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A Gateway to Integrate Heterogenous Networks

ICL K400 徐玉青 YuChing@itri.org.tw
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Outline
‧3G/WLAN Integrated Scenarios
–3G/WLAN Interworking Architecture –Packet Data Gateway (PDG)

‧3G/WiMAX Integrated Scenarios
–WiMAX Related Specifications –3G/WiMAX Interworking Architecture –WiMAX Access Gateway (WAG)

‧Conclusion
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3G/WLAN Integrated Scenarios
Scenario 1 Scenario 2 Scenario 3 Scenario 4 Scenario 5 Scenario 6 Common billing Common customer care 3G based Access Control 3G based Access Charging Access to 3G PS Services Service Continuity Seamless Service Continuity Access to 3G CS Services with seamless mobility

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AAA Network Architecture (Scenario 2)
Cellular Network
CGW

HLR

PS services SGSN/GGSN
SIM

Cellular UE

3GPP AAA Server

Wi-Fi/WiMAX Network

WISP
SIM

Internet
Apple Music Store

WLAN/Cellular Dual Mode UE

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PDG Network Architecture (Scenario 3)
Cellular Network
CGW

HLR

Packet based services

3GPP AAA Server

Packet Data Gateway

Wi-Fi/WiMAX Network

WISP
SIM

Internet
Apple Music Store

Wi-Fi or WiMAX/Cellular Dual Mode UE

Printer

Fax

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Non Roaming WLAN Interworking Reference Model 3GPP Home Network Intranet / Internet SLF Dw HSS r' G / HLR Offline Charging System Wz Wx D' Wf Wa WLAN Access Network WLAN UE Ww Wn 3GPP AAA Server Wg Wo Wm OCS Wy WAG Wp PDG Wi WLAN 3GPP IP Access Wu 6 .

Roaming WLAN Interworking Reference Model (1/2) Intranet / Internet 3GPP Visited Network Wa 3GPP AAA Wf Charging Offline Proxy Wd WLAN 3GPP IP Access WLAN Ww UE WLAN Access Network Wg System Wn WAG W Wu Packet Data Gateway Wi Wy Wo m Dw 3GPP AAA Wx Server Wp SLF HSS HLR r' /G D' Wf OCS Wz 3GPP Home Network Offline Charging System 7 .

Roaming WLAN Interworking Reference Model (2/2) 3GPP Visited Network Wa Wg Wm 3GPP AAA Proxy Offline Charging System W f WLAN Ww UE WLAN Access Network Wn WAG Wp Packet Data Wz Gateway Wi Wu WLAN 3GPP IP Access Intranet / Internet SLF HSS HLR Offline Charging System 3GPP Home Network Dw Wx r' D' / G Wf 3GPP AAA Server Wo OCS 8 Wd .

Protocol Stack Wu Ww Wn Wp PDG Remote IP Tunneling layer Transport IP L2/L1 WLAN UE Remote IP Tunneling layer Transport IP L2/L1 WLAN AN WAG Transport Transport IP IP L2/L1 L2/L1 Transport Transport IP IP L2/L1 L2/L1 L2/L1 •Tunneling layer .Support IPsec ESP for secure tunnel .Support IKEv2 for IPsec tunnel negotiation Exchange tunnel security association Remote address acquisition 9 .

Gi protocols 3G Networks AAA Server Wi-Fi/WiMAX AP/BS UE A A uth ut en ho ti riz cat at ion io n DHCP Server IP Addr. IPSec.PDG System Architecture 3GPP Spec. Wm PDG GTP-C ’ Gn Gi/Wi Packet Data Network IKEv2 IPSec Tunnel Wu GTP-U TTG Tunnel GGSN 10 . suggested implementation: PDG = TTG + GGSN PDG should support IKEv2. Diameter.

PDG Procedures and Implementation ‧Authentication & Authorization ‧IP Connectivity ‧Implementation Model 11 .

Authentication & Authorization ‧Authentication Methods –SIM-based WLAN Access Authentication ‧EAP/SIM Authentication –USIM-based WLAN Access Authentication ‧EAP/AKA Authentication ‧Authorization –WLAN Access Authorization ‧WLAN user profile –Mobile Network PS Service ‧Access Home Network provided services ‧Access Visited Network provided services 12 .

