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Wednesday, July 06, 2011 #11

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Partition Of Bengal:
Outline:
• Introduction/Partition Of Bengal
• Details of the Partition
• Reaction To the Partition
• Reasons Behind The Reaction Of The Hindus
• Annulment Of The Partition
• Result Of The Annulment Of The Partition/ Conclusion

Introduction:

Partition of Bengal which took place in the year of 1905 was another landmark in the political history
of the Sub-continent. This partition went in favour of the Muslims of Bengal but the Hindus protested
vehemently against it. From the British point of view the reasons for this partition were only
administrative because the charge of the province was too heavy task for a Lt. Governor. According
to the British historian:

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“the Lt.Governor of Bengal had to administer, in 1903,


An area of 1, 89,000 square miles with a population of
7, 80, 00,000 and gross revenue of 75, 00,000 pounds.
No other provincial administrator of India had so huge
Charge………………”

Details Of The Partition:

Lord Curzon felt the need of the partition of Bengal and submitted the scheme to the British
government in February, 1905. The Secretary of state for India, St. John Brodick approved the plan in
June and consequently the province of Bengal was partitioned on 16th October, 1905. According to
this scheme, the province was divided into two provinces Eastern Bengal with Decca s its capital and
Western Bengal with Calcutta as its capital. The province of Eastern Bengal had an area of 10,640
square miles and a population of 31 million out of which 18 million were Muslims. On the other hand
Western Bengal had a population of 54 million out of which 45 million were Hindus. The Eastern
Bengal became a Muslim majority province because out of its 31 million population 18 million were
Muslims.

Reaction To The Partition:

The Muslims gladly welcomed the partition because it gave them majority in the Eastern province. On
the other hand, the Hindus showed violent reaction to the partition. According to Dr. I.H Qureshi:
“This modification of the boundaries of Bengal was made an occasion of unprecedented agitation by
the Hindus….first of Bengal and later on other parts of India. Ulterior motives were imputed to Curzon;
he had deliberately tried to divide the Hindus and the Muslims by drawing the line between Hindu and
Muslim halves of Bengal; he had favoured the Muslims by giving them a new province in which they
were in a clear majority; he Had vivisected Bengali homeland; he had struck a deadly blow to Bengali
nationality; he had sought to weaken the nationalist and patriotic Movement of the people of India
which had its strongest centres in Bengal.”
The Hindus started agitation against the partition. Indian National Congress also organized protest
meetings and demonstrations throughout the country.

Reasons Behind The Hindus’ Reaction:

i) The Hindus believed that they would come under the domination of the Muslims in the new province
and their superior position would be downgraded to the inferior status.
ii) As the provincial high Court and other judicial bodies were to be shifted to Decca, the Hindu
lawyers feared that their legal practices would be affected.
iii) Since Decca was to become the centre of journalists and academic activities, So the Hindu press
and media feared that from now onward the Muslim point of view would be projected in the
newspapers and magazines. The Hindus also feared that their income would seriously be lessened.
iv) The Hindu lords, capitalists and traders did not like the partition because it was to put an end of
their exploitation of the poor Muslims.
v) Before partition the Hindus enjoyed a dominant position in the political sphere in the province over
the Muslims. The partition put an end to their superior political status and political dominance over the
Muslims.

Annulment Of The Partition:

Constant Hindu violent reaction to the partition of Bengal forced the British government to revise its
decision. As a result, at the recommendation of the Viceroy Lord Harding, King George V announced
the annulment of the partition in the Delhi Darbar held on 12th December, 1911. This decision pleased
the Hindus but the Muslims felt betrayed.

Results Of The Annulment Of The Partition/ Conclusion:

The annulment of the partition greatly disappointed the Muslims and their faith in the justice of the
British government was shaken badly. In addition, the Hindu agitation against the partition convinced
the Muslim community that the Hindus were bent upon damaging its interests at all costs. According
to I.H Qureshi

“Muslim reaction to these decisions was naturally bitter. For years the government of India and Home
government had been telling the Muslims that the decision regarding the partition of Bengal was final

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and would not be reopened. Such flagrant disregard for solemn promises created a feeling of distrust
among the Muslims. They lost all faith in British pledges. They were convinced that the Government
listened only to sedition and clamour, that constitutional approaches did not pay, that loyalty was
rewarded with treachery………….”

