channel will make in the calculation of the motion vectors.

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WIREREMOVAL
This chapter looks at the removal of wires from images using F_WireRemoval.

Figure 60. Three wires.

Figure 61. Two of the wires have been removed using F_WireRemoval.

Introduction

Many effects movies feature complicated stunts that require an actor to be suspended by wires for their safety. These wires need to be digitally removed. There are many ways of doing this, including painting the wires out frame by frame and replacing large parts of the background to cover the wires. The method used depends on the type of image under the wire. F_WireRemoval is particularly good at replacing the painting method but it also includes tools to assist in clean plating when new backgrounds have to be tracked into place.

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Background
Clean Plates
The use of clean plates in wire removal is very common and gives good results in certain situations. Consider a scene shot with an actor suspended from wires and then the same scene shot again without the actor. This second sequence is called the clean plate. The wires from the first shot can be painted out using pixels from the clean plate leaving the actor suspended in thin air. Shooting a clean plate if the camera is locked off is easy. If the camera moves, then motion control rigs can be used to exactly reproduce the first pass. But it doesn’t always work, particularly if the scene is shot against backgrounds that don’t look the same on the second pass, such as clouds, sky, or smoke. Motion control rigs are also expensive and that makes them a rarity. Often, a clean plate is not shot during the filming and the compositor is left to create one by merging together unobstructed pixels from many frames. This single frame can then be tracked into place to cover the wires.

FurnaceCore

FurnaceCore’s wire removal plug-in should make the process of wire removal much easier. It is particularly good at removing wires over heavily motion blurred backgrounds or wires over smoke, dust, or clouds. It can be used to remove each wire in a sequence or to quickly create a clean plate which can then be tracked into place. The reconstruction of the background behind the wire can be done spatially, in other words, using only information from

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the current frame. Alternatively, motion estimation techniques can be used to warp frames from before and after onto the current frame so that, where available, background pixels from these frames can be used to improve the repair. Our reconstruction methods are unique in that they remove the wire without removing and reapplying the grain. They are also tuned to remove long thin objects, leaving other objects untouched. For example, if transient foreground objects cover the wire, they will be left alone.

Reconstruction Methods

Our four reconstruction methods are: • Spatial • Temporal With Static Scene • Temporal With Moving Scene • Clean Plate. The spatial method takes the background information from adjacent pixels in the current frame, and the clean plate method takes the information from a separate clean plate input. The other methods are temporal and attempt to get background information from frames either side of the current frame. Where this information is not available, for example, because the wire covers part of the same region in one or more of the other frames, the spatial method will be used for the repair. The spatial method is fastest. It uses a slope-dependent filter that interpolates across the wire at the most likely angle, given the image behind the wire. It works well when the wire is over backgrounds such as sky, clouds, or smoke, and can also cope with some backgrounds where there is a noticeable gradient, such as the edge of a roof, building, or car. If this fails and the wire is moving relative to the

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background, you should try one of the temporal methods. These look at frames before and after the current one to find likely pixels with which to repair the region and use the spatial method in areas where there are none available. Where traditional clean plates are possible or give better results than using F_WireRemoval to repair the wire on each frame, you can supply a clean plate as the fourth input to the plug-in. It will then automatically matchmove it to repair each frame. If the overall luminance of the background is different to that of the clean plate or varies during the sequence, turn on Luminance Correct. The luminance of the background pixels used for the reconstruction will then be adjusted before the repair is made. Of course, various FurnaceCore tools can be used to create a clean plate, including an F_WireRemoval pass on a single frame where the repair has been successful.

Tracker

F_WireRemoval incorporates a tracker which can automatically track a moving wire through a clip. This tracker has its own control panel, which will float inside the NukeX viewer if you have checked Show On Screen Controls in the WireRemoval controls. Figure 62 is a screenshot which

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View the output from F_WireRemoval. Connect your image sequence to F_WireRemoval’s Source input. Select Image > Read to load the clip that needs a wire removed. Quick Start To remove a wire from an image sequence. Select Furnace > F_WireRemoval. For details of the rest of the controls. Make sure Output is set to Source. do the following: 1. Figure 62. All the controls are also available in the WireRemoval properties. and use the on-screen tools to draw a region that defines the position and shape of the wire to be removed. The Foundry FurnaceCore . Screenshot with tracker panel. see “Positioning the On-Screen Wire Tool” below. 2.WIREREMOVAL Quick Start 105 illustrates this. For more information. 3. see the section on Tracker Controls on page 109. You can resize the panel by dragging its edges.