WLAN User Profile ‧ The WLAN User Profile shall reside in HSS (if operator is using a legacy HLR. the WLAN user profile may reside in the AAA Server) ‧ WLAN User Profile – IMSI – MSISDN – Operator determined barring of 3GPP-WLAN interworking subscription – Subscribed Charging Characteristics and Accounting Server Identifier – WLAN Direct IP access allowed – Roaming allowed – Maximum session duration (optional) – List of authorized W-APNs (optional) 13 .

WLAN connection setup 3.WLAN Access Authentication and Authorization WLAN UE WLAN AN AAA Server/Proxy HSS/HLR WAG 1. EAP message exchange 4. EAP / Success 14 . Access Accept [ Keying material and Authorization information] 8. Policy enforcement info delivery 6. Subscriber profile retrieval from HLR/HSS 5. WLAN Registration to HLR/HSS 7. Authentication info retrieval from HLR/HSS 2.

IP Connectivity ‧WLAN Direct IP Access –WLAN UE needs to use local IP address only ‧WLAN 3GPP IP Access –WLAN UE needs two IP address ‧Local IP address and Remote IP address –IP tunnel reside between the WLAN UE and PDG ‧WLAN UE initiates the establishment of tunnels ‧Tunnel establishment between WLAN UE and PDG includes mutual authentication –WLAN UE shall use W-APN to indicate to the network the services it wants to access 15 .

Why Tunnel in Scenario 3 ? ‧Cellular network is private network ‧Address space of WLAN AN is different from address space of Cellular network –Remote IP address identifies the WLAN UE in the network that the WLAN UE is accessing for the 3G PS service –WLAN UE IP allocation ‧Local IP address can be assigned by WLAN AN or by PLMN –Assigned by WLAN AN need tunnel –Assigned by PLMN maybe don't need tunnel ‧Secure data transmission 16 .

1 DNS Query 2. WLAN Access Authentication & Authorization and WLAN UE local IP address allocation External AAA Server 2.2 End-to-end tunnel establishment( (User ID and W-APN)) 2.W-APN Resolution & Tunnel Establishment to PDG in HPLMN WLAN UE WLAN AN WAG AAA Proxy/ Server Visited PDG AAA Server Home PDG 1.3 Retrieving authentication & authorization data 2. W-APN resolution & tunnel establishment to PDG in Home PLMN 2.5 Tunnel packet flow filter exchange •WLAN UE constructs an FQDN using the W-APN Network Identifier and HPLMN ID as the Operator Identifier 17 .4 next authentication & authorization 2.

3 Retrieving authentication & authorization data 2. W-APN resolution & tunnel establishment to PDG in Visited PLMN 2. WLAN Access Authentication & Authorization and WLAN UE local IP address allocation External AAA Server 2.4 next authentication & authorization 2.2 End-to-end tunnel establishment (User ID and W-APN) •WLAN UE constructs an FQDN using the W-APN Network Identifier and VPLMN ID as the Operator Identifier 18 .5 Tunnel packet flow filter exchange 2.1 DNS Query 2.W-APN Resolution & Tunnel Establishment to PDG in VPLMN WLAN UE WLAN AN WAG AAA Proxy/ Server Visited PDG AAA Server Home PDG 1.

UE determine to release the tunnel 2. Release the tunnel resource and info 4.WLAN UE Initiated Tunnel Disconnection Procedure WLAN UE WLAN AN WAG PDG AAA Server HLR/HSS 1. Release ack 3. Filtering policy remove from WAG 19 . Release the tunnel resource and info 5. Release tunnel req. Tunnel disconnection Report External AAA Server 3. Stop accounting (if needed) 6a. 3. service info/ status update 6b.

TP 20 .PDG Implementation Re-using GGSN Functionality (1/2) PDG W LAN UE DHCP W u TTG PDG Gn’ n G GGSN GSNsubset Gi / Wi Radius 3GPP PS Services W LAN UE Application Application Servers Servers O ne-to-one m apping between each end-to-end end tunnel and a corresponding G tunnel.

PDG Implementation Re-using GGSN Functionality (2/2) ‧ Normative Annex ‧ Re-using GGSN functions – Charging Gateway Function – IP address allocation – Authentication in external networks – Single access to 3GPP PS domain services ‧ Gn' shall comprise subset of Gn procedures – Create PDP Context Request/Response – Update PDP Context Request/Response – Delete PDP Context Request/Response – Error Indication – Version Not Supported – GTP Payload Forwarding 21 .