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Wednesday, July 06, 2011 #12

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Simla Deputation:

Outline:
• Introduction
• Simla Deputation
• Members Of The Deputation
• Muslims’ Demands
• Lord Minto’s Response
• Significance Of Simla Deputation

Introduction:

The Hindu opposition of Urdu and partition of Bengal revealed it to the Muslims that the Hindus would
never allow the Muslims a respectable position in the Indian society. The political scene of India, at
that time, was dominated by the vigorous activities of the Congress who had no rival in the political
arena. The Muslims believed that only as organized endeavour would lead them to success.

Simla Deputation:

The political awakening of the Muslims of the Sub-Continent found its meaningful and effective
expression on October 1st, 1906, when a delegation of 35 Muslim leaders met Lord Minto to present

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the demands of the Muslim community. The Muslims of Indo-Pak were in minority and were not
satisfied with the system of joint electorates because under this system they did not get a due
representation in the presence of Hindu majority.

Members Of The Deputation:

The delegation consisted of 35 members representing all parts of the country. It was led by His
Excellency Sir Agha Khan who was his way to China and broke his journey at Colombo to render this
valuable national service.
Demands Of The Muslims:

Main demands put forwarded by the delegation were as under:


i) The Muhammadans may be granted the right of a separate electorate to choose their
representatives.
ii) Muslim judges may be appointed more frequently.
iii) The Muslims may be given due representation in the imperial legislative council.
iv) At least one Muslim may be appointed in Viceroy’s Executive council.
v) Muslims may be given due representation in Gazetted and Sub-ordinated Ministerial Services.

Lord Minto’s Response To The Muslim Leaders:

Lord Minto gave a patient hearing to the demands of the Muslims presented by Simla Deputation. He
expressed his complete agreement with the principles of the separate electorates. He promised to give
a sympathetic consideration to the demands and assured the deputation that he would do all what
was possible to meet the demands.

Importance Of The Simla Deputation:

Simla Deputation enjoys great importance in the history of Pakistan Movement. It was through this
deputation that the Muslims of India for the first time highlighted their demands as a community on
national level. According to I.H. Qureshi:
“The Simla Deputation occupies a crucially important place in the history of Muslim-India. For the first
time the Hindu-Muslim conflict was lifted to the constitutional plane. The rift in the society was now to
be reflected in legal and political institutions. The Muslims made it clear that they had no confidence in
the Hindu majority that they were not prepared to put their future in the hands of assemblies elected
on the assumed basis of a homogenous Indian nation. By implication the Muslims rejected the idea of
a single Indian nation on the ground of that the Muslim majority had an entity and could not be
merged into Hindu majority.”

Conclusion:

After the Simla Deputation the Muslims decided to continue the spirit of Muslim coordination and
cooperation in the political field. Nawab Mohsin-ul-Malik took a step forward in this connection and
wrote to Agha Khan, “The deputation which went to Simla should be kept alive, and I suggest that a
committee of members of deputation should be appointed to correspond with the Government for the
realization of the representation made. This is the work of All-India Conference and if you agree, I
should make detailed proposals.” Agha Khan agreed with the Proposals in December 1906 and the
leaders who took part in the Muhammadan Educational Conference at Dacca in December in 1906
founded All-India Muslim League.

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Wednesday, July 06, 2011 #13

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Muslim League:

Outline:
• Introduction
• Factors Leading To The Formation Of M.League
• Formation Of The Muslim League
• Objectives Of The Muslim League
• Services From 1906 To 1913
• Conclusion

Introduction:

As a result of the Aligarh Movement the Muslims of the Sub-Continent acquired political awakening
and started thinking in terms of a nation. As a separate nation they developed their own distinct
aspirations. However, Indian National Congress failed to come up to the expectations of the Muslims
because it protected Hindu interest at the cost of all considerations. Thus, the Muslims felt the need of
the political party which could safeguard their interests.