drag its central line to a new location. drag its centre. To move an individual wire point on the tool. Choose the number of points that are needed to describe the wire: two for straight lines. From the Repair menu. This can be done by changing the Type parameter in the Points parameter group. Position the on-screen wire tool so that it roughly fits the wire you want to remove. To show the onscreen tracker panel. In the F_WireRemoval controls. connect a clean plate image to F_WireRemoval’s CleanPlate input. For more information on the available methods. If necessary. If the wire you want to remove is moving. To move the entire tool. or five for more complex shapes. set Output to Source. This will find the edges The Foundry 2. This way. To see the output.106 WIREREMOVAL Quick Start 4. see “Tracking” on page 107. three for simple curves. choose a repair method that removes the wire. If you choose to use the Clean Plate method. so that it follows the wire during the clip. do the following: 1. see “Reconstruction Methods” on page 103. To move an individual point in either a horizontal or vertical direction only. or by toggling the Number of Points button in the on-screen tracker panel. 7. drag the horizontal or vertical line on the cross that marks the point. set Output to Repair. FurnaceCore . you will be able to see the wire you’re trying to remove but won’t have to wait for F_WireRemoval to repair the wire every time you change wire tool’s position. Positioning the OnScreen Wire Tool To position the on-screen wire tool. 3. For more information. check Show On Screen Controls in the WireRemoval properties. increase Overall Width to expand the width of the repair region until the wire disappears. 6. start the wire tracker by clicking on the Track Forwards button. Press the Snap To button in the WireRemoval properties or the on-screen tracker panel. 4. 5.

the tracker cannot be started and F-WireRemoval will display the following message: 2. so the resulting region might not cover the whole width of the wire. Drag the on-screen wire tool to position the repair region on top of the wire on one frame. When the track is ready. Please select a user key frame before tracking. do the following: 1. 5. Tracking F_WireRemoval incorporates a tracker that will track the region to be repaired through the image sequence. In practice. If you haven’t set a user key frame (step 1). check that the wire has been correctly tracked across the other frames and adjust the track if necessary.WIREREMOVAL Tracking 107 of the wire and adjust the removal region to fit it more closely. This expands the region outwards. To correct for this. 3. you can adjust the Overall Width parameter. It does this by locating the areas of highest gradient. which should correspond to the edges of the wire. over all key frames. This way. The Foundry . the tracker will not lose the wire at the edges of the image. FurnaceCore 4. press the Track Forwards button. The tracking controls in the tracker panel are outlined under “Tracker Controls” on page 109. To start the tracker. To use the tracker. This sets a user key frame for the current frame. Any points initially positioned off the image will remain off the image. the edges of the wire will be slightly soft. you may want to create a smooth transition between the user key frame you created and the track key frames around it. to ensure the entire width of the wire is covered. The easiest way to do this is to go on the previous and next frame on the timeline and press the Delete track key frame button. If after tracking the wire you adjust the position of the on-screen wire tool manually on one frame. enabling tracking.

they can be set by pressing the Create User Key frame button in the tracker panel. NukeX will interpolate smoothly from one frame to another. you can delete the track key frames between these frames. the wire can be manually key-framed. User key frames override track key frames on the same frame. If it is not possible to track the wire automatically. This has the following consequences: • Once you set a user key frame. existing user key frames will not be replaced by track key frames. this is indicated by a red key that appears on the on-screen wire tool. if there is too much jitter in the track between some frames. This way. the track key frame on that frame will be lost. Alternatively. Inputs F_WireRemoval has two inputs: • The Source clip containing the wire to be removed. • When you track a wire. Adjusting the onscreen wire tool on each frame will automatically set user key frames. When a user key frame has been set on the current frame. • An optional CleanPlate input to allow you to supply a clean plate. Track key frames are key frames set by F_WireRemoval’s tracker. User Key Frames and Track Key Frames User key frames are key frames you set manually.108 WIREREMOVAL Inputs This deletes the track key frames around the frame you adjusted and forces NukeX to interpolate smoothly around the adjustment. This is used by the Clean Plate repair mode The Foundry FurnaceCore . Similarly.

