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You are on page 1of 8

Physics Department

8.044 Statistical Physics I Spring Term 2013

Final Exam, Solutions

a) Find the number of different ways of choosing the n α-sites to be vacated and occupied

by β atoms.

N!

#α =

n!(N − n)!

b) Find the number of different ways of choosing the n β-sites from which to take the β

atoms.

N!

#β =

n!(N − n)!

N!

S(n) = kB ln Ω = kB ln(#α × #β ) = 2kB ln

n!(N − n)!

d) Find U (T, N ).

1 ∂S ∂S ∂n 2kB

= = = [−1 − ln n + 1 + ln(N − n)]

T ∂U N ∂n N ∂U N

| {z }

1/

n n

= − ln → = e−/2kB T

2kB T N −n N −n

N N

n= → U (T, N ) =

1 + e/2kB T 1 + e/2kB T

1

Problem 2 (20 points) DNA Model

N

X

Z1 = e−n/kB T

n=0

b) When kT one need consider only the lowest two energy states; this becomes an

energy gap dominated situation.

N

X e−n/kB T

hni = n

n=0

Z

≈ =

e−0 + e−/kB T 1 + e−/kB T

≈ e−/kB T

N N

X Z ∞

X

−n/kB T kB T −n/kB T kB T kB T

Z= e = e ≈ e−x dx =

kB T

n=0 n=0 |0 {z }

1

d) In a similar manner

N

X e−n/kB T

hni = n

n=0

Z

N N

X n −n/kB T kB T X n −n/kB T

= e = e

n=0

kB T n=0

kB T kB T

kB T ∞ x

Z

≈ xe dx

0

| {z }

1

kB T

≈

<U > 1 −1 ∂Z 1 −1 −Z kB T

hni = = = =

Z ∂β Z β

2

Problem 3 (20 points) Spin Waves

a)

~ = Lx Ly Lz = V

D(k)

2π 2π 2π (2π)3

b)

~

#(ω) = (volume of sphere in k-space) × D(k)

D(ε)

4 3 V

= πk (ω) 3

use k = (ω/a)1/2

3 (2π)

V ω 3/2

=

6π 2 a

d#(ω) V

D(ω) = = 2

a−3/2 ω 1/2 0 ε

dω (2π)

c) Z ∞

U = h(ω)i D(ω) dω

0

Z ∞

V −3/2 ~ω

= 2

a ω 1/2 dω + Z.P. contribution

(2π) (e ~ω/kB T − 1)

0

3/2 Z ∞ 3/2

V 1 5/2 x

= (kB T ) dx + Z.P. contribution

(2π)2 ~a 0 ex − 1

| {z }

≡ I

3/2

∂U 5 kB T

CV (T, V ) = = 2 kB V I

∂T V 8π ~a

d) There is no energy gap behavior (CV ∝ T n e−∆/kB T ) because of the integration over a

continuous distribution of gaps (∆ = ~ω), some of which are less than kB T for any physical

T.

3

Problem 4 (20 points) Graphene

a)

~ = Lx Ly = A

D(k)

2π 2π (2π)2

b)

~

#() = 2 × (area of disk in k-space) × D(k)

A

= 2 × πk 2 () 2

use k =

(2π) ~v

2

A 1

= 2

2π ~v

2

d#() A 1

Dc () = =

d π ~v

c)

D(ε)

0 ε

d)

µ(T = 0) rests at the last filled state at T = 0 which is at the top of the valence band, so

µ(T = 0) = 0 .

as T increases the number of electrons lost from the valence band is exactly equal to the

number of electrons appearing in the conduction band. Thus µ(T ) = 0 for all T covered by

this model.

4

e) Z ∞

U = hn(, T )i D() d

−∞

Z ∞

= 2 hn(, T )i Dc () d

0

2 Z ∞

A 1 1

= 2 d

π ~v 0 (e/kB T + 1)

2 ∞

x2

Z

A 1 3

= (kB T ) dx

π ~v (ex + 1)

|0 {z }

≡ I

2

A 1

= (kB T )3 I

π ~v

f)

5

Problem 5 (20 points) BEC

a)

Z ∞

N = < n > D() d

0

" 3/2 #

Z ∞

√

1 V 2m

= d

0 e(−µ)/kB T − 1 (2π)2 ~2

3/2 Z ∞ √

V 2m

= d

4π 2 ~2 e(−µ)/kB T − 1

0

3/2 Z ∞ √

V 2mkB T x

= −

dx

4π 2 ~2

0 e (x y) −1

| {z }

≡ I(y)

3/2

V 2mkB T

n = I(y)

4π 2 ~2

b) Bose-Einstein condensation begins when the above condition is satisfied with µ = 0 which

also means our dimensionless parameter y = 0.

3/2

V 2mkB Tc

nc = 2 I(y = 0)

4π ~2

c)

∂S ∂S ∂S

dS = dT + dV + dN

∂T T,V ∂V T,N ∂N T,V

Now use Maxwell relation derivable from dF = ... on the information sheet: ∂S/∂N |T,V =

−∂µ/∂T |T,N . so

∂U ∂ µ 2 ∂ µ

∂(βµ)

=µ−T = −T =

∂ N V,T ∂T N,V ∂T T N,V ∂β N,V

In the Bose condensed phase µ = 0 and is independent of the temperature, so both terms in

∂U/∂N are zero.

6

d)

3/2 Z ∞ √ Z ∞ √

1 2mk 3/2 x dx N x dx

n= 2 T C × β 3/2 =

4π ~2 0 e(x−y) − 1 V 0 e(x−y) − 1

Z ∞

√ e(x−y)

3 N 1/2 dy

× β = xdx (x−y) 2

2 V 0 (e − 1) dβ

Both the term on the left and the term in () are positive definite. Thus dy/dβ > 0.

7

MIT OpenCourseWare

http://ocw.mit.edu

Spring 2013

For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use, visit: http://ocw.mit.edu/terms.

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