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Message from M. Ramzan Ali C.E.O ISRC

Dear participants,

Congratulations on being a part of the Pakistan National Exhibition. These fairs are held across
Pakistan. The competition is initiated to inspire students like yourself to push the limits of scientific
knowledge and share your discoveries with the rest of the world. ISRC is affiliated and feeder fair is
regular annual event which provides a platform for young scientists from various regions of the world
to compete in the field of science, engineering & technology. It provides good opportunities for talented
world students of grade 9-16 to generate ideas and transform them into research projects in the
subjects of Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Mathematics, Computer and Engineering.

Science Fair encourages innovation

In today’s world, we come across numerous problems to which we do not have the answers. The ISRC
provides an opportunity to students of classes 9 to 14 to test their creativity, knowledge and scientific
genius, and solve real world problems in the process.

About the projects

Only research based projects are allowed to enter the science fair. The idea behind the projects must be
original and creative and should be based on scientific research methodology, so select your projects
with care!
Please give yourself a lot of time to prepare and plan before actually conducting the research. It takes 1
to 2 months to complete the project. Your science teacher will be able to guide you through the process.

Read the handbook carefully!

Research projects are disqualified from the fairs if all the requirements stated in this guidebook are not
fulfilled. Make sure you fill all the relevant forms, have your data book, abstract and research paper
prepared! You display board must be of the correct size, and very attractive!
Good Luck and happy research!


Mohammad Ramzan Ali

Bahawalpur Pakistan.


What is the concept of ISRC SCIENCE FAIR?

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The Exhibition's aim is to infuse a spirit of discovery in school ,college & university students and
increase their interest in science and technology. It encourages students to use research as a tool for
creating new knowledge about themselves or the world around them, in order to answer a question or
solve a problem.

Participation details
Who is eligible to participate?

If you are a student of class 9-14 and have an idea that is original and innovative, you are eligible to
participate individually or in a team of 3 to compete along with your project. You should be eligible to
participate, this means that in the academic year you should be in classes ix to xvi and under age of 25
Research – based projects only qualify to participate at the Pakistan National Exhibition. Hence, your
project must be original in content and should be substantiated with data collected from
To participate at this exhibition you can choose any one of the following 07 subjects categories with
your project idea:

2) Computer Science
3) Chemistry
4) Math
6) Engineering
Subject Categories for projects
Subject that you should choose for your projects:
Select a topic of interest from any of the following subjects for your project. The panel of judges will
evaluate your project and classify it suitably.
Examples of past projects have been given at the end of each subject category to illustrate the kind of
projects that have participated in science fair around the world.

Theories, principles and laws governing energy and the effect of energy on matter – Solid state,
Optics, Acoustics, Particle, Nuclear, Atomic, Plasma, Superconductivity, Fluid and Gas Dynamics,
Thermodynamics, Semiconductors, Magnetism, Quantum Mechanics and Bio-physics.
Can electrodes be used to detect ice?
Photo-elastic stress analysis of rigid inclusion in polymer matrix.
Behavior of dry battery: time current relationship.

The study of nature and composition of matter and laws governing it-Physical chemistry,
Organic chemistry , Inorganic chemistry, Materials. Plastics, Fuels, Pesticides, Metallurgy and Soil
Extracts from catnip as mosquito repellent.
Which oil produces the most bio-diesel?

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Organic chemistry without solvents.

Development of formal logical systems or various numeral or algebraic computations and the
application of these principles--- Calculus, Geometry, Abstract Algebra, Number Theory, Statistics,
Complex Analysis and Probability .
1st Amazing algorithms solve mazes. 2nd Mathematical model to predict performance in sporting

Computer Science
Study and development of computer hardware, software, engineering, internet networking and
communication, graphics, simulations virtual reality or computational science (Including Data
structures, Encryption, Coding and Information Theory).
Design and implementation of spoken language system.
The simulation of interacting virtual bodies.
Internet efficiency ----- Can it be better?