A user key frame has been set on the current frame. Indicators on the On-Screen Wire Tool You may see the following indicators appear on the onscreen wire tool: The current frame is inside the range of frames to track the wire over. The current frame is the first frame in the range of frames to track the wire over. The Foundry FurnaceCore . The current frame is the last frame in the range of frames to track the wire over. The current frame is not inside the range of frames to track the wire over.WIREREMOVAL Indicators on the On-Screen Wire Tool 109 which will warp the clean plate onto the current frame and use the warped image to reconstruct the background behind the wire. Tracker Controls The following controls appear in the on-screen tracker panel that you can display in the Viewer by checking Show On Screen Controls in the WireRemoval properties.

Creates a user key frame.Changes the number of points used to describe the wire.Plays backwards through the sequence tracking from frame to frame. Number of points .Finds the edges of the wire and snaps the edges of the region onto them. show just the points. Snap to wire . Step forward .Tracks backwards one frame.Plays forwards through the sequence tracking from frame to frame. Create user key frame .Toggle the display mode for the on-screen wire tool: show the points and lines.Tracks forward one frame. Track backwards . Step backward .Deletes a user key frame. or hide both points and lines. Track forwards .110 WIREREMOVAL Tracker Controls Toggle display mode . FurnaceCore The Foundry . Delete user key frame .

Deletes a track key frame and steps forwards one frame.Tracks from begining to end of frame range in an intelligent order. Delete track key frame and step backward . Delete all track and user key frames .Delete the current track key frame. Delete track key frames forwards .Deletes track key frames backwards through the sequence until either a user key frame or the begining of the sequence is reached.Deletes track key frames forwards through the sequence until either a user key frame or the end of the sequence is reached.Deletes both track key frames and user key frames.WIREREMOVAL Parameters 111 Smart track . Delete track key frames backwards .Deletes a track key frame and steps backwards one frame. Delete all track key frames . Parameters The parameters for this plug-in are described below. The corresponding controls are also available in the WireRemoval properties. Delete track key frame .Deletes all track key frames from the sequence. Delete track key frame and step forwards . The Foundry FurnaceCore .

FurnaceCore The Foundry . • Hide .only show the points.output the repaired source image. • Five Points .most of the on-screen tracker panel buttons also appear here.sets the output mode for the plug-in.renders a matte for the wire. • Source .choose this if your wire is straight. • Points only . • Three Points . see “Tracker Controls” on page 109.this parameter controls the number of points on the on-screen wire tool.hide both points and lines. This may be useful if the wire has been tracked but cannot be repaired using F_WireRemoval and other techniques have to be used.show both points and lines. • Two Points . Track Range .choose this if your wire is a simple curve.the range of frames to track the wire over. • Wire Matte .choose this if your wire has an s-shaped curve. Output . • Show . Use this output mode to position the on-screen wire tool over the wire you wish to remove.output the untouched source image. For more information.use this to show or hide the tracker panel in the Viewer. Show On Screen Controls . Type .112 WIREREMOVAL Parameters Tracker buttons . with the wire removed from under the on-screen tool. On-Screen Wire .the display mode for the on-screen wire tool. • Repair . Choose the number of points needed to describe the wire you wish to remove.

also aligns frames from before and after onto the current frame.use the Wire Range Start and Wire Range End parameters to specify the range over which to track the wire. Where no such information is available. for example. but uses global The Foundry FurnaceCore . the spatial repair method above will be used. • Spatial . • Temporal With Moving Scene .this method uses a slope dependent filter that interpolates across the wire at the most likely angle. it can then use background information from them to fill in the background behind the wire in the current frame.track the wire over the entire range of the Source clip.WIREREMOVAL Parameters 113 • Specified Range . • Source Clip Range . • Temporal With Static Scene .use this to specify the end of the tracking range when Track Range has been set to Specified Range.use this to specify the start of the tracking range when Track Range has been set to Specified Range.this method uses local motion estimation to align frames from before and after onto the current frame. given the image behind the wire. Track Start . This is useful for sequences where the wire is moving and where the motion in the rest of the scene is non-uniform.sets the algorithm used to remove the wire from under the grain. Repair . Track End . It uses information from the current frame only. If the wire is not in the same place with respect to the background in these two frames. for example. if the camera has been locked to place but there are objects moving in the area surrounding the wire. if the wire covers part of the same region in all three frames.

