0 Up votes0 Down votes

4 views3 pagesJan 24, 2018

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd

© All Rights Reserved

4 views

© All Rights Reserved

- The Other Einstein: A Novel
- The Making of the Atomic Bomb
- When Einstein Walked with Gödel: Excursions to the Edge of Thought
- A Universe from Nothing: Why There Is Something Rather than Nothing
- University Physics
- Why Science Does Not Disprove God
- Gravitation
- The Nature of Space and Time
- Chaos: Making a New Science
- The Dancing Wu Li Masters: An Overview of the New Physics
- QED: The Strange Theory of Light and Matter
- Quantum Physics: What Everyone Needs to Know
- The Field Updated Ed: The Quest for the Secret Force of the Universe
- God's Debris: A Thought Experiment
- Physics II For Dummies
- Principles of Engineering Mechanics
- Calculus
- Modern Classical Physics: Optics, Fluids, Plasmas, Elasticity, Relativity, and Statistical Physics
- This Is Gonna Hurt: Music, Photography, and Life Through the Distorted Lens of Nikki Sixx
- Dark Matter and the Dinosaurs: The Astounding Interconnectedness of the Universe

You are on page 1of 3

Physics Department

Problem Set #5

Due in hand-in box by 12:40 PM, Monday, March 11

The calculation we have done so far to obtain the allowed volume in phase space, Ω, for a

classical system is in error. We will demonstrate the results of this error in two diﬀerent

cases and then propose a remedy.

a) A state variable F is extensive if, after multiplying all the extensive variables in the ex

pression for F by a scale factor λ and leaving all the intensive variables in F unchanged,

the result is a λ fold increase in F , that is, λF . The expression we found for the cu

mulative volume in phase space for an ideal monatomic gas using the microcanonical

ensemble was

3N/2

4πemE

Φ(E, V, N ) = V N .

3N

Use S = k ln Φ and the derived result E = 32 N kT to write S as a function of the

thermodynamic variables N , V , and T . On physical grounds S should be extensive.

Show that our expression for S(N, V, T ) fails the above test for an extensive variable.

b) Consider a mixing experiment with two ideal gases, 1 and 2. A volume V is separated

into two parts V1 = αV and V2 = (1 − α)V by a movable partition (0 ≤ α ≤ 1). Let

N1 atoms of gas 1 be conﬁned in V1 and N2 atoms of gas 2 occupy V2 . Show that if

the temperature and pressure are the same on both sides of the partition, the ideal

gas equation of state requires that N1 = αN and N2 = (1 − α)N where N = N1 + N2 .

Pulling the partition out allows the gases to mix irreversibly if the gases are diﬀerent.

The mixing is irreversible but entropy is a state function so ΔSi ≡ Si (ﬁnal)−Si (initial)

can be computed for each gas from the expression in a). Show that ΔS1 = αN k ln(1/α)

and

ΔST ≡ ΔS1 + ΔS2 = N k [α ln(1/α) + (1 − α) ln(1/(1 − α))] .

This expression for the entropy of mixing is always positive, which is the result we

expect based upon the disorder interpretation of entropy.

Should ST increase as we slide the partition out when the two gases are the same? This

is diﬃcult to answer from an intuitive point of view since the presence of the partition

does restrict the atomic motion.

why the internal energy is unchanged in this process, ΔE = 0. Explain why no work

is done, ΔW = 0. The ﬁrst law of thermodynamics then requires that ΔQ = 0. But

sliding the partition open and closed is certainly a reversible process (when both gases

are the same) so ΔS = ΔQ/T = 0. This, together with our calculated result that

ΔS = 0 is known as Gibbs’ paradox.

c) One could argue that our expression for S is not correct since it is not a quantum

mechanical result. However, in the classical limit of high T and low N/V the classical

calculation should give the correct answer. Evidently, this one does not.

There is a concept which plays a central role in quantum mechanical calculations, even

though it is not itself a result of quantum mechanics. That concept is the indistin

guishability of identical particles. One argon atom is the same as all other argon atoms

(with the same isotope number). Which particle has momentum p at a location pq does

not matter in the overall speciﬁcation of the N body system; what matters is that

some particle has that particular p and pq. This implies that we have over-counted the

number of meaningful states in phase space by a factor of N ! where N is the number

of identical particles. To remedy this situation we should divide the results we have

obtained for Ω (and Φ and ω) by N !. This approach is known as “correct Boltzmann

counting”. Show by direct calculation that this solves the problems raised in parts a)

and b). [You may assume that N is so large that terms of the order N can be neglected

compared to terms of the order of N ln N .]

MIT OpenCourseWare

http://ocw.mit.edu

Spring 2013

For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use, visit: http://ocw.mit.edu/terms.

