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Physics Department

Problem Set #3

Due in hand-in box by 12:40 PM, Wednesday, February 27

p(x)

1/3

0 a x

In an eﬀort to clear impurities from a fabricated nano-wire a laser beam is swept repeatedly

along the wire in the presence of a parallel electric ﬁeld. After one sweep an impurity initially

at x = 0 has the following probability density of being found at a new position x

1 2

p(x) = δ(x) + exp[−x/a] 0≤x

3 3a

= 0 elsewhere

Give an approximate probability density for the total distance d the impurity has moved

along the wire after 36 sweeps of the laser beam.

Consider one cubic centimeter of a dilute gas of atoms of mass M in thermal equilibrium

at temperature T= 0o C and atmospheric pressure. (Recall that Lochmidt’s number – the

number of atoms (or molecules) in a cubic meter of an ideal gas at T= 0o C and atmospheric

pressure – has the value 2.69×1025 m−3 .)

a) For the kinetic energy of a single atom, ﬁnd a numerical value for the ratio of standard

deviation (the square root of the variance) to the mean. You may use the results you

found in problem 4 on Problem Set 2.

b) Find the same ratio for total energy of the gas, assumed to be all kinetic.

Problem 3: Temperature

Systems A and B are paramagnetic salts with coordinates H, M and H ' , M ' respectively.

System C is a gas with coordinates P , V . When A and C are in thermal equilibrium, the

equation

nRCH − M P V = 0

is found to hold. When B and C are in thermal equilibrium, we get

a) What are the three functions that are equal to one another at thermal equilibrium?

b) Set each of these functions equal to the ideal gas temperature T and see if you recognize

any of these equations of state.

dV = −V KT dP + V αdT

where KT is the isothermal compressibility and α is the thermal expansion coeﬃcient. Find

the work done on the solid as it is taken between state (P1 , T1 ) and (P2 , T2 ) by each of

the three paths indicated in the sketch. Assume that the fractional volume change is small

enough that the function V (P, T ) which enters the expression for dV can be taken to be

constant at V = V1 = V (P1 , T1 ) during the process.

The pressure P due to the thermal equilibrium radiation ﬁeld inside a cavity depends only

on the temperature T of the cavity and not on its volume V ,

1

P = σT 4 .

3

In this expression σ is a constant. Find the work done on the radiation ﬁeld as the cavity is

taken between states (V1 , T1 ) and (V2 , T2 ) along the two paths shown in the diagram.

Which of the following is an exact diﬀerential of a function S(x, y)? Find S where possible.

S(x, y) = (2x5 + 5x2 y 3 + 3y 5 )/5 + C

b) ey dx + x(ey + 1)dy

S(x, y) does not exist.

c) (y − x)ex dx + (1 + ex )dy

S(x, y) = y + (1 + y − x)ex + C

magnetization is a maximum at T = 0, decreases to zero at the critical temperature T = Tc ,

and is zero for all T > Tc .

For temperatures just below Tc the magnetic susceptibility and the temperature coeﬃcient

of M might be modeled by the expressions

∂M a

χT ≡ = + 3bH 2

∂H T (1 − T /Tc )

∂M 1 f (H) 1 M0 1

= 2

−

∂T H Tc (1 − T /Tc ) 2 Tc (1 − T /Tc )1/2

where M0 , Tc , a, and b are constants and f (H) is a function of H alone with the property

that f (H = 0) = 0.

b) Find M (H, T ).

MIT OpenCourseWare

http://ocw.mit.edu

Spring 2013

For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use, visit: http://ocw.mit.edu/terms.

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