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Physics Department

Practice Exam #2

At low temperatures the entropy and isothermal compressibility of a weakly interacting Bose

gas can be approximated by

5 3/2

S(T, V ) = aT V

2

1 ∂V

1

κT ≡ −

=

V 2

V ∂P

T 2c

where a and c are constants. In the limit of low temperature and high volume the pressure

P and the internal energy density E/V approach zero.

c) (5) Does this model for the gas obey the third law of thermodynamics? Explain the

reasoning behind your answer.

A reversible Carnot heat engine operates between two reservoirs with temperatures T1 and

T2 where T2 > T1 . The colder reservoir is so large that T1 remains essentially constant.

However, the hotter reservoir consists of a ﬁnite amount of ideal gas at constant volume, for

which the heat capacity CV is a given constant.

After the heat engine has run for some period of time, the temperature of the hotter reservoir

is reduced from T2 to T1 .

a) (10) What is the change in the entropy ΔS of the hotter reservoir during this period?

b) (10) How much work did the engine do during this period?

c) (10) What is the total change in the entropy of the system during this period?

volume V . The gas is in thermal equilibrium at a temperature T which is so high that the

energy of each atom can be approximated by its limiting ultra-relativistic limit:

f = cp where p ≡ |1p|

a) (7) Find the partition function for the gas, Z(N, L, T ). You may want to use spherical

coordinates in which dp3 = p2 sin θ dpdθdφ where p is the magnitude of the momentum

vector.

b) (7) Find the probability density for magnitude of the momentum, p(p). Sketch the

result.

e) (7) Find the entropy, S(T, V, N ). [Hint: It is possible to do this without taking another

derivative.]

Hydrostatic system −P dV

Surface ﬁlm γ dA

Energy E dE = T dS + Xdx

Enthalpy H = E − Xx dH = T dS − xdX

f(n) = (n + 12 )nω n = 0, 1, 2, . . .

1

p(n) = e−(n+ 2 )nω/kT /Z(T )

1

Z(T ) = e− 2 nω/kT (1 − e−nω/kT )−1

< f(n) >= 12 nω + nω(enω/kT − 1)−1

Radiation laws

Kirchoﬀ’s law: e(ω, T )/α(ω, T ) = 14 c u(ω, T ) for all materials where e(ω, T ) is the emissive

power and α(ω, T ) the absorptivity of the material and u(ω, T ) is the universal blackbody

energy density function.

Stefan-Boltzmann law: e(T ) = σT 4 for a blackbody where e(T ) is the emissive power inte

grated over all frequencies. (σ = 56.9 × 10−9 watt-m−2 K−4 )

e dx =

a ∞

ax eax xn e−x dx = n!

x e dx = 2 (ax − 1)

a 0

∞

eax e−x √

x2 eax dx = 3 (a2 x2 − 2ax + 2) √ dx = π

a 0 x

� x � ∞

2 /2σ 2

dx e (2πσ 2 )−1/2 x2n e−x dx = 1 · 3 · 5 · · · (2n − 1) σ n

x

= ln

1+e 1 + ex −∞

∞

2 1

x e

−x dx =

0 2

1

n!m!

xm (1 − x)n dx =

0 (m + n + 1)!

3

MIT OpenCourseWare

http://ocw.mit.edu

Spring 2013

For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use, visit: http://ocw.mit.edu/terms.

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