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Physics Department

Problem Set #8

Due in hand-in box by 12:40 PM, Wednesday, April 10

Astronomers have discovered that there exist in the interstellar medium clouds of “dust

grains” whose chemical composition may include silicates (like sand) or carbon-containing

compounds (like graphite or silicon carbide). Evidence indicates that many of these grains

have a needle like shape.

If the rotational motion of a dust grain is to be described in terms of its principal axes (1,2,

and 3) the appropriate coordinates (angles) and canonically conjugate angular momenta are

θ1 , θ2 , θ3 and L1 , L2 , L3 . In terms of these variables the classical Hamiltonian for a single

grain is given by

1 2 1 2 1 2

H= L1 + L2 + L

2I1 2I2 2I3 3

where Ii is the moment of inertia about the ith principal axis. Assume that a dust cloud is

in thermal equilibrium at a temperature T .

a) Find an analytic expression (no unevaluated integrals) for the joint probability density

function for the canonical variables, p(θ1 , θ2 , θ3 , L1 , L2 , L3 ), for a single dust grain.

b) Assume that axis 3 is parallel to the long axis of the grain and that I3 << I1 = I2 . Will

the angular momentum of a dust grain be more likely to be parallel or perpendicular

to the long (3) axis? Find a quantitative result to support your contention.

c) Find the rotational contribution of the grains to the entropy of a dust cloud containing

N dust grains.

d) Does this model for the rotational motion of the dust grains obey the third law of

thermodynamics? Explain the reasoning behind your answer.

e) Should this model of rotational motion exhibit energy gap behavior? Why?

Fig.2 Looking down on the

perpendicular to the surface

surface, showing adsorption sites

If a perfect crystal is cleaved along a symmetry direction, the resulting surface could expose

a single geometrically ﬂat plane of atoms. Alternatively, if the crystal is cut at a slight angle

with respect to this direction, the resulting surface might take the form of a series of terraces

of ﬁxed width separated by steps of height corresponding to one atomic layer. This situation

is illustrated in ﬁgure 1. The steps themselves may not be straight lines, but may have kinks

when viewed from above as shown in ﬁgure 2. If impurity atoms were adsorbed on such a

surface, their energy could depend on where they reside relative to the steps.

Consider N identical xenon atoms adsorbed on a silicon surface which has a total of M

possible adsorption sites. There are three diﬀerent types of site that the xenon could occupy.

They would prefer to snuggle into a corner site at a kink in a step. One percent of the

sites are corner sites, and their energy deﬁnes the zero of the energy scale for adsorbed

atoms. Next in preference are edge sites. Fourteen percent of the M sites are edge sites

with an energy Δ above that of a corner site. The majority (85%) of the adsorption sites

are face sites, but they have an energy which is 1.5Δ above that of the corner sites. M is

so large compared to N competition for a given site can be neglected; the xenon atoms can

be considered completely independent. You may neglect the kinetic energy of the adsorbed

atoms.

a) Find the partition function, Z(N, T ), for the xenon atoms in terms of the parameters

M and Δ.

b) Find the ratio of xenon atoms on face sites to the number on corner sites.

c) Find an expression for the heat capacity of the adsorbed xenon atoms in the limit

kT « Δ.

d) What is the probability that a given xenon atom will be found on a face site in the

limit kT » Δ?

e) What is the limit of the entropy of this system as T → ∞ ?

f) Should this model for adsorbed atoms exhibit energy gap behavior? Why?

by a potential of the form V (r) = ar where r = (x2 + y 2 + z 2 )1/2 . The gas is in thermal

equilibrium at a temperature T .

a) Find the single particle partition function Z1 for a trapped atom. Express your answer

in the form Z1 = AT α a−η . Find the prefactor A and the exponents α and η. [Hint:

In spherical coordinates the volume element dx dy dz is replaced by r2 sin θ dr dθ dφ. A

unit sphere subtends a solid angle of 4π steradians.]

b) Find the entropy of the gas in terms of N , k, and Z1 (T, a). Do not leave any derivatives

in your answer.

c) The gas can be cooled if the potential is lowered reversibly (by decreasing a) while

no heat is allowed to be exchanged with the surroundings, dQ = 0. Under these

conditions, ﬁnd T as a function of a and the initial values T0 and a0 .

N molecules of molecular hydrogen H2 adsorbed on a ﬂat surface of area A are in thermal equi

librium at temperature T . On the surface they behave as a non-interacting two-dimensional

gas. In particular, the rotational motion of a molecule is conﬁned to the plane of the surface.

The quantum state of the planar rotation is speciﬁed by a single quantum number m which

can take on the values 0, ±1, ±2, ±3, ±4, etc. There is one quantum state for each allowed

value of m. The energies of the rotational states are given by fm = (l2 /2I)m2 where I is a

moment of inertia.

a) Find an expression for the rotational partition function of a single molecule. Do not

try to reduce it to an analytic function.

c) Find the probability that m = 3 given that f = 9l2 /2I. Find the probability that

m = 1 given that f ≤ l2 /2I.

d) Find the rotational contribution to the internal energy of the gas in the high temper

ature limit where kT » l2 /2I.

The two major intellectual advances in physics at the beginning of the twentieth century were

relativity and quantum mechanics. Ordinarily one associates relativity with high energies

and great distances. The realm of quantum mechanics, on the other hand, is usually thought

of as small distances or low temperatures. These perceptions are inaccurate. At the small

end of the distance scale the energy levels of heavy atoms must be computed using relativity.

For example, the electronic energy bands of lead show relativistic eﬀects. At the large end

of the distance scale QM can play an important role. We will show later in this course that

the radius of a white dwarf or a neutron star depends on Planck’s constant. The purpose

of this homework problem is to show that QM is necessary even earlier in the life history of

stars: they could not shine without it.