Retrieving authentication & authorization data 5. Create PDP context request 6.DNS Query 3. End-to-end Tunnel establishment ack 8.Tunnel Establishment Procedure WLAN UE WLAN AN WAG AAA Proxy/ Server TTG GGSN 1. Apply packet filter policy to WAG 22 . End-to-end Tunnel establishment request 4. Create PDP context response 7. WLAN Access Authentication and Authorization 2.

Release tunnel request 2. packet filter policy remove from WAG 23 . Release ack 5. Delete PDP context request 3.WLAN UE Initiated Tunnel Disconnection Procedure WLAN UE WLAN AN WAG AAA Proxy/ Server TTG GGSN 1. Delete PDP context response 4. Tunnel disconnection report 6.

Outline ‧3G/WLAN Integrated Scenarios –3G/WLAN Interworking Architecture –Packet Data Gateway (PDG) ‧3G/WiMAX Integrated Scenarios –WiMAX Related Specifications –3G/WiMAX Interworking Architecture –WiMAX Access Gateway (WAG) ‧Conclusion 24 .

• IEEE 802.16-2004/Cor1-2005.16/Conformance03-2004 – Coexistence • 802. 802.16h – Mobile Multihop Relay (MMR) SG 802.16-2004.16 Completed Projects – Air interface • 802.16-2001. 802.16a-2003. 802. 802.IEEE Related Spec.16e-2005 – Conformance • 802. 802. 802. 802. 802. 802.16c-2002.2-2001.16g (Management Plane Procedures & Services).16/Conformance02-2003.16 Active TG and SG – TG C Conformance04 – Network Management TG 802.16f-2005.2-2004 • IEEE 802.16i (Mobile MIB) – License-Exempt TG 802.16.16/Conformance01-2003.16j 25 . 802.16.

WiMAX Forum Related Spec. • • • • • Marketing Working Group (MWG) Service Provider Working Group (SPWG) Regulatory Working Group (RWG) Technical Working Group (TWG) Network Working Group (NWG) – WiMAX E2E Network System Architecture (stage 2: Architecture Tenets. • Application Working Group (AWG) • Certification Working Group (CWG) 26 . Draft. Reference Model and Reference Points). 2006-3-1.

3G/WiMAX Integrated Architecture Internet Billing Server PDG Home AAA 3GPP Core Network GGSN SGSN RNC 3GPP Access Network Loosely Coupled Interworking WAG Home Agent WiMAX Network Service Provider Local AAA F A WiMAX ASN WiMAX Base Stations 3GPP card WiMAX card 27 UE .

WiMAX-3GPP Interworking (NonRoaming Case) 28 .

WiMAX E2E Network Reference Model NAP Network Access Provider ASN Access Service Network ASP Application Service Provider NSP Network Service Provider 29 CSN Connectivity Service Network .

ASN Reference Model ASN R3 R1 R6 ASN Gateway & Decision Enforcement Points BS R4 R8 R6 R1 BS 30 .

Overall Network Reference Model CSN ASN ASN GW R2 R6 R6 R3 R4 R3 ASN GW R5 CSN ASN R6 R8 BS 1 BS 2 BS 3 R1 MS 31 .

R6 consists of the set of control and bearer plane protocols for communication between the BS and the ASN-GW.Functions of Reference Points • R3 consists of the set of control plane protocols between the ASN and the CSN to support AAA. The control plane includes protocols for datapath establishment. R4 is the only interoperable RP between similar or heterogeneous ASNs. may serve as a conduit for exchange of MAC states information between BSs that can’t interoperate over R8. tunneling) to transfer user data between the ASN and the CSN. • • 32 . The bearer plane consists of intra-ASN datapath between the BS and ASN gateway.g. It also encompasses the bearer plane methods (e. R4 consists of the set of Control and Bearer plane protocols originating/terminating in various functional entities of an ASN that coordinate MS mobility between ASNs and ASN-GWs. R6. modification. in combination with R4. and release control in accordance with the MS mobility events.. policy enforcement and mobility management capabilities.

Functional Design and Decomposition • • • • • • • IP Addressing AAA Framework ASN Security Architecture Accounting Mobility Management Radio Resource Management Paging and Idle-Mode MS Operation 33 .

34 . ‧ The DHCP Server address is retrieved from the AAA access authentication or configured locally at the ASN.IP Addressing (example in IPv4) ‧ PoA (Point-of-Attachment) IP address could be static or dynamic. could be assigned by visited CSP or home CSP.

