0 Up votes0 Down votes

1 views4 pagesMehran_Kardar]_statistical_physics__of_particles

Jan 24, 2018

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd

Mehran_Kardar]_statistical_physics__of_particles

© All Rights Reserved

1 views

Mehran_Kardar]_statistical_physics__of_particles

© All Rights Reserved

- Midnight in Chernobyl: The Untold Story of the World's Greatest Nuclear Disaster
- WomanCode: Perfect Your Cycle, Amplify Your Fertility, Supercharge Your Sex Drive, and Become a Power Source
- The Hormone Reset Diet: The 21-day Diet That Resets Your Metabolism
- The Final Day: A John Matherson Novel
- Bloody Sunday: A Thriller
- The Boy Who Harnessed the Wind: Creating Currents of Electricity and Hope
- Clinton Cash: The Untold Story of How and Why Foreign Governments and Businesses Helped Make Bill and Hillary Rich
- King, Warrior, Magician, Lover: Rediscovering the Archetypes of the Mature Masculine
- HBR's 10 Must Reads on Managing Yourself (with bonus article "How Will You Measure Your Life?" by Clayton M. Christensen)
- The Making of the Atomic Bomb
- Amity and Prosperity: One Family and the Fracturing of America
- The Energy Bus: 10 Rules to Fuel Your Life, Work, and Team With Positive Energy
- Vermilion Drift: A Novel
- Chernobyl 01:23:40: The Incredible True Story of the World's Worst Nuclear Disaster
- Multipliers, Revised and Updated: How the Best Leaders Make Everyone Smarter
- Midnight in Chernobyl: The Story of the World's Greatest Nuclear Disaster
- Free to Focus: A Total Productivity System to Achieve More by Doing Less

You are on page 1of 4

Physics Department

Exam #2

The surface tension γ and heat capacity at constant area CA for a water surface of area A

covered by a thin ﬁlm containing N organic molecules are given by

N kT aN 2

γ(T, A) = γ0 − + 2

A − bN A

� �2

T

CA (T ) = N kB + N kB

T0

where a, b, γ0 and T0 are constants and kB is Boltzmann’s constant. [Note: Previously we

used S to represent the surface tension but I have changed its symbol here to avoid any

confusion with the symbol for the entropy, S.] Expressions for diﬀerential work are given on

the last page.

Find an expression for the entropy S(T, A) of the surface ﬁlm, up to an additive constant.

A solid contains N similar impurity atoms ﬁxed at random lattice sites throughout the

crystal. (Because they can not move, they are not considered to be ‘identical’ particles.)

The impurity atoms have an angular momentum L = 1. In free space the three levels

m = 1, 0, and −1 are degenerate. In the crystal the levels are split by the electric ﬁelds of

the neighboring atoms. The m = 0 state has energy 0 and the m = 1 and m = −1 states

have energy Δ.

a) (10) Find the contribution of the impurities to the internal energy U (T, N ) of the

crystal.

b) (10) Without doing any calculations give the impurity contribution to the entropy at

T = 0 and in the limit where kB T » Δ.

c) (10) Find an expression for the impurity contribution to the heat capacity CV (T, N ).

Make a sketch of your result indicating clearly the behavior at high and low tempera

tures.

d) (10) The crystal ﬁeld splitting increases when the crystal is compressed. For modest

compressions this can be expressed as dΔ/dV = −γ(Δ/V ) where γ is a constant. Using

this information, ﬁnd the spreading pressure P (T, N ) exerted on the host crystal lattice

by the presence of the impurities. [In checking your answer it may be helpful to note

that the units of pressure are energy per unit volume.]

Somewhere in the vacuum of free space a spherical shell of radius R and absorptivity α is

heated from within by a small centered spherical blackbody of radius r << R which is held

at a high temperature TH . The shell loses energy by radiating outward into the vacuum.

a) (10) If α = 1 independent of frequency, ﬁnd the steady state temperature of the shell

TS in terms of TH , R and r.

cident power below ω0 and is completely

transparent above this frequency. Thus α

has the frequency dependence shown at the

right. nω0 << kTH so that for the frequen

cies that get absorbed the universal black

body energy density expression u(ω, T ) can

be approximated as follows.

n ω3 kT ω 2

u(ω, T ) = →

π 2 c3 exp(nω/kT ) − 1 π 2 c3

b) (10) Find the total power absorbed by the shell in terms of k, c, TH , ω0 , and the

appropriate radii.

c) (10) Find the steady state temperature of the shell TS in terms of TH , R and r assuming

that nω0 << kTS .