or if F_WireRemoval does not do a good job of removing the wire from each frame.turn this on for methods other than Spatial repair where there are global luminance shifts FurnaceCore The Foundry . if the entire scene is moving in the same direction as a result of a camera pan. frames 28 and 32 are used. Again. it gets background information from these two frames where it can and uses the spatial repair method to fill in the rest. In this situation. This is useful for sequences where the wire is moving and the motion in the rest of the scene is fairly uniform.this is a trade off between the amount of grain removed and the blurring of image along the direction of the wire. a steel wire in which the twisted threads are reflecting light). then the algorithm may leave these alone. Temporal Offset . A value of zero will definitely remove the artefacts but also the grain. for example. thinking that they are grain. • Clean Plate . Luminance Correct . If the wire you are trying to remove has detail within it (for example.114 WIREREMOVAL Parameters motion estimation. This determines which two frames before and after the current frame are used to fill in the background behind the wire. Connect the clean plate or single frame with the wire removed to the CleanPlate input. F_WireRemoval will then align this frame to the frame to be repaired in order to reconstruct the background behind the wire. Filter Size . which would then have to be put back using FurnaceCore’s F_ReGrain.choose this method if you have a clean plate you wish to use for the repair. For example. you should decrease the filter size. if this is set to 2 and the current frame is 30.the time offset of the additional frames to use for the Temporal With Static Scene or Temporal With Moving Scene methods.

the width of the wire at point 5 of the onscreen wire tool.change this value if luminance correction is not working as well as it should.Parameters to set the position of the points used to define the wire. Point 3 . With Luminance Correct turned on. which is useful for cases where there is motion blur on the wire.increase this parameter to expand the width of the repair region along its entire length. and for all key frames. Point 5 . Point 2 .the position of the point on the wire between the start point and the mid point (this is only active if Type is Five Points).WIREREMOVAL Parameters 115 between one frame of the sequence and the next.the position of the end point on the wire. or between a frame of the sequence and a clean plate you are using for the repair. The Foundry FurnaceCore . Start Width . End Width . This allows you to make your repair region wider at one end than the other.the position of the point on the wire between the mid point and the end point (this is only active if Type is Five Points). Lum Block Size . F_WireRemoval will adjust the luminance of the background pixels it uses to the correct level before doing the repair.the width of the wire at point 1 of the onscreen wire tool. Point 1 . Points . Point 4 . Overall Width . changing the size of the blocks will change the regions covered by each block and could result in a better match.the position of the start point on the wire. The luminance correction uses overlapping blocks and matches the luminance within those blocks.the position of the mid point on the wire.

116 WIREREMOVAL Parameters FurnaceCore The Foundry .

What is Global Motion Estimation? Global motion estimation is a technique that attempts to map one image onto another with a simple four-corner pin. by calculating a pin that either locks all frames in the clip to a single reference frame. and then apply that pin. This differs from local motion estimation (LME). you can use this to align two separate but similar steady cam shots of the same scene. These effects differ in how that corner pin is calculated and to which image that pin is applied. • F_Steadiness . They all calculate a four-corner pin. please read their individual chapters. by finding a corner pin from each source clip frame to the corresponding reference clip frame.which removes unwanted objects (rigs) from image sequences without accurate rotoscoping or keying to produce a clean plate.which removes motion from a single clip. you can use this to remove camera shake. For example. for more detailed information on each plug-in. • F_RigRemoval .which lines up two shots of the same scene. which finds the best fit of one image onto another. These effects are: • F_Align . For example.GLOBAL MOTION ESTIMATION Introduction 117 GLOBAL MOTION ESTIMATION Introduction FurnaceCore has three effects based on global motion estimation (GME). This chapter describes the general idea behind these plug-ins. or smooths that motion out over a window of frames. which attempts to find where each individual pixel in the image is FurnaceCore The Foundry .

and so on. Typically. the more expensive the motion estimation becomes. which controls the amount of work The Foundry’s GME engine does to calculate the global motion.which allows the four corners to translate by the same amount. so that the area defined by them is no longer a rectangle. rotation and translation are sufficient. but gives you less information about the image. perspective . very complicated foreground motion. (For more information about local motion estimation.which allows the corners to rotate about their centre. it is still very powerful for a variety of applications. scale . 2. This can be a combination of any of: 1. This means that GME can’t be used to match two images where there is heavy parallax. please see “Local Motion Estimation” on page 125). 4. changing objects. the higher this is. you can tell the GME engine what type of motion to expect.which allows the angles at the corners to change. translation . Nevertheless. 3. but the more expensive it is.which allows the size of the area defined by the corners to change. the better the estimation. FurnaceCore The Foundry . The more types of motion you allow. For many scenes. global motion estimation simply calculates a four-corner pin to transform one image onto another. rotation .118 GLOBAL MOTION ESTIMATION What is Global Motion Estimation? in the other image. Limitations of GME As stated above. GME is much cheaper to compute than LME. Using the plug-ins’ parameters. The GME effects have an accuracy control.

