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Physics Department

8.044 Statistical Physics I Spring Term 2013

Solutions, Exam #2

γ and CA are given in terms of T and A so it is reasonable to choose T and A as the variables

in which to expand the entropy.

∂S ∂S

dS = dT + dA

∂T A ∂A T

d/Q ∂S ∂S CA N kB N kB T

CA ≡ =T ⇒ = = +

dt A

∂T A ∂T A T T T02

To find (∂S/∂A)T use a Maxwell Relation. You may either use the magic square or derive

the required relation as follows.

F ≡ U − TS

dF = −SdT + γdA

∂S ∂γ N kB

= − =

∂A T ∂T A A − bN

1

Substituting in these results gives

N kB N kB T N kB

dS = + dT + dA

T T02 A − bN

2

1 T

S = N kB ln T + N kB + f (A)

2 T0

∂S N kB

= f 0 (A) = ⇒ f (A) = N kB ln(A − bN ) + c

∂A T A − bN

2

1 T

S(T, A) = N kB ln T + N kB + N kB ln(A − bN ) + c

2 T0

[Note: One can make the arguments of the logs dimensionless by distributing part of the

additive constant c among the various other terms.]

2

1 T

S(T, A) = N kB ln(T /T1 ) + N kB + N kB ln((A − bN )/A1 ) + c0

2 T0

2

Problem 2 (40 points) Crystal Field Splitting

a)

Z1 = 1 + 2 exp[−∆/kB T ]

X 2∆ exp[−∆/kB T ] 1

<> = state p(state) = = 2∆

1 + 2 exp[−∆/kB T ] exp[∆/kB T ] + 2

states

1

U (T, N ) = N < >= 2∆N

exp[∆/kB T ] + 2

c)

∂U d 1

CV = = 2∆N CV energy gap behavior

∂T V dT exp[∆/kB T ] + 2

(∆/kB T 2 ) exp[∆/kB T ] 1/T2

= 2∆N

(exp[∆/kB T ] + 2)2

2

∆ exp[∆/kB T ]

= 2N kB T

kB T (exp[∆/kB T ] + 2)2

d)

F (T, N ) = −kB T ln Z = −N kB T ln Z1 = −N kB T ln(1 + 2 exp[−∆/kB T ])

∂F ∂F d∆ ∆ ∂F

P (T, N ) = − =− =γ

∂VT ∂∆ T dV V ∂∆ T

∆ 1 −2

= −N kB T γ exp[−∆/kB T ]

V Z1 kB T

∆ exp[−∆/kB T ]

= 2N γ

V 1 + 2 exp[−∆/kB T ]

γ 1 U

= 2N ∆ =γ

V exp[∆/kB T ] + 2 V

3

Problem 3 (30 points) Heating a Shell

P in = 4πr2 σTH4

r

2 r

P out = P in ⇒ r TH4 =R 2

TS4 → TS = TH

R

b) 1

e(ω, T )heater = (1) c u(ω, TH )

4

c Z ω0 k T

2 B H

P in = (4πr ) 2 3

ω 2 dω

4 0 π c

r2 kB TH ω0 2 kB ω03 2

Z

= ω dω = r TH

πc2 0 3πc2

Note that the power is coming from the central object (not from the shell) and from its

surface (not volume). Thus this result is proportional to r2 .

c) 1

e(ω, T )shell = α(ω) c u(ω, TS )

4

c Z ω0 k T kB ω03 2

2 B S 2

P out = (4πR ) ω dω = R TS

4 0 π 2 c3 3πc2

r 2

P out = P in ⇒ TS = TH

R

This is an example of a poor absorber being a poor emitter (Kirchoff’s law, on the information

sheet). The shell does not absorb beyond ω0 , thus it does not radiate beyond ω0 .

4

MIT OpenCourseWare

http://ocw.mit.edu

Spring 2013

For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use, visit: http://ocw.mit.edu/terms.

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