Factors Leading The Formation Of Muslim League:

Following were the main factors which led to the formations of Muslim League:
i) The anti-Muslim attitude shown by the Hindus during the Hindi-Urdu controversy convinced the
Muslims that they could not develop just working relationship with the Hindus.
ii) The Indian National Congress failed to protect the rights of the Muslim community. The pro-Hindu
attitude of the Congress totally disillusioned the Muslims.
iii) Frequent Hindu-Muslim riots developed a sense of Muslim nationalism among the Muslims.
iv) The Hindus reacted violently towards the Partition of Bengal. The anti-Muslim attitude convinced
the Muslims that the Hindus were not interested in their welfare.
v) The success of the Simla Deputation in October, 1906, encouraged the Muslim leaders that they
could forge unity among their ranks and protect their political and constitutional rights.
vi) Mr. Morley the new Liberal Prime Minister of England promised to introduce constitutional reforms
in India. As a result, Muslim leaders decided to establish a party which might protect their rights.

Formation Of Muslim League:

After the successful meeting of Simla deputation, the annual meeting of the Muhammadan Educational
conference was held at Decca on 30th December, 1906. After the session, the Muslim leaders
approved a resolution of Salim Ullah which proposed the formation of a political organization for the
Muslims named as All-India Muslim League. Mohammad Ali Johar, Hakim Ajmal Khan, Maulana Zafar
Ali supported the resolution. The resolution declared that:

“Resolved that the meeting composed of the Muslim leaders


from all parts of the country form an organization styled as
All-India Organization/Muslim League for the furtherance
of the following objectives”.

Objectives Of The Muslim League:

The objectives of the Muslim League were as under:


i) To promote among the Muslims of India the feelings of loyalty to the British government and to
remove misconception.
ii) To promote and advance the political rights and interests of the Muslims of India and to respectfully
represent the needs and requirements to the government.
iii) To prevent the rise among the Muslims of India any feeling of hostility towards other communities
without prejudice to the other aforementioned objectives of the Muslim League.

Services Of The Muslim League From 1906-1913:

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After its inception in 1906, the Muslim League became more and more representative and influential
with each passing year. Nawab Viqar-ul-Malik and Mian Mohammad Shafi gave this political party
purpose and direction in its early years of its inception. Then Jinnah in 10913 injected a new vigour to
this Muslim political organization.
During the period from 1906 to 1913 Muslim League got itself established as a Muslim political
organization. Muslims joined the League and forged unity among their ranks. The annulment of the
partition of Bengal provided another opportunity to the Muslims to join the Muslim League.
The annulment of the partition of Bengal surprised the Muslims and they lost their faith in the British
government. Consequently Muslim League in its annual session held in Lucknow in 913 adopted a new
strategy to achieve the system of self-government through constitutional means and cooperation with
other communities.

Conclusion:

Many Hindu historians and several British writers have alleged that the Muslim League was founded at
official instigation. They argue that it was Lord Minto who inspired the establishment of a Muslim
organization so as to divide the Congress and to minimize the strength of the Indian Freedom
Movement. But these statements are not supported by evidence. Contrary to this, the widely accepted
view is that the Muslim League was basically established to protect and advance the Muslim interests
and to combat the growing influence of the Indian National Congress.

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Wednesday, July 06, 2011 #14

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i said to add more details about first que ;talking about the que about ANJUMAN HIMAYAT ISLAM..it
needs some more details as it looks a little brief to me.hope you got it this time.

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Friday, July 08, 2011 #15

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dear members plz check...regards

Minto-Morley Reforms:

Outline:
• Introduction
• Main features of Minto-Morley Reforms
• Criticism Of The Reforms
• Reaction Of The Muslims To The Reforms

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• Conclusion

Introduction:

The Act of 1892 proved inadequate because it failed to come up to the expectations of the people. As
a result, the British government introduced Minto-Morley Reforms in 1909. These reforms aimed at
meeting the demands of the Muslims who wanted the system of separate and pleasing the Hindu who
has been demonstrating against the partition of Bengal. These reforms were formed on the basis of
the recommendations drafted by Lord Minto, the Viceroy of India and Lord Morley, Secretary of State
for India.