This speeds up its operation.GLOBAL MOTION ESTIMATION The Analysing Global Motion Estimation Effects 119 The best way to think of what GME can do is that if you can do it with a four-corner pin. These pins are then used during the render to move the source image. The Foundry FurnaceCore . Using Them These effects analyse images over a range of frames to figure out their four-corner pins. This leads to a slightly different mode of operation for the following effects: • F_Steadiness • needs to have an analysis run before it renders useful output. it can’t. which is distinct from the way F_RigRemoval works. GME will take the pain out of hand matching pins frame by frame. However. This is done in response to the user pressing the Analyse button in the effects control panel. which only ever needs the two current frames from each clip. the effect will run through a range of frames adding keys to the corner pin parameters. The Analysing Global Motion Estimation Effects F_Align and F_Steadiness work in a similar way. These corner pins are then applied to the source clip to render a frame. it then uses the previously computed and keyframed corner pins during render. F_Align. can compute the corner pin on the fly (but not keyframe it!). However. During analysis. and once it has been done this plug-in is very quick to render. These two effects calculate a four-corner pin for each frame and save it into the corner pin parameters. it can. F_Steadiness has a separate analysis pass that happens interactively. if you can’t. as the analysis step only has to be done once.

and some only affect the rendering.120 GLOBAL MOTION ESTIMATION The Analysing Global Motion Estimation Effects • will always use the value in the corner pin parameters when rendering the output image. then any analysis you may have performed will be out of date. However. The documentation for each plug-in describes exactly how to use FurnaceCore The Foundry . This means that analysis will speed up later renders. • during render. So. If you ever modify one of these parameters. press Clear Analysis and all keys will be deleted. You don’t have to re-analyse and your renders will still look at the keyed corner pins. • F_Align • no need to have the analysis run to render output. otherwise. it will analyse on the fly during render. pressing Analyse will only re-analyse a frame if there is no key on the corner pin at that time. This avoids redundant re-analysis if you have interrupted the analysis or extended the analysis range. if you want to force re-analysis. for example. If you have not modified a parameter that affects analysis (the warning overlay will let you know). this is the area inside the lock frame that a match will be sought for. with F_Steadiness set to Lock Mode. Some parameters to the effect control how the effect performs GME analysis. but doing so will give you a key-framed corner pin. as just rendering the corner pin is much cheaper than calculating it. To let you know. an overlay warning will be posted whenever this happens. it will use the value of the corner pin parameters only if there is a keyframe there. F_Steadiness and F_Align have an analysis region rectangle parameter which is used to specify which area of the reference image should be analysed during GME.

GLOBAL MOTION ESTIMATION Controls 121 the analysis region. Analyse . Doing so will slow down the analysis somewhat. The Foundry FurnaceCore .This is a push button which will trigger an analysis of the input clips and calculate a corner pin. Controls The controls common to all GME plug-ins are described below. Controls That Affect Analysis The following parameters and controls affect the analysis of the four-corner pin. so toggle this off to speed up the general analysis. and ones that control the rendering of the output. Clear Analysis . They are grouped into two sections: ones that determine how analysis is carried out.Pressing this push button will delete all keyframes from the corner pin parameters. allowing you to force a re-analysis if you feel the need to. Render During Analysis .This controls the range of frames any analysis will be run over. Interrupting the analysis will not delete the corner pin keys that have already been calculated. Analysis Range . It can be one of: • Specified Range .which will look at the parameters Analysis Start and Analysis Stop for the range of frames to analyse.If set. this toggle will cause the effect to update the time line and render a freshly analysed frame so you can see the progress of the effect.