Relativity predated quantum mechanics. In the example discussed here, the physical source

of the energy released by stars, this order of events gave rise to uncertainty (and some

acrimony) in the scientiﬁc community.

In 1926 Arthur Eddington collected and reviewed all that was known about the interior

of stars (Internal Constitution of the Stars, A. S. Eddington, Cambridge University Press,

1926). Relativity, in particular the equivalence of mass and energy, was well understood at

that time. He concluded that the only possible source of the tremendous energy release in

stars was the fusion of hydrogen nuclei into helium nuclei with the associated conversion of

mass to energy.

Some physicists, however, questioned this view. They pointed out that whatever the chain of

reactions leading from hydrogen to helium (we now recognize two, the proton-proton chain

and the carbon cycle), the nuclei would have to surmount the repulsive coulomb barrier

caused by their positive charges before any fusion step could take place. The temperature

in the interior of the sun, 40 million degrees K, was not hot enough for this to happen.

a) Assume that the proton charge, |e| = 4.8 × 10−10 esu, is uniformly distributed through

out a sphere of radius R = 1.2 × 10−13 cm. What is the minimum energy Emin that

another proton (taken to be a point particle) must have if it is to get within R of the

ﬁrst proton?

b) Find an expression for the probability p+ that the kinetic energy of a particle in an

ideal gas exceeds Emin . You may use the results of problem 4 in problem set 2. Assume

that Emin is much greater than kT . Note that

� ∞

√ −y √

ye dy ≈ ae−a when a » 1.

a

Evaluate p+ for the value of Emin found above and a temperature of 40 million K.

c) The probability found above, 10−148 , does seem small; but, we should check its physical

consequences just to be sure. In a gas the mean speed < v >, the mean free path L,

and the mean free time τ are given by the following expressions.

Here n is the number density of particles and σ is a collision cross-section. Assume that

σ = π(2R)2 , that the sun is composed primarily of protons, and use a mass density of

100 g-cm−3 for the center of the sun. Find < v >, L, and τ at the center of the sun.

Comparison of Timescales for the Sun

t ff = 26 minutes

d) Now assume that the probability of fusion of two protons during a collision is indepen

dent of past history and = 19 million

t KHgiven by pyears

+ . What is the mean time to a fusion collision for a

given proton? Compare tn =this

10 billion (usingof! the

yearsage

to the = 0.007 and K n = 0.115

Universe, ) billion years. The mass of

Kelvin rejected

the sun 33

× 10 g.

is 2Darwin’s theory of biological

If all this mass evolution

were because t

due to biological >>

protonst KHat[itthe

must be remembered

central density, how

evolution

many

that fusion

nuclear events

energy wouldattake

was unknown place per second in the sun?

that time].

It was largely due to the geological evidence that the Earth was billions of years old, and the growing

acceptance

Eddington wasofaware

Darwin’softheory

thesethat led astrophysicists

arguments, but hetowas

investigate the possibility

nevertheless that our Sun

convinced thatmust

thebeenergy

nuclear-powered, converting hydrogen into helium in its core. At that time, the state of understanding of

source must be fusion:

the process was quite primitive.

“The difference of temperature between terrestrial and stellar conditions seems quite inadequate to

account for any appreciable simulation of transmutation or annihilation of matter; and this is the chief

ground on which censorship of our theories is likely. For example, it is held that the formation of helium

from hydrogen would not be appreciably accelerated at stellar temperatures, and therefore must be ruled

out as a source of stellar energy. But the helium which we handle must have been put together at some

time and some place. We do not argue with the critic who urges that the stars are not hot enough for this

process; we tell him to go and find a hotter place.”

A.S. Eddington (1926) - The Internal Constitution of the Stars (p. 301)

Quantum mechanics was developing quickly at9 this time, and it was being used to treat nu

merous physical problems. In 1928 Gamow showed that QM tunneling through the coulomb

barrier could explain the radioactive decay of nuclei. In 1929 Atkinson and Houtermans (R.

d’E. Atkinson and F. G. Houtermans, Zeitschrift für Physik, 54, 656 (1929)) showed that

tunneling from the outside of the coulomb barrier could explain why fusion can take place

at the calculated temperatures of stellar interiors.

Tunneling is now a familiar part of our understanding of QM. Simple problems involving

rectangular barriers are done in 8.04. Tunneling through the coulomb barrier is a bit more

involved mathematically; it is normally treated using the WKB approximation. We will not

carry out such a calculation here. The resulting probability of getting through the barrier,

when used in the computation done above, actually gives too high a fusion rate in the sun. A

realistic discussion of the fusion rate would involve three other factors, each of which reduces

the rate:

• Once a proton is in a light nucleus its probability of inducing fusion is still small

compared to its probability of tunneling out again.

• The full fusion cycle involves a number of individual fusion events (5 for the pp chain,

4 for the carbon cycle).

• Not all of the protons in the sun are in the central region where the temperature and

density are high enough to sustain the fusion process.

The concept of quantum tunneling had a major impact on both physics and astrophysics.

Therefore it is surprising that Eddington made the following comment at the beginning of

the 1930 edition of his book.

THE advances made since this book was first published are scarcely of

sufficient importance to justify an extensive revision, and (except for

correction of a few misprints) the text has been reprinted unchanged.

The actual fusion cycles themselves were worked out by Hans Bethe beginning in 1938. He

received the Nobel Prize in 1967 for this work as well as other contributions to the theory

of nuclear reactions.

MIT OpenCourseWare

http://ocw.mit.edu

Spring 2013

For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use, visit: http://ocw.mit.edu/terms.

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