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- The Other Einstein: A Novel
- Einstein: His Life and Universe
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Physics Department

Problem Set #6

Due in hand-in box by 12:40 PM, Wednesday, March 20

Sound waves are usually thought of as pressure waves. They are generally created by pressure

transducers of one kind or another and detected by the time dependent pressure they exert.

However, sound waves are often accompanied by small disturbances in the temperature as

well. This is important since one of the contributions to the damping of a sound wave is the

irreversible ﬂow of heat from the peaks to the troughs.

A sound wave traveling through a homogeneous isotropic solid produces small disturbances

in the pressure and temperature given by the expressions

ΔT (x, t) = ΔT cos(x − vt)

where v is the velocity of the wave. If the frequency of the sound wave is high enough –

which is usually the case – the irreversible heat ﬂow mentioned above can be neglected and

the process treated as adiabatic.

V = V0 (1 + αT − κT P ),

and since this is technically a hydrostatic system you can use the expression found in lecture

for such systems,

∂U ∂P

=T −P

∂V T ∂T V

Find the ratio of the temperature excursion to the pressure excursion, ΔT /ΔP , in terms of

α, κT , T , and the constant volume heat capacity per unit volume, CV /V0 . You should be

able to put your answer in the following form:

ΔT ( )

=

ΔP ( )+( )

If you work through to the end of this one you earn a merit badge in partial derivatives.

Note: In each of the following 3 problems you will need to use a Maxwell relation.You have

a choice. You can be a masochist and derive it, or you can be street-wise and use the magic

square mnemonic.

constant with the units of area.

a) Show that the constant area heat capacity CA is independent of area at ﬁxed temper

ature.

b) Show that the internal energy of the ﬁlm is a function of temperature alone and ﬁnd

an expression for the energy in terms of the heat capacity.

Later in the course we will show that a gas of atoms obeying Bose-Einstein statistics under

goes a phase transition at a very low temperature to another gas phase with quite diﬀerent

properties. [This transition was ﬁrst observed in the laboratory in 1995 and received a great

deal of publicity. Wolfgang Ketterle’s group here at MIT are world leaders in this ﬁeld. He

shared the 2001 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on Bose-Einstein Condensation.] The

equation of state and the heat capacity of the gas below the transition temperature are given

by the expressions

P (T, V ) = aT 5/2 + bT 3 + cV −2

CV (T, V ) = dT 3/2 V + eT 2 V + f T 1/2

where a through f are constants which are independent of T and V .

b) Find the relationships between a through f due to the fact that E(T, V ) is a state

function.

Problem 4: Paramagnet

Consider a paramagnetic material where the equation of state relating the magnetization,

M , to the applied magnetic ﬁeld, H, is M = AH/(T − T0 ). T0 and A are constants and the

expression is valid only for T > T0 .

constant T .

MIT OpenCourseWare

http://ocw.mit.edu

Spring 2013

For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use, visit: http://ocw.mit.edu/terms.

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