The first frame to analyse from if Analysis Range is set to Specified Range.which will automatically determine the range of frames to analyse from the length of the input clip. Analysis Start .This is the region analysed to calculate the four-corner pin. the slower it goes. in which case.This controls the time/accuracy trade off in the GME engine. Rotate .A toggle that indicates whether the calculated corner pin can include a scaling factor. Accuracy . Analysis Region . Scale . Analysis Stop . This is especially useful when doing any form of frame locking.controls the position of the bottom left corner of the analysis region.A toggle that indicates whether the calculated corner pin can include rotations.A toggle that indicates whether the calculated corner pin can include perspective transforms. look at the reference clip and position the box over the area you want locked. Perspective .controls the position of the top right corner of the analysis region. The higher this is.A toggle that indicates whether the calculated corner pin can include translations in x and y. Analysis Region TR .122 GLOBAL MOTION ESTIMATION Controls • Source Clip Range . Translate . but you FurnaceCore The Foundry . go to the lock frame. Analysis Region BL .The last frame to analyse from if Analysis Range is set to Specified Range.

• Top Left . • Bottom Right .the upper left corner pin. This gives the best results but takes longer to process.uses a bilinear filter. • Low . • Top Right .the lower left corner pin.uses a sinc filter to interpolate pixels giving a sharper repair. Parameters That Affect Rendering These following parameters control how a GME effect renders the four-corner pin. Analysis Region Widget . • Medium . Filtering . then the inverse of the calculated four-corner pin is used during render. Widgets All the Analysing GME effects have two on-screen widgets: one to provide feedback and one to set up the analysis region.uses nearest neighbour filtering.If set.the upper right corner pin.This is a rectangle widget which The Foundry FurnaceCore .GLOBAL MOTION ESTIMATION Widgets 123 have a better likelihood of a good result.This controls the quality of the rendering.the lower right corner pin. This gives low quality but is quick to render. • High . Invert . Four Corner Pin . This gives good results and is quicker to render than high filtering. Some of them are set during the analysis pass.The corner pins calculated during the analysis pass: • Bottom Left .

Four Corner Widget .124 GLOBAL MOTION ESTIMATION Widgets you use to set the analysis region over the reference image. otherwise. it will be drawn solid if there is a key in the corner pin at the frame being displayed. it will be drawn dashed. FurnaceCore The Foundry . To give you more feedback as to what frames have been analysed.This is a widget that shows the state of the four-corner pin that has been calculated. You can change it by grabbing any of the corners and tweaking the shape of the pin.

Motion Estimation tends to fall into two areas: Global Motion Estimation and Local Motion Estimation. one representing foreground motion and one representing background motion. we look at the parameters for Local Motion Estimation (or LME). These are called the ’forward motion vectors’ where they represent the warp of the image in front of the current one. These offsets show how to warp a neighbouring image onto the current image. Clearly. This is an approximation to what is really going on in an image sequence. In this chapter. a number of the tools allow the use of two vector fields per frame.sometimes referred to as a ’rubber sheet’ warp and cannot truly represent multiple overlapping motions. Background The easiest way to understand LME is to think in terms of vector fields. To help cope with this restriction. and ’backward motion vectors’ where they represent the warp of the image behind the current one.y) offset per pixel. where a matte input is used to identify the separation. each can have two vector fields. but contains an (x. which is the per-pixel motion analysis used in tools such as F_Kronos.LOCAL MOTION ESTIMATION Introduction 125 LOCAL MOTION ESTIMATION Introduction Several tools in FurnaceCore make use of Motion Estimation technology. In addition. as most of the images in a sequence have two neighbours. see the Occlusions option in the parameter The Foundry FurnaceCore . This effect can be seen where moving foreground objects appear to drag the background. A single vector field can be thought of as representing a warp or a morph . A vector field for an image in a sequence has the same dimensions as the image.

For this reason. LME is a computationally expensive operation. although they may also come from other thirdparty sources. When using pre-calculated vector fields. as well as to trade off render time verses accuracy of vectors. and may also come from third-party sources. these are typically generated by the F_VectorGenerator tool (described on page 95). most of the tools which use LME have a choice between generating vector fields on the fly and using pre-calculated vector fields. FurnaceCore The Foundry . Using PreCalculated Vector Fields LME is a computationally expensive operation. most of the plug-ins which use LME allow you to choose between generating vector fields on the fly and using pre-calculated vector fields. The vector generation process has a number of tuning parameters which can be used to adapt the vectors to suit particular sequences. if you are going to be using more than one of these effects in your project.126 LOCAL MOTION ESTIMATION Using Pre-Calculated Vector Fields descriptions below. which attempts to improve the rubbersheet effect when separate vector fields aren’t being used. These can then be passed into the following effects as inputs: • F_DeNoise • F_Kronos • F_MotionBlur Therefore. Pre-calculated vector fields can be generated by the F_VectorGenerator tool. so that they can be reused. described on page 95. it might be worth generating the vector fields beforehand with F_VectorGenerator.