It is a science of life. Research can pertain to the following Branches.
Study of animals
Study of plant life ---- Agriculture, agronomy, horticulture, forestry, plant taxonomy, plant physiology,
plant pathology, plant genetics, hydroponics, etc.
Biology of microorganisms--- bacteriology, virology, protozoology, fungi, bacterial genetics, yeast, etc.

Branch of science and technology concerned with design, building and use of engines, machines and
strutures-Chemical engineering, civil engineering, electrical engineering, mechanical engineering,
software engineering, systems engineering.

How to make your project prize-winning?

The judges therefore select projects that are of a certain standard and have global benchmarks. Your
project should reflect that quality and be innovative, original and must follow the scientific method.
Take the help of a mentor- she/he could be a research scientist or a teacher.

Eleven Steps to research based project

If you have decided to participate in the science fair choose your topic and start early. This will enable
you to organize your project in the correct format, with sufficient data and results of the experiment.
Read the flow of activity mentioned below to carry out your research based project.

1-Select your topic

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The first step, selecting a project idea, is the most important. This is the first hurdle or dilemma a
student faces when starting a science fair project, because it can make the difference between a good
and an excellent project. Keep two important things in mind while selecting your topic:
Firstly, choose a topic that interests you- you’ll have a lot more fun if you start with a topic that interests
secondly, while you’re choosing a topic, check all the resources around you. This will help you in doing
your project with ease, e.g. if you are doing a project on Eucalyptus leaves, ensure that you have the
Eucalyptus tree in the surrounding region where you live.

2- Sourcing information on your project

After selecting your project topic, learn everything about it. Books on your topic are likely to be found in
your local library or bookstore. You can use the many search engines available to find information
through related sites on the internet.
The more exhaustive your background literature search. The better you will be able to proceed with
your project.

3. Make a plan
Make a plan as to how you will conduct your experiment. You plan should include the following :
The purpose of your experiment .
The variable or the things that you are doing to change during the experiment. Also note the
parameters, which remain constant during the experiment.
Your hypothesis or what you think the outcome of the project will be.
A detailed procedure outlining how you will conduct the experiment. Include the type of conduct for the
experiment to be conducted.
Make a timetable and allot sufficient time to all stages of your work. Stick to the timetable as far as
possible so that you finish your project in time.
4- Make a hypothesis
When you think you know what variables may be involved, think about ways to change one at a time. If
you change more then one at a time, you will not know what variable is causing your observation.
Sometime variables are linked and work together to cause something. At first, try to choose variables
that you think act independently of each other. At this point, you are ready to translate your questions
into hypothesis.
A hypothesis is a question, which has been reworded into a form that can be tested by an experiment.
There is usually one hypothesis for each question you have. You must do at least one experiment to test
each hypothesis. This is a very important step. If possible, ask a scientist to go over your hypothesis
with you.

5. Design experiments to test your hypothesis

Design an experiment to test each hypothesis. Make a step-by-step list of what you will do to answer
each question. This list is called an experiment procedure. For an experiment to give answers you can
believe, it must have a “control”. A control allows you to see what changing a variable does by
comparing it to not changing anything. Without control you cannot be sure that changing the variable
causes your observations. A series of experiment that include a control is called a “controlled
Experiments are usually repeated to guarantee that what you observe is reproducible. It is also
repeated to obtain an average result. Reproducibility is a crucial requirement. Without it you cannot
trust your results. Think of possible errors and record them or correct them if possible. Your results
should be predictable, i.e. the same results should be obtained when the experiment is repeated. It is

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useful to choose a statistical test that will validate that changes are not due to mere chance but are
scientific in nature.

6. Do the experiments and record data

During each experiment ‘run’, you measure how much the variable affected the system under study.
Each change of variable produces a different response or record data in a table for this purpose. This is
considered “raw data “ since it has not been processed or interpreted yet. When raw data gets
processed mathematically, for example, it becomes results.

