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MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

Physics Department
8.044 Statistical Physics I Spring Term 2013
Final Exam, Solutions

Problem 1 (20 points) Binary Alloy

a) Find the number of different ways of choosing the n α-sites to be vacated and occupied
by β atoms.
N!
#α =
n!(N − n)!

b) Find the number of different ways of choosing the n β-sites from which to take the β
atoms.
N!
#β =
n!(N − n)!

c) Find the entropy of the system as a function of n.


 
N!
S(n) = kB ln Ω = kB ln(#α × #β ) = 2kB ln
n!(N − n)!

d) Find U (T, N ).

S(n) = 2kB [N ln N − n ln n − (N − n) ln(N − n) − N + n + (N − n)]

     
1 ∂S ∂S ∂n 2kB
= = = [−1 − ln n + 1 + ln(N − n)]
T ∂U N ∂n N ∂U N 
| {z }
1/

 
 n n
= − ln → = e−/2kB T
2kB T N −n N −n

Solving for n gives


N N
n= → U (T, N ) =
1 + e/2kB T 1 + e/2kB T

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Problem 2 (20 points) DNA Model

a) This is a classical system with N non-degenerate states with energies En = n.


N
X
Z1 = e−n/kB T
n=0

b) When kT   one need consider only the lowest two energy states; this becomes an
energy gap dominated situation.
N
X e−n/kB T
hni = n
n=0
Z

0 e−0 + 1 e−/kB T e−/kB T


≈ =
e−0 + e−/kB T 1 + e−/kB T

≈ e−/kB T

c) When kB T   one can approximate sums over n by integrals. For example


N  N
X   Z ∞
X
−n/kB T kB T −n/kB T  kB T kB T
Z= e = e ≈ e−x dx =
 kB T  
n=0 n=0 |0 {z }
1

d) In a similar manner
N
X e−n/kB T
hni = n
n=0
Z
N   N  
X n −n/kB T kB T X n −n/kB T 
= e = e
n=0
kB T  n=0
kB T kB T
kB T ∞ x
Z
≈ xe dx
 0
| {z }
1

kB T



Alternatively use Z1 = 1/(β).


    
<U > 1 −1 ∂Z 1 −1 −Z kB T
hni = = = =
  Z ∂β  Z β 

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Problem 3 (20 points) Spin Waves

a)
~ = Lx Ly Lz = V
D(k)
2π 2π 2π (2π)3

b)

~
#(ω) = (volume of sphere in k-space) × D(k)
D(ε)
4 3 V
= πk (ω) 3
use k = (ω/a)1/2
3 (2π)
V  ω 3/2
=
6π 2 a
d#(ω) V
D(ω) = = 2
a−3/2 ω 1/2 0 ε
dω (2π)

c) Z ∞
U = h(ω)i D(ω) dω
0
Z ∞
V −3/2 ~ω
= 2
a ω 1/2 dω + Z.P. contribution
(2π) (e ~ω/kB T − 1)
0
 3/2 Z ∞ 3/2
V 1 5/2 x
= (kB T ) dx + Z.P. contribution
(2π)2 ~a 0 ex − 1
| {z }
≡ I

   3/2
∂U 5 kB T
CV (T, V ) = = 2 kB V I
∂T V 8π ~a

d) There is no energy gap behavior (CV ∝ T n e−∆/kB T ) because of the integration over a
continuous distribution of gaps (∆ = ~ω), some of which are less than kB T for any physical
T.

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Problem 4 (20 points) Graphene

a)
~ = Lx Ly = A
D(k)
2π 2π (2π)2

b)
~
#() = 2 × (area of disk in k-space) × D(k)

A 
= 2 × πk 2 () 2
use k =
(2π) ~v
 2
A 1
= 2
2π ~v
 2
d#() A 1
Dc () = = 
d π ~v

c)
D(ε)

0 ε
d)

µ(T = 0) rests at the last filled state at T = 0 which is at the top of the valence band, so
µ(T = 0) = 0 .

D() is symmetric about  = 0. If µ stays at  = 0 the symmetry of hn(, T )i assures that


as T increases the number of electrons lost from the valence band is exactly equal to the
number of electrons appearing in the conduction band. Thus µ(T ) = 0 for all T covered by
this model.

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e) Z ∞
U =  hn(, T )i D() d
−∞
Z ∞
= 2  hn(, T )i Dc () d
0
 2 Z ∞
A 1 1
= 2 d
π ~v 0 (e/kB T + 1)
2 ∞
x2
 Z
A 1 3
= (kB T ) dx
π ~v (ex + 1)
|0 {z }
≡ I
 2
A 1
= (kB T )3 I
π ~v

f)

CA (T ) = (∂U/∂T )A so CA (T ) will be proportional to T 2 , that is the temperature exponent n = 2.

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Problem 5 (20 points) BEC

a)

Z ∞
N = < n > D() d
0
" 3/2 #
Z ∞ 

1 V 2m
=  d
0 e(−µ)/kB T − 1 (2π)2 ~2
 3/2 Z ∞ √
V 2m 
= d
4π 2 ~2 e(−µ)/kB T − 1
0
 3/2 Z ∞ √
V 2mkB T x
= −
dx
4π 2 ~2
0 e (x y) −1
| {z }
≡ I(y)
 3/2
V 2mkB T
n = I(y)
4π 2 ~2

b) Bose-Einstein condensation begins when the above condition is satisfied with µ = 0 which
also means our dimensionless parameter y = 0.
 3/2
V 2mkB Tc
nc = 2 I(y = 0)
4π ~2

c)

dU = T dS − P dV + µdN ; change independent variables to T, V, N :



∂S ∂S ∂S
dS = dT + dV + dN
∂T T,V ∂V T,N ∂N T,V

So ∂U/∂N |V,T = µ + T ∂S/∂N |T,V .

Now use Maxwell relation derivable from dF = ... on the information sheet: ∂S/∂N |T,V =
−∂µ/∂T |T,N . so

∂U ∂ µ 2 ∂ µ
∂(βµ)
=µ−T = −T =
∂ N V,T ∂T N,V ∂T T N,V ∂β N,V

In the Bose condensed phase µ = 0 and is independent of the temperature, so both terms in
∂U/∂N are zero.

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d)

From answer to part a)

 3/2 Z ∞ √ Z ∞ √
1 2mk 3/2 x dx N x dx
n= 2 T C × β 3/2 =
4π ~2 0 e(x−y) − 1 V 0 e(x−y) − 1

where C is a collection of constants.

Differentiate this equation implicitly w.r.t. β and y = µβ,


Z ∞
√ e(x−y)

3 N 1/2 dy
× β = xdx (x−y) 2
2 V 0 (e − 1) dβ

Both the term on the left and the term in () are positive definite. Thus dy/dβ > 0.

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8.044 Statistical Physics I


Spring 2013

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