0 will generate a vector at each pixel. A value of 0. the vector generation algorithm looks for a block of pixels centered around that pixel.5 will generate a vector at every other pixel. a vector field that produces good output in one of these effects will work well in the others as well. Parameters Not all tools using LME have all of these parameters. A high smoothness will miss lots of local detail. and often a low value is more appropriate.Vector fields usually have two important qualities: they should accurately match similar pixels in one image to another and they should be smooth rather than noisy. A low smoothness will concentrate on detail matching.Adjust this to vary the resolution of the vector field. but the more detailed the vectors should be. The larger vector detail is.To find where a certain pixel is located in the analysis range. even if the resulting field is jagged. the greater the processing time. and one for their use in picture warping. The default value of 0. it is necessary to trade one of these qualities off against the other. On rare The Foundry FurnaceCore . but is less likely to provide you with the odd spurious vector (think of it as if the vectors were combed until they are smooth with respect to their neighbours). a high vector detail near 1.0 generates too much unwanted local motion detail. Block size defines the width and height of these blocks (in pixels).LOCAL MOTION ESTIMATION Parameters 127 Most of the time. Smoothness .5 should work well for most sequences. A value of 1. They can be categorised into two groups: one for the generation of the vectors. Often. For some sequences. Block Size . Vector Generation Parameters Vector Detail .

. can produce a noisy motion field.LME is highly dependent upon the idea that the brightness of objects doesn’t vary through a sequence. In these cases where there is a global luminance shift.e. the default value is small enough so that details aren’t lost.For efficiency.128 LOCAL MOTION ESTIMATION Parameters occasions. In most cases. Where brightness varies rapidly . This is because a small feature can fit into a large block. The luminance of a shot can come from other sources too .the motion calculation will perform poorly. This generates highly smooth vector fields (as if the vectors were combed several times with a fine-toothed comb). However. These parameters rarely need tuning. toggling this control on will allow the LME algorithm to take account of overall brightness changes between frames. a large block size can produce data that’s lacking in detail. A small value. as there aren’t enough constraints in a small block to fit the motion accurately. but may also sacrifice a lot of required detail. you may. The tolerances allow you to tune the weight of each colour channel when calculating the image luminance. and the smoothing step of the algorithm ensures the motion field isn’t too noisy.This is a computationally intensive smoothing operation that performs a different vector-smoothing operation to normal. using monochrome images. much of the LME is done on luminance only . In most cases.i. Luminance Correct . this value very rarely needs editing.such as an overall flicker problem. Over Smooth . instead. Tolerances . Therefore. for example. wish to increase the red weighting Weight Red to allow the algorithm to concentrate on getting the motion of FurnaceCore The Foundry . causing the motion estimation to concentrate on the background motion and ignore the small feature. this level of smoothing isn’t necessary. however.for example a highlight moving across the bodywork of a car .

LOCAL MOTION ESTIMATION Vector Field Representation 129 a primarily red object correct. Vector Field Representation The Foundry Digital images generally consist of the four standard channels: red. and alpha. • Extreme .this is the quickest option.this is an advanced option that can improve the results when not doing a separated picture build with multiple vector fields and mattes. • Normal . blue.Switch this on to display the vectors on the screen.uses a sinc interpolation filter to give a sharper picture but takes a lot longer to render. Previous versions of FurnaceCore . with more optimal treatment of moving objects and image edges. • Occlusions .this is the standard option.use bilinear interpolation which gives good results and is a lot quicker than Extreme. but may produce less than optimal results around moving objects and image edges.Sets the quality of filtering when producing inbetween (F_Kronos) frames. green. Warp Mode . • Simple .Sets how to control the new timing of the clip. at the cost of the rest of the items in a shot. Show Vectors . It attempts to reduce the level of background dragging that occurs between foreground and background objects. Weight Red Weight Green Weight Blue Picture Warping Parameters Filtering . • Normal .