7. Record your observations

Observations can be written as description of what you noticed during an experiment or problems
encountered. Keep careful notes of everything you do and everything that happens. Observations are
valuable when drawing conclusions and useful for locating experiment details and data-log book. Do
not rely on your memory.

8. Consult your mentor

Discussion with your mentor should be an ongoing activity. Your mentor is a very important help in
guiding you through your project till the end. He/She will be able to give you all the required inputs to
develop a research –based project. The guidance will ensure that you are in the right direction and the
methodology being used by you is correct.

9. Do your calculations
Use your raw data to calculate and arrive at conclusions. For example, you weighed a container. This
weight is recorded in your raw data table as ‘wt. of container’ you then added some soil to the container
and weighed it again. This would be entered as ‘wt. of container + Soil’. In the calculation section, do the
calculation to find out how much soil was used in this experimental run: (wt. of container + soil) – ( wt
of container) = wt, of soil used. Each calculated answer is entered into a table in the ‘Result’ section
using proper units.

10. Summarize results

Summarize what happened. This can be in the form of a table of processed numerical data or graphs. It
could also be a written statement of what occurred during experiments. Studying table and graphs, we
can see trends that tell us how different variables cause our observations. Based on these trends, we
can draw conclusions that help us confirm or deny our original hypothesis. Often, mathematical
equations can be made from graphs. These equations allow us to predict how a change will affect the
system without the need to do additional experiments. Apply appropriate trends from which
conclusions could be drawn.

11. Make your conclusions

Using the trends in your experimental data and your experimental observations, try to answer your
original questions. Is your hypothesis correct? Now is the time to put together what happened and
assess the experiments you did.

It is possible that your observations lead you to conclude something different from your starting
hypothesis. Do not alter result to fit a theory. If your results do not support your hypothesis, it doesn’t

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matter. You still have done successful scientific research. The spirit of scientific inquiry requires an
open mind.

Cost feasibility_____ If your project involves making a ‘device’ then put down the estimated cost of
all the components required for that device. You must do a cost comparison with the existing products,
if applicable. You should also state the source from which these components can be obtained. This is
important as later the device designed by you is to be mass-produced.

What should be the essential elements of your projects?

Ideally your project should have the following elements of format of presentation:

Project data book

The project data book should have accurate and detailed notes of the research.

Research Paper
A research paper should be prepared and must be available along with the project data book with
relevant written material. A research paper helps organize data as well as thoughts. A good paper
includes the following sections:
a) Title Page – center the project title, and put your name, address, school and grade at the bottom
b) Table of contents Introduction - include a page number for the beginning of each section.
c) Introduction- the introduction sets the scene for your report. The introduction includes your
hypothesis, an explanation of what prompted your research and what you hoped to achieve.
d) Method- this section describes how you did the study. Describe in detail the methodology used to
collect your data or make your observations. Your report should be detailed enough for someone to be
able to repeat the experiment from the information in your paper. Include photographs or drawings of
self-designed equipment. Also specify the material used in the study. In the research work conducted by
you in this case, please include this year’s work only.
e) Discussion- this is the essence of your paper. The result and conclusions should flow smoothly
and logically from your data;be thorough. Allow your readers to see your train of thoughts, letting them
know exactly what you did. Compare your results with theoretical values, published data and expected
results. Include a discussion of possible errors. How did the data vary between. Repeated observations
of a similar event.
How were your results were affected by uncontrolled events? What would you do differently if you
repeat this project? What other experiments should be conducted?
f) Conclusion – This section describes what it all means. Briefly summarize your results. Be
specific do not generalize. Never introduce anything in the conclusion that has not been discussed.

Sr. No Topic page
1 Introduction 3
2 Experiment 4

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3 Discussion 9
4 Results 13
5 Conclusion 15
6 Future scope of Work 16
7 Acknowledgments 17
8 Reference List 18

Today, computer is being increasingly used in all aspects of our life.
Because of this, more and more information needs to be stored and transmitted in a digital format.
This exposes the information to interception by third party who uses it for their own benefit. The digital
information is therefore encrypted to keep it safe from third party interception.
I have developed a method which can be used, both to hide and acrobat information and make it
difficult for third party to access other people’s information. Under this method information is
encrypted by converting it to a colour code and stored as an image.