Hydrostatic system −P dV

Surface ﬁlm γ dA

Energy E dE = T dS + Xdx

Enthalpy H = E − Xx dH = T dS − xdX

c(n) = (n + 12 )nω n = 0, 1, 2, . . .

1

p(n) = e

−(n+ 2 )nω/kT /Z(T )

1

Z(T ) = e

− 2 nω/kT (1 − e−nω/kT )−1

< c(n) >= 12 nω + nω(enω/kT − 1)−1

Radiation laws

Kirchoﬀ’s law: e(ω, T )/α(ω, T ) = 14 c u(ω, T ) for all materials where e(ω, T ) is the emissive

power per unit area and per unit frequency interval, α(ω, T ) the absorptivity of the material,

and u(ω, T ) is the universal blackbody energy density function.

Stefan-Boltzmann law: e(T ) = σT 4 for a blackbody where e(T ) is the emissive power per

unit area integrated over all frequencies. (σ = 56.9 × 10−9 watt-m−2 K−4 )

e dx =

a ∞

ax eax xn e−x dx = n!

x e dx = 2 (ax − 1)

a 0

∞

eax e−x √

x2 eax dx = 3 (a2 x2 − 2ax + 2) √ dx = π

a 0 x

� x � ∞

2 /2σ 2

dx e (2πσ 2 )−1/2 x2n e−x dx = 1 · 3 · 5 · · · (2n − 1) σ 2n

x

= ln

1+e 1 + ex −∞

∞

2 1

x e

−x dx =

0 2

1

n!m!

xm (1 − x)n dx =

0 (m + n + 1)!

MIT OpenCourseWare

http://ocw.mit.edu

Spring 2013

For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use, visit: http://ocw.mit.edu/terms.

- The Perfect Gas Expansion Experiment (TH 11)Uploaded byMuhammad Haidharul Irfan
- k Ch04 SolutionsUploaded bykrhayden
- The Stefan Boltzmann LawUploaded byWilliam Bautista
- Pvc Specific HeatUploaded byila_368684492
- Definition of Heat CapacityUploaded byPunitha Nagappan
- protection auditUploaded byshivendra singh
- RUHFUS - Hydro Presentation 16042012Uploaded byluizgabriel_deus
- Chapter18 ThermoDynamicUploaded byVladimir Morote
- Entropy DefinitionUploaded bybitconcepts9781
- tmp182F.tmpUploaded byFrontiers
- L1_example.pdfUploaded bybrian
- CALORIMETRY and HEAT TRANSFER TYPE 1.pdfUploaded bysurya
- 9.thermoUploaded bycaptainhass
- 1-s2.0-S0022369715300044-mainUploaded byJuan Manuel Mendoza T
- Sect 2Uploaded byKea Merementsi
- 6.1ParticlenatureoflightUploaded byMSD fan
- Guideline 22 Appendix C Uncertainty TableUploaded byAli Abdurrahman Sungkar
- 8jUploaded bykprasannan
- Stefan Boltzmann LabUploaded byJan
- Engineering ThermodynamicsUploaded byShweta Mishra
- Ryyan_PHYS515Uploaded byMohammad Ryyan Khan
- Exergy-Analysis-Of-Gas-Turbine-burner-Engine.pdfUploaded byveena
- 10.1.1.548.79.pdfUploaded byksdfksl
- PPE 801.2_Hydraulic Analysis &DAP.Uploaded byEhigiator Joseph
- Basic Engineering Thrmodynamics (MEE-201) RCS (Makeup)Uploaded byShreyash Singh
- ch15Uploaded byPritam Jadhav
- thermo112Uploaded byDhan-sham Rana
- Entropy Discussion QuestionsUploaded byMolly Chiew
- XR-MR5UUploaded byJose Benavides
- Thermodynamics of Soil Moisture (Edlefsen and Anderson, 1940)Uploaded byandressaoliveira2301