Main Features Of Minto-Morley Reforms:

Following were the main features of Minto-Morley Reforms:


i) The size of Legislative councils as enlarged by raising the number of additional members in Bihar,
Bengal, Bombay, Madras, Orissa and U.P to 50 and those Assam, Burma and Punjab to 30. The
Governor General’s Council was to consist of 69 members out of whom 37 were to be officials and 32
non-officials.
ii) The members of the Legislative Councils were allowed to move resolutions regarding taxations,
loans and grants. However, the Council could not discuss State, Railways and ecclesiastical.
iii) The number of the members of the Executive Councils of Bombay, Madras and Bengal was raised
from 2 to 4.
iv) The system of separate electorates was introduced. All the communities were granted due
representation in the Imperial Legislative Councils. Out of the elected 27 seats, 6 were given to
Landlords, 5 to Muhammadans, One to Muhammadan landlord and one each to Chambers of
Commerce of Bombay and Bengal.
v) Indians were appointed to the Executive Council. S.P Sinha was the first native member to
Governor-General’s Executive Council.
vi) In the provincial assemblies, the Chambers of Commerce, University, Senates, Landlords, District
Boards and Municipalities were given due representation.

Criticism To The Minto-Morley Reforms.

Minto-Morley Reforms failed to meet the aspirations of the people due to the following reasons:
i) The system of separate electorates proved ineffective because it provided a limited franchise. As a
result of limited franchise the votes could be influenced.
ii) According to the reforms the system of elections was indirect. The members of assemblies were not
elected indirectly by the people. Thus they felt no responsibility towards the people.
iii) The women were not granted right of going to the poll.
iv) Vested interests like chambers of Commerce, Landlords, District Board, University Senates and
Municipalities were given undue representation.
v) According to Garrat and Thompson, “The Act made no theoretical change on the Executive side,
though in the Legislatures right of criticism was increased.”
vi) According to A.B Keith,” The Reforms of 1909 failed in their object if that was to check the
propaganda for self-government and were clearly unlikely to satisfy the demands.”

Reaction Of The Muslims:

Despite certain constitutional drawbacks and flaws in the Minto-Morley Reforms the Muslims on the
whole welcomed them mainly because of the introduction of system of separate electorates. Agha
Khan while addressing the league’s annual session at Delhi in January 1910 said,” I am glad our just
demand has been recognized, we must accept it as final with appreciative spirit, worthy of our
traditions”.

Conclusion:

Despite the limited scope, Minto-Morley Reforms gave impetus to the constitutional development in
India. These reforms introduced the system of separate electorates for the first time which created a
great deal of political awareness among the Indian people. The Muslims got most what they
demanded. The acceptance of separate electorate for the Muslims enhanced their political importance
and significance.

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Friday, July 08, 2011 #16

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Lucknow Pact (1916)

Outline:
• Background
• Annulment Of The Partition Of Bengal
• Jinnah Joins The League
• Signing Of The Lucknow Pact
• Main Points Of The Pact
• Critical Analysis Of The Pact/Conclusion

Background:

In the first half of the twentieth century, the Hindu-Muslim controversy was going on but certain
events took place that made the Hindus and Muslims to think about the collaboration in their struggle
of self-rule.

Annulment Of The Partition Of Bengal:

The annulment of the partition of Bengal in December 1911 shocked the Muslims and they felt
convinced that even loyalty to the British government was not enough to safeguard their interests and
rights. Thus, the Muslim leadership decided to change the strategy of the Muslim League. As a result,
in December 1912, League changed its aim from loyalty to form self-government suitable to India.
However, the league retained its rights to modify self-rule in accordance with their needs and
requirements.

Jinnah Joins The League:

In the meantime, Jinnah joined the Muslim League. Mohammad Ali Jinnah’s entry into the league also
helped to change the attitudes of the Muslims towards the Hindus. He worked day and night for the
Hindu-Muslim unity and earned the title of “Ambassador of Unity”. Ultimately his efforts bore fruit and
Congress and League held their annual sessions simultaneously at Lucknow. Presiding at the Muslim
League session, he advocated the Hindu-Muslim unity by saying,
“Towards the Hindus our attitude should be of goodwill
And brotherly feelings, cooperation in the cause of our
Motherland should be our guiding principle. India’s real
Progress can only be achieved by a true understanding
And harmonious relations between the two great sister
Communities.”

Signing Of The Lucknow Pact:

During the joint session at Lucknow an agreement was signed between the Congress and the League,
which is historically known as “The Lucknow Pact” or “Congress-League Scheme.”