Information is stored in computer in binary form i.e all data is represented by combinations of 0 and 1.
It is possible to represent this data in octal value i.e to represent data into the base 8. The octal value
can be looked up into a collar palette and an image can be made out of this. Since the information is now
an image. It can also be printed and transferred.

Acknowledgments- you should always credit those who assisted you, including individuals,
businesses and educational or research institutions. Identify any financial support or material donation
received, but do not put it on the display board.
Reference list- your reference list should include any documentation that is not your own (i.e
books, journal articles).

Tips on writing an Abstract

An abstract gives the essence of the project in brief but in its complete form. Ideally an abstract should
not exceed 250 words. Judges and other viewers should have a fairly accurate idea of project from
reading the abstract. The abstract must focus on the current year’s research and give only minimal
reference to previous work as applicable, details, discussions and acknowledgments should not be
included in the abstract, but may be put in the longer research paper (if required) or given on the
project exhibit board.

The following should be the elements in your abstract:

A) Purpose of the experiment

(I) An introductory statement of the reason for investigating the topic of the project.
(II) A statement of the problem and/or the hypothesis being studied.

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B) Procedures used
A summary of the key point and an overview of how the investigation was conducted.
(I) An abstract does not give details about the materials used unless they greatly influenced the
procedure or had to be developed to conduct the investigation.
(II) An abstract should only include procedures done by the student. Work done by a mentor (such as
surgical procedures) or work done prior to student involvement must not be included.

C) Data
This section should provide key results that lead directly to the conclusions you have drawn.
It should not give too many details about the results nor include tables or graphs.

D) Conclusions
Conclusions from the investigation should be described briefly.
The summary paragraph should reflect on the process and possibly state some applications and
extensions of the investigation, if you need it.

Project set up & display

Since you want to attract and inform interested spectators and judges, make it easy for them to access
your project and the result you have obtained (Refer to the inside page of the back cover to view some
examples of displayed projects).

a)Display – make the most of your space using clear and concise displays. The allowable size and
shape of the display blackboard is 48 inches (122 cm) deep, 36 inches (90 cm) wide, and 96 inches
(243cm) high (including the tables they stand on). An easier size calculation would be that the center
panels should be close to 3 by 4 and the side panels should close on it respectively.

These are maximum measurements, so your display may be smaller then the above size. Make sure the
display reflects the current year’s work only.

b) A good Title - Your title is an extremely important attention-grabber. It should be simple and
must accurately represent your research but do not mention name of your school on board.

c) Take photographs - many projects involve elements that may not be safely exhibited at the
fair, but are an important part of the project. You might want to make photographs of important
part/phases of your experiment to use in your display.

d) Be organized- make sure your display is logically presented and easy to read. A glance should
enable anyone (particularly the judges) to locate the title, experiments, result and conclusion quickly.
When you arrange your display, imagine that you are seeing it for the first time.

e) Eye-catching - make sure your display stands out. Use neat, colourful headings, charts and
graphs to present your project Home-built equipment, construction paper, and coloured marks are
excellent for project displays. Pay special attention to the labeling of charts, diagrams, graphs and table.
Each item must have descriptive title.

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f) Correctly presented and well constructed - be sure to adhere to the size limitations
and safety rules when preparing your display. All forms required for the project should be displayed.
Make sure your display is sturdy, as it will need to remain intact for quite a while. Do not hesitate to ask
advice from adults if you need it.

Display Layout
1 Project Title
2 Abstract 6 Results

Pictures 7 Conclusion

3 Introduction 5 Data Pictures

4 Procedure

Items from your Research paper that need to go on the display

1)-Title 2)- Abstract 3)-Introduction 4)- Method
5)-Data 6) Results 7) Graphs/Images 8) Discussion 9) Conclusion

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