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# MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

Physics Department
8.044 Statistical Physics I Spring Term 2013
Solutions, Exam #2

## Problem 1 (30 points) Entropy of a Surface Film

γ and CA are given in terms of T and A so it is reasonable to choose T and A as the variables
in which to expand the entropy.

   
∂S ∂S
dS = dT + dA
∂T A ∂A T
   
d/Q ∂S ∂S CA N kB N kB T
CA ≡ =T ⇒ = = +
dt A
∂T A ∂T A T T T02

To find (∂S/∂A)T use a Maxwell Relation. You may either use the magic square or derive
the required relation as follows.

F ≡ U − TS

dF = −SdT + γdA

## cross derivatives of the prefactors of the differentials are equal

   
∂S ∂γ N kB
= − =
∂A T ∂T A A − bN

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Substituting in these results gives

   
N kB N kB T N kB
dS = + dT + dA
T T02 A − bN
 2
1 T
S = N kB ln T + N kB + f (A)
2 T0
 
∂S N kB
= f 0 (A) = ⇒ f (A) = N kB ln(A − bN ) + c
∂A T A − bN
 2
1 T
S(T, A) = N kB ln T + N kB + N kB ln(A − bN ) + c
2 T0

[Note: One can make the arguments of the logs dimensionless by distributing part of the
additive constant c among the various other terms.]
 2
1 T
S(T, A) = N kB ln(T /T1 ) + N kB + N kB ln((A − bN )/A1 ) + c0
2 T0

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Problem 2 (40 points) Crystal Field Splitting

a)
Z1 = 1 + 2 exp[−∆/kB T ]

X 2∆ exp[−∆/kB T ] 1
<> = state p(state) = = 2∆
1 + 2 exp[−∆/kB T ] exp[∆/kB T ] + 2
states
1
U (T, N ) = N <  >= 2∆N
exp[∆/kB T ] + 2

## As T → ∞, all three states are equally probable. S(T, N ) → kB N ln(3).

c)

   
∂U d 1
CV = = 2∆N CV energy gap behavior
∂T V dT exp[∆/kB T ] + 2
(∆/kB T 2 ) exp[∆/kB T ] 1/T2
= 2∆N
(exp[∆/kB T ] + 2)2
 2
∆ exp[∆/kB T ]
= 2N kB T
kB T (exp[∆/kB T ] + 2)2

d)
F (T, N ) = −kB T ln Z = −N kB T ln Z1 = −N kB T ln(1 + 2 exp[−∆/kB T ])
     
∂F ∂F d∆ ∆ ∂F
P (T, N ) = − =− =γ
∂VT ∂∆ T dV V ∂∆ T
   
∆ 1 −2
= −N kB T γ exp[−∆/kB T ]
V Z1 kB T
 
∆ exp[−∆/kB T ]
= 2N γ
V 1 + 2 exp[−∆/kB T ]
γ 1 U
= 2N ∆ =γ
V exp[∆/kB T ] + 2 V

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Problem 3 (30 points) Heating a Shell

P in = 4πr2 σTH4

## P out = 4πR2 σTS4

r
2 r
P out = P in ⇒ r TH4 =R 2
TS4 → TS = TH
R

 
b) 1
e(ω, T )heater = (1) c u(ω, TH )
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 c  Z ω0  k T 
2 B H
P in = (4πr ) 2 3
ω 2 dω
4 0 π c
r2 kB TH ω0 2 kB ω03 2
Z
= ω dω = r TH
πc2 0 3πc2

Note that the power is coming from the central object (not from the shell) and from its
surface (not volume). Thus this result is proportional to r2 .

 
c) 1
e(ω, T )shell = α(ω) c u(ω, TS )
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 c  Z ω0  k T  kB ω03 2
2 B S 2
P out = (4πR ) ω dω = R TS
4 0 π 2 c3 3πc2
 r 2
P out = P in ⇒ TS = TH
R
This is an example of a poor absorber being a poor emitter (Kirchoff’s law, on the information
sheet). The shell does not absorb beyond ω0 , thus it does not radiate beyond ω0 .

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http://ocw.mit.edu

Spring 2013