Main Clauses Of The Pact:

Following were the main clauses of the Lucknow Pact.

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i) The right of Muslims separate electorate was accepted by Congress.


ii) Both congress and Muslim League demanded self-rule from the government.
iii) The Governor-General should be the Head of the government of India.
iv) Half of the elected members of the Executive Council of the Governor-General should be Indians.
v) The salary of the Secretary of State should be drawn from the British Exchequer.
vi) Four-fifth members of the Imperial Council should be Indians.
vii) One-third members of the Imperial Council should be Muslims.
viii) The strength in each provincial legislature in major province should be at least 125 and 50 to 75
in minor province.
ix) In Province Muslims will be given representation in the ratio of:
Punjab: 50%
Bengal: 40%
Bombay: 33%
U.P: 30%
Bihar: 25%
C.P: 15%
Madras: 15%
x) Muslims will be given “weightage” in Muslim minority provinces and Hindus will be given
“weightage” in Muslim majority areas.
xi) The members of the provincial legislature should be directly elected through broad franchise.
xii) Judiciary shall be separated from the Executive.

Critical Analysis/Conclusion

i) Symbol Of Unity:

The Lucknow Pact was a symbol of unity between the Hindus and Muslims for first time in the history
of freedom struggle in the Sub-continent. The great achievement of this pact was the acceptance of
Congress of the right of separate electorates of Muslims. Congress before that never accepted Muslim
League as the true representative of the Muslims of India but through this Pact Congress recognized
Muslim League on equal footing with it. this Pact gave Muslim League real strength for first time.

ii) Enough Concession To each other:

Both the parties gave enough concession to each other. For example, Muslims were given
representation in non-Muslim majority provinces and Hindus were also given more representation in
Muslim minority areas.

iii) Atmosphere Of Cooperation

This Pact created an atmosphere of cooperation between the two-nations. But this proved a
transitionary period. Muslims’ happiness could not last longer when they found Congress withdrawing
from the Pact in the Nehru Report. The atmosphere of amity and brotherhood in which pact was
formed had now again converted into that of hostility. They political path of Congress changed when
Gandhi took its leadership and we find that sincere efforts made by Quaid-e-Azam proved futile and
he accepted the reality of Two-nation theory.

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Friday, July 08, 2011 #17

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seniors kindly check

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its really depressing to see that seniors are not taking interest in my notes and do not bother to
comment so as i cud make amendments and improve my note i started thread in order to get
guidance from the seniors thru their different view and critical analysis but it seems that no one has
time to check these notes and guide me

Saturday, July 09, 2011 #18

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Quote:

Originally Posted by Roshan wadhwani


its really depressing to see that seniors are not taking interest in my notes and do not bother
to comment so as i cud make amendments and improve my note i started thread in order
to get guidance from the seniors thru their different view and critical analysis but it seems
that no one has time to check these notes and guide me

@ Roshan, your effort is very nice. i already apprieciate you in thread. However, you have make your
notes in bulleted form, so i dint found anything wrong, that i may correct you. beacuse theory is a
form where some one contradict or moot towards disscusion or suggestions. i found your notes really
good, many of the points are new to me about minto morly especially. but if you write them, make
sure that it must be authenicated. points regarding womans in monto morly is unoticed for me before
reviewing your notes. so make them sure.

Over all your notes are good, but try to elobrate them further as possible for you....

BEST OF LUCK
__________________
It's Not Over 'til I Win

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Saturday, July 09, 2011 #19

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Quote:

Originally Posted by khuhro


@ Roshan, your effort is very nice. i already apprieciate you in thread. However, you have
make your notes in bulleted form, so i dint found anything wrong, that i may correct you.
beacuse theory is a form where some one contradict or moot towards disscusion or
suggestions. i found your notes really good, many of the points are new to me about minto
morly especially. but if you write them, make sure that it must be authenicated. points
regarding womans in monto morly is unoticed for me before reviewing your notes. so make
them sure.

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Over all your notes are good, but try to elobrate them further as possible for you....