- PARKER, Ian. Revolution in Psychology - Alienation to Emancipation.pdfUploaded byCaroline Blattner
- Copy of Gustav Le BonUploaded byapi-3701311
- The Psychology of RevolutionUploaded byFlorence Tan
- Berkeley Vol4Uploaded byCarol
- MIT8 044S14 Practexam1 03Uploaded by*83*22*
- MIT8_044S14_exam2_04.pdfUploaded by*83*22*
- Phys5305 MidTerm Spring2008Uploaded by*83*22*
- Phys5305 MidTerm Spring2009Uploaded by*83*22*
- Phys5305 MidTerm Spring2010Uploaded by*83*22*
- Phys4302 Exam I Spring 2012Uploaded by*83*22*
- Phys4302 Exam I Spring 2013Uploaded by*83*22*
- StatPhysExam150629 SolutionUploaded by*83*22*
- Phys5305 MidTerm Spring2007Uploaded by*83*22*
- Phys4302 Exam II Spring 2012Uploaded by*83*22*
- Phys4302 Exam II Spring 2013Uploaded by*83*22*
- Phys4302 Exam II Spring 2014Uploaded by*83*22*
- MIT8 044S14 Praexam2sol 03Uploaded by*83*22*
- MIT8 044S14 Praexam4sol 03Uploaded by*83*22*
- MIT8 044S14 Praexam3sol 03Uploaded by*83*22*
- MIT8 044S14 Practexam4 03Uploaded by*83*22*
- MIT8_044S14_praexam1sol_03.pdfUploaded by*83*22*
- MIT8_044S14_exam3_04 (1).pdfUploaded by*83*22*
- MIT8_044S14_exam4_04Uploaded by*83*22*
- MIT8_044S14_exam4sol_04Uploaded by*83*22*
- MIT8_044S14_exam3sol_04.pdfUploaded by*83*22*
- MIT8_044S14_exam4_03.pdfUploaded by*83*22*
- MIT8_044S14_exam3sol_03.pdfUploaded by*83*22*
- MIT8_044S14_exam3_03.pdfUploaded by*83*22*

- Understand Temperature Change in Process Stream MixingUploaded byAnonymous 1XHScfCI
- A Review of Organic Rankine Cycles (ORC) for the Recovery of Low-Grade Waste HeatUploaded byErdinç Kurşun
- ENS DC INVERTER GROUND SOURCEHEAT PUMP MANUAL 2.1.pdfUploaded byFranklin Nguyen
- how_to_read_psychchart_f_web.pdfUploaded byThomas Jose
- tnectUploaded byANIKET HULAGE
- Le Chatelier's Principle IBUploaded byAnjana_Ekka_4861
- Web application for thermal comfort ASHRAE Standard 55.pdfUploaded byPedro Ignacio Moreno Cuellar
- Ch 8 Noise Control by Suppression of Gas Pulsation.pdfUploaded bymaheshnagarkar
- 1-s2.0-S2095263515000564-mainUploaded byMuslimin
- Ceramic 3rd to 6th SemUploaded byashutoshgoel
- Chapter 1-Basic Aerodynamic-The Physics of Atmosphere.pptUploaded byzuliana_ismail8564
- StripperAbsorberUploaded byDaniel Dwi Kristanto Sitorus
- ThermodynamicsUploaded byJuan Andres Vazquez Mancilla
- HE Parallel- FullUploaded byMohammad A Othman
- AB Wool GlasswoolUploaded byCatur Oka Nurfansyah
- RTWD Series R(TM) 70-250 Ton Water-cooled Chiller Dimension DrawingsUploaded byJhon Lewis
- 174708651 Regenerative Air PreheaterUploaded byPrakash
- Coaching Set 1 PinkUploaded byjoe1256
- Che 416 Course Compact for 2018-19 SessionUploaded byesiri aluya
- MS Samsung Cassette InverterUploaded byMacSpares
- MFL54555504-UV_BTUploaded byHeriberto Guzman Leyva
- Open Directory - Science Technology Chemical Www.dmoz.OrgUploaded byJulie Merrill
- Temperature.pptUploaded byAbdelkader Faklani Dou
- 76965.pdfUploaded bygabriel
- Insulation CalculationUploaded byagazami
- Air PropertiesUploaded bysekar
- HIGH SOLAR FRACTION HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEMS D6-final_.pdfUploaded byLidijaSpaseska
- Viscous Dissipation Term in Energy EquationsUploaded byscience1990
- Us 20130160808Uploaded byelnuroruclu
- BTEC_NECS_1314_3218_EN[1]Uploaded byborodkin

## Much more than documents.

Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.

Cancel anytime.