- Gas Purification MesserUploaded byAstrid Nadia Ningtias
- General-Chemistry Calculations January 2018Uploaded byRaymond Yabut
- Design_ Performance_ Fire Modelling_ Two-Zone Models-useUploaded byKenneth Okoye
- GE - System 1 Extender Dry Gas Seal RulepakUploaded bylerplata
- 1999 hw 3Uploaded byJackHammerthorn
- strauss1950 (1)Uploaded byHana
- spdFis21Uploaded byDon Feik Puto
- 33092_14Uploaded byAndré Oliveira
- The Average Net Worth of the Forbes 2013 Billionaires and Summary of the Regional AnalysisUploaded byVJLaxmanan
- physics 304Uploaded by140557
- FM.pdfUploaded byThiago Rocha Gomes
- p211p2Uploaded byPatrick Sibanda
- Amazon Profits Revenues Data AnalysisUploaded byVJLaxmanan
- Lab6_Marcet_BoilerRev3OpenUploaded byLalang Laut Best
- 03 Cycles AuxUploaded byYoonjin Hwang
- ISO 9676.pdfUploaded byLuis De La Torre
- Tables SaturationUploaded byGuilmar Moncayo Ponce
- ProbSet3Uploaded byleksey24
- Creating HyposUploaded byDraciv Vicard
- Chapter 10 Powerpoint - Student VersionUploaded byAnj LT
- Thermodynamics _ Physics for IdiotsUploaded byRupeshSonkamble
- H. Yokoyama-Hatch, et al. - A System and Its UrroundingsUploaded bygiuseppinodiflorida
- 9789889883171Uploaded byeibsource
- Performance of Packed Columns - Shulman 1955Uploaded byIvan Rodrigo
- Introduction to Source SamplingUploaded byDante
- Chapter 10 GasesUploaded bytalktotiffanycheng
- Chapter10 WEUploaded bytalktotiffanycheng
- 001593Uploaded bykishorkumarn8212
- 20 Tamaño burbuja EC.pdfUploaded byMartin Fernandez
- Mathematical Simulation of a Circulating Fluidized Bed CombustorUploaded byNguyễn Khôi

- PARKER, Ian. Revolution in Psychology - Alienation to Emancipation.pdfUploaded byCaroline Blattner
- Copy of Gustav Le BonUploaded byapi-3701311
- The Psychology of RevolutionUploaded byFlorence Tan
- Berkeley Vol4Uploaded byCarol
- MIT8 044S14 Practexam1 03Uploaded by*83*22*
- MIT8_044S14_exam2_04.pdfUploaded by*83*22*
- Phys5305 MidTerm Spring2008Uploaded by*83*22*
- Phys5305 MidTerm Spring2009Uploaded by*83*22*
- Phys5305 MidTerm Spring2010Uploaded by*83*22*
- Phys4302 Exam I Spring 2012Uploaded by*83*22*
- Phys4302 Exam I Spring 2013Uploaded by*83*22*
- StatPhysExam150629 SolutionUploaded by*83*22*
- Phys5305 MidTerm Spring2007Uploaded by*83*22*
- Phys4302 Exam II Spring 2012Uploaded by*83*22*
- Phys4302 Exam II Spring 2013Uploaded by*83*22*
- Phys4302 Exam II Spring 2014Uploaded by*83*22*
- MIT8 044S14 Praexam2sol 03Uploaded by*83*22*
- MIT8 044S14 Praexam4sol 03Uploaded by*83*22*
- MIT8 044S14 Praexam3sol 03Uploaded by*83*22*
- MIT8 044S14 Practexam4 03Uploaded by*83*22*
- MIT8_044S14_praexam1sol_03.pdfUploaded by*83*22*
- MIT8_044S14_exam3_04 (1).pdfUploaded by*83*22*
- MIT8_044S14_exam4sol_04Uploaded by*83*22*
- MIT8_044S14_exam4_04Uploaded by*83*22*
- MIT8_044S14_exam3sol_04.pdfUploaded by*83*22*
- MIT8_044S14_exam4_03.pdfUploaded by*83*22*
- MIT8_044S14_exam3sol_03.pdfUploaded by*83*22*
- MIT8_044S14_exam3_03.pdfUploaded by*83*22*

- 136 Problem set 4Uploaded bystrik3masta
- calorimetryUploaded byJason Salado Paquibulan
- QuimicaUploaded byVernon Sandoval
- 028.pptUploaded bySubramaniam Chandrasekaran
- 2016-17 ap chemistry syllabusUploaded byapi-258761667
- 11.pdfUploaded bySaleh Muhammad
- lapaoran teleng & EPMSUploaded byRii Utami
- Slimming World, Sep 2011Uploaded byemediage
- Valence ElectronsUploaded byapi-26570979
- r050211801 Physical MetallurgyUploaded bySRINIVASA RAO GANTA
- Heat Transfer simulationUploaded byMichael Asmith Unique
- Physics Phd Qualifying 97Uploaded bysaliya_kumara
- Ch1.pdfUploaded byGabby Tanaka
- IIIUploaded bynoel
- Dynamic thermal modelling of horizontal ground1.docxUploaded byNouman Yasar
- kerr examUploaded byKristopher Jacintos
- 2009_A_Level_P3_solutionsUploaded byTan Xuan Ying
- Phd Thesis 2Uploaded byahmedkhalidhussain
- heat and mass transfer labUploaded byAnonymous lGK9Y6
- Aggregation Behavior of Methacrylic Acid-ethyl Acrylate Copolymer in Dilute SolutionsUploaded bythangtv152
- Contoh Template Artikel AIP (1)Uploaded byAnonymous 8pSaum8q
- Designing and Calculation of MufflerUploaded byPravin Patil
- Laser by Abhi DokanUploaded byAbhishek Dokan
- Effects of Some Operating Parameters on Photocatlytic Activity of Agn Co Doped Tio2 Nonocomposite Under Visible IrradiationUploaded byijteee
- Steam Power Reviewer Terms and Problem SolvingUploaded byCherry May Basinang-Ramos
- 2015_Chemical Recycling of CF RF Epoxy Resin Composites via Selective Cleavage of the Carbon−Nitrogen Bond.pdfUploaded bySubramani Pichandi
- QM Lecture Notes 1Uploaded byDhruv Desai
- Computational NanoscienceUploaded byDeni Haryadi
- Cooling Tower CalculationUploaded byKora Thomas
- PFD Asam SitratUploaded byK-mol

## Much more than documents.

Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.

Cancel anytime.