BEST OF LUCK

Dear Khuhro First of all thanx for your liking my notes and for ur appreciation....i'll surely take care of
every while making notes.....dear are these notes good enough from css xams point of view? should i
elongate these notes further by xplaining more things or shud i restrict myself to the main theme and
points regarding the requirement of the questions??plz guide...thnx

Saturday, July 09, 2011 #20

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Khilafat Movement

Outline:
• Background
• Aims And Objectives Of Khilafat Movement
• Demands Of The Khilafat Committee
• Causes Of The Failure Of Khilafat Movement.
• Effects Of Khilafat Movement
i) Credit Side Of Khilafat Movement
ii) Adverse Side Of The Khilafat Movement
• Conclusion

Background:

After the First World War in 1918, British and its allied powers decided to divide Turkey among
themselves. Turkey supported Germany in the First World War. Germany lost the war and Turkey had
to face the music. British and its allies also resolved to dissolve the designation of Khilafat. The
designation of Khilafat always remained holy and sacred in the Muslim history. Khalifa is considered
the vicegerent of Allah on the Earth. Therefore, the Muslims became infuriated on this unholy act of
the British government. Maulana Mohammad Ali Johar and Maulana Shaukat Ali Johar along with other
Muslim leaders started a movement called the Khilafat movement.

Aims And Objectives Of The Khilafat Movement:

The Khilafat Movement aimed at presenting the Ottoman Empire and the continuity of the temporal
power of Khalifa to protect Muslim lands without any mandate. Mohammad Ali put forward the
demands of the Khilafat Movement in a speech delivered at Paris on March 21, 1920 by declaring:
“The Khilafat shall not be dismembered but that the Khalifa
Shall have sufficient temporal power for the defence of the
Faith, that in the Island of Arabia there shall be exclusive,
Muslim control without mandate or protection and that the
Khalifa shall remain as heretofore the warden of the
Holy places.”

Demands Of The Khilafat Movement:

The demands of the Khilafat committee were as under:


i) The Turkish Empire should not be dismembered.

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ii) The Holy place should remain in the custody of Turkish Government.
iii) The institution of Caliphate must be retained.

Causes Of The Failure Of Khilafat Movement:

Gandhi also joined Muslims in their Khilafat Movement. In fact, he wants to protect the British
government and needed autonomy of India through this movement. Therefore, he joined the Khilafat
Movement for achieving his coveted plan. Apparently, he was showing that he was sincere to the
Muslim cause.
Quaid-e-Azam admonished the Muslims that this movement should not be started but Muslims were
not listening to him.
Non-cooperation movement, Hijrat movement, Moplah revolt and the Chauri Chaura tragedy did a
great loss to Muslim properties, wealth and lives.
After the tragedy of Chauri Chaura, Gandhi left the Khilafat movement saying that he did not like
violence.
After Hijrat Movement, the Muslims had to come back to the Sub-continent but now they had lost
their hearth and home. They had to face the severe circumstances in the Khilafat movement.
In 1924, Mustafa Kamal Ata Turk assumed power in Turkey and abolished the institution of Khilafat
himself lf. This act of him really disappointed Muslims. Thus the Khilafat Movement came to an end
without achieving its goals.

Effects Of Khilafat Movement:

i) The Credit Side Of Khilafat Movement:


• It trained Muslims for political action and agitation.
• It united the extremists and modernists on one platform.
• They learned that Hindus can never be friends of Muslims. Their differences are too deep-rooted to
weed out.
• The Muslims got acquainted of their political power.
• It made Muslims politically conscious.
• It destroyed the myth of Muslims loyalty to the British.

ii) Adverse Side Of Khilafat Movement:

• Muslims became more interested in national affairs than international one.


• Hijrat movement cost millions of rupees and millions of families.
• Muslim emotionalism gave nothing to them. Khilafat was abolished not by British but by Turks
themselves.
• Religious leaders for the time being vanished from political arena.

Conclusion:

Every movement against the British rule left its good as well as bad effects on the people. After
Khilafat Movement Muslims of the Sub-continent become united, strong and conscious about their
separate identity which led them towards final destination. This was the real credit which Muslims
derived from Khilafat Movement.

The Following 4 Users Say Thank You to Roshan wadhwani For This Useful Post:
attique anwar (Wednesday, March 04, 2015), innocent fairy (Monday, March 19, 2012), SAMEYA
AROOJ (Wednesday, November 05, 2014), Sara Hamid (Sunday, March 08, 2015)

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