where zero represents no motion. however. were forced to encode the motion vectors in these chromatic image channels.for more FurnaceCore The Foundry . in hosts such as Shake. These additional channels enable the FurnaceCore tools that consume vectors to read from motion vector specific channels called 'forward' and 'backward'. Figure 64 shows an example of a vector image for the taxi clip shown in Figure 63. NukeX. These vectors were produced using the FurnaceCore plug-in F_VectorGenerator . the FurnaceCore tools that produce vectors can write to vector specific channels instead of destroying the pre-existing 'rgba' data. Likewise. Motion vectors can be positive or negative. The 'backward' channel represents the offsets required to fetch pixels from the previous frame to match pixels in the current frame. The 'forward' channel represents the offsets required to fetch pixels from the following frame to match pixels in the current frame. NukeX represents the x values as amounts of red and y values as amounts of green.130 LOCAL MOTION ESTIMATION Vector Field Representation Furnace. When viewing 'forward' or 'backward' motion vectors. allows users and plug-ins to create or grab data from up to 1023 channels.

Motion vectors for the taxi sequence. Figure 63. The Foundry FurnaceCore . please see “VectorGenerator” on page 95.LOCAL MOTION ESTIMATION Vector Field Representation 131 details. Figure 64. Taxi.

132 LOCAL MOTION ESTIMATION Vector Field Representation FurnaceCore The Foundry .

6 "Snow Leopard" (32-bit only). • NukeX 6. or Linux CentOS 4. new features. The Foundry FurnaceCore . Bug Fixes This section will describe fixed bugs in later versions. improvements. Windows XP SP2 or XP64.APPENDIX A Release Notes 133 APPENDIX A Release Notes This section describes the requirements.5 (32or 64-bit). fixed bugs and known bugs & workarounds for each release of FurnaceCore.0v1 or later for floating license support. FurnaceCore 4. Release Date January 2010 Requirements • Mac OS X 10.3v1 This is the first release of FurnaceCore for NukeX.5 “Leopard” or 10. New Features There are twelve plug-ins in this release. • Foundry FLEXlm Tools (FFT) 5.0 or later. Improvements This section will describe improvements to existing features in later versions.

FurnaceCore The Foundry .F_DeNoise: Auto analyse not present.134 APPENDIX A Release Notes Known Bugs and Workarounds BUG ID 9864 . This was removed due to problems with the underlying sample algorithm.

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144 APPENDIX B End User License Agreement FurnaceCore The Foundry .

INDEX A-Z 145 INDEX A-Z A adding grain 65 motion blur 59 Align 19 aligning clips spatially 19 alignment tools 16 analysing global motion estimation effects 119 B backward vector fields 96. 39 stocks 69 grain management tools 13 I improvements 133 install directory 8 installation 7 introduction 7 K known bugs 133 Kronos 45 L licensing 8 limitations of global motion estimation 118 LME 125 local motion estimation 125 M MatchGrade 55 motion stabilising 87 motion blur adding 59 motion estimation global 117 local 125 motion vector inputs 9 motion vectors 9 generating 95 precalculated 126 pre-calculating 95 MotionBlur 59 N new features 133 noise removing 39 O occlusions in rig removal 81 FurnaceCore bugs fixed 133 known 133 C camera motion removing 87 stabilising 87 colour matching 55 contacting The Foundry 10 contexts 10 customer support 10 D DeFlicker2 27 DeGrain 31 DeNoise 39 The Foundry . 125 E end user license agreement 135 F film grain adding 65 removing 31 stocks 69 flicker reducing 27 forward vector fields 96. 125 Furnace Core 7 G generating motion vectors 95 global motion effects 117 global motion estimation 117 limitations 118 GME 117 grading tools 16 grain adding 65 removing 31.

117 RigRemoval 77 S slowing down footage 45 spatial alignment of clips 19 speeding up footage 45 stabilisation tools 16 stabilising footage 87 Steadiness 87 system requirements 133 T The Foundry contacting 10 The Foundry products 11 Tinder 11 FurnaceCore The Foundry . 117 U unwanted objects removing 77. 77. 125 precalculated 126 pre-calculating 95 representation 129 VectorGenerator 95 W web site 11 WireRemoval 101 www. 117 V vector channels 96 vector fields 125 backward 96.uk 11 wires 101 retiming 45 retiming tools 15 rig removal 77.co. 106 overview of the plug-ins 13 P plug-in contexts 10 proxy resolution warnings 71 R ReGrain 65 release dates 133 release notes 133 removing camera motion 87 flicker 27 grain 31. 39 noise 39 rigs 77. 117 unwanted objects 15. 125 forward 96.146 INDEX A-Z OFX plug-ins 7 on-screen tools 8.thefoundry.