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16 Auth. EAP AKA etc. Tunneled TLS(TTLS). Relay R3 AAA Protocol UDP/IP 36 . -TLS. Relay Protocol Auth. EAP R6 PKMv2 802.AAA Framework Authetication Relay BS (ASN) Authenticator NAS (ASN) AAA Proxy(s) Authentication Server AAA Server (Home CSN) Supplicant MS EAP methods such as EAP Protected EAP(PEAP).

Authentication and Authorization Procedures – PKMv2 Procedures 37 .

ASN Security Architecture BS Authentication Relay Protocol AK Transfer Protocol ‧ AK Txfer could be triggered by: Authentication Relay Authenticator Key Receiver BS Authentication Domain = ASN 1 Key Distributor – MOB_HO_IND – RNG_REQ – MOB_MSHO_REQ –… BS Authentication + Key Distributor BS Authentication Domain = ASN n ‧ It is expected that AK Txfer Protocol primitives be implemented in TLV forms and be exchanged as part of intra-ASN and inter-ASN mobility management protocols 38 Mobility Domain = NAP .

Accounting ‧Based on RADIUS Protocol ‧Offline accounting(post-paid) –Create one UDR (Usage Data Records) per R6 connection ID ‧Online accounting(pre-paid) –On-line quota update opeartion ‧Hot-Lining –To efficiently address issues with users that would otherwise be unauthorized to access packet data services 39 .

Mobility Management ‧ Intra-ASN Mobility (w/o CoA Update) – Synonym ‧R6 Mobility ‧ASN Anchored Mobility – Functional Decomposition ‧Data Path (DP) Function ‧Handoff (HO) Function ‧Context Function ‧ Inter-ASN Mobility (w/ CoA update) – Synonym ‧R3 Mobility ‧CSN Anchored Mobility – Based on Mobile IP (RFC3344 and related RFCs) ‧Proxy-MIP (PMIP) ‧Client-MIP (CMIP) 40 .

Overall Reference for ASN Mobility Functions 41 .

e. Ethernet. Ethernet.g. GRE.16e SDU or part of it appended with additional info. e. ARQ para. MPLS – Payload is a 802. GRE.g. (CID of Target BS. …) 42 .Data Path Function ‧ Type1: typically a generic IP-in-IP tunnel. MPLS – Payload is an IP datagram or an Ethernet packet ‧ Type2: typically a generic IP-in-IP tunnel.

Data Path Function Network Transaction 43 .

security context corresponding to a MS at a target BS ‧To inform the network regarding the idle/sleep mode behaviors of the MS ‧To inform the network of initial network entry of a specific MS 44 .Context Function ‧To populate the context.

HO Function Network Transaction 45 .

Mobility w/ CoA Update (Mobile IP) 46 .

in ASN-GW (case a). An RRC is responsible for collection of radio resource indicators from associated RRA and communication between/across RRCs.Radio Resource Management case a case b ‧ RRA (Agent) : resides in BS. responsible for assisting local RRM as well as communication to the RRC ‧ RRC (Controller) : may resides in BS (case b). or in a standalone server in ASN. ‧ RRM procedures: – Spare capacity report (per BS) – PHY measurement report (per-MS) – Neighbor BS radio resource status update 47 .

contains the location info. 48 . ‧ Paging Agent (PA): ‧ Paging Group (PG): R6 – Resides in BS. ‧ Location Register (LR): – A distributed DB. which contain information about Idle mode MS.Paging and Idle-Mode MS Opearation ‧ Paging Controller (PC) – Administers the activity of idle mode MS. handles interaction between PC (R6) and R1 paging related function – comprising one or more PAs. of MS.

Generic Depiction of Functional Entities after MS Enters Idle Mode 49 .

and 3 could be applied to integrate 3GPP networks and other access networks. 2. 50 .Conclusion ‧The 3G/WLAN interworking scenarios 1.

234 v6. ‧3GPP TS 33. ‧3GPP TS 23. Reference Model and Reference Points). 3GPP System to WLAN Interworking. ‧WiMAX Forum.4.934. WiMAX End-to-End Network System Architecture (Stage 2: Architecture Tenets. 3G WLAN Interworking Security. Feasibility Study on 3GPP System to WLAN Interworking.Reference ‧3GPP TR 22.3.0.0.234 v6. 51 .