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- The Other Einstein: A Novel
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Physics Department

8.044 Statistical Physics I Spring Term 2013

Solutions to Problem Set #8

p(θ1 , θ2 , θ3 , L1 , L2 , L3 ) =

1 1 1 1 1 1

√ exp(−L21 /2I1 k T ) √ exp(−L22 /2I2 kT ) √ exp(−L23 /2I3 kT )

2π 2π 2π 2πI1 kT 2πI2 kT 2πI3 kT

⇒L

c)

h p iN

ZR = (Z1,R )N = (2π)9/2 I1 I2 I3 (kT )3/2

FR = −N kT ln Z1,R

∂FR 1 3 1

SR = − = N k ln Z1,R + N kT Z1,R

∂T N Z1,R 2 T

3

= N k ln Z1,R + N k

2

d) 3rd law is violated: limT →0 SR = N k ln(0) = −∞. At very low temperatures one must

switch to a quantum treatment of the rotational motion. Such a treatment will lead to a

result consistent with the 3rd law.

e) There is no energy gap behavior because there is no gap in the classically allowed rotational

energies. The quantum result, however, will show an energy gap.

1

Problem 2: Adsorption On a Stepped Surface

P

a) Z1 = states exp(−state /kT ) = 0.01M + 0.14M exp(−∆/kT ) + 0.85M exp(−1.5∆/kT )

b)

nface p 0.85M exp(−1.5∆/kT )

= face = = 85 exp(−1.5∆/kT )

ncorner pcorner 0.01M

0.01M 0.14M exp(−∆/kT )

= N (0) + (∆)

0.01M + 0.14M exp(−∆/kT ) 0.01M + 0.14M exp(−∆/kT )

≈ 14N ∆ exp(−∆/kT )

2

∂E ∆ ∆

CA = = 14N ∆ exp(−∆/kT ) = 14N k exp(−∆/kT )

∂T A kT 2 kT

f) One expects energy gap behavior because there is an energy gap for the excitation of a

single atom.

2

Problem 3: Neutral Atom Trap

p2x p2y p2

H1 = + + z + ar

2m 2m 2m

Then compute the partition function

Z ∞ Z ∞ p2

Z ∞ Z

1 p2

x

− 2mkT y

− 2mkT

p2

z

− 2mkT ar

Z1 = 3 e dpx e dpy e dpz e− kT r2 sin θ drdθdφ

h −∞

| √ {z } | −∞√ {z } | −∞√ {z } |V R {z }

∞

2π mkT 2πmkT 2πmkT 4π 0 exp[−ar/kT ] r2 dr

3 Z ∞

2πmkT 3/2 kT

= ( ) 4π y 2 e−y dy

h2 a

|0 {z }

2

= 8πk 3 ( ) T a

h2

In order to emphasize the dependence on the important variables, this can be written in the

form Z1 = AT α a−η where

2πmk 3/2

A = 8πk 3 ( ) α = 9/2 and η = 3.

h2

1 N

Z = Z

N! 1

F = −kT ln Z = −kT (N ln Z1 − N ln N + N )

= −N kT ln(Z1 /N ) − N kT

∂F

S = −

∂T N

1 Z1 /N

= N k ln(Z1 /N ) + N k + N kT (9/2)

Z1 /N T

= N k ln(Z1 /N ) + (11/2)N k

3

c) dQ = 0 no heat is exchanged with surroundings

⇒ dS = 0, S is constant

9/2

⇒ T 9/2 /a3 is constant and = T0 /a30

9/2 3

T a

=

T0 a0

2/3

a

T = T0

a0

a)

±3 9~2 /2I 2m

±2 4~2 /2I 2m

±1 ~2 /2I 2m

0 0 1m

m degeneracy

m = (~2 /2I) m2

X ∞

X

Zrot,1 = exp[−(state)/kT ] = exp[−(~2 /2IkT ) m2 ]

states m=−∞

∞

X

= 1+2 exp[−(~2 /2IkT ) j 2 ]

j=1

4

b)

p(m = 3) Z −1 exp[−9~2 /2IkT ]

= −1 = exp[−(5/2)~2 /IkT ]

p(m = 2) Z exp[−4~2 /2IkT ]

c)

Z −1 exp[−9~2 /2IkT ]

p(m = 3 | = 9~2 /2I) = = 1/2

2(Z −1 exp[−9~2 /2IkT ])

2 Z −1 exp[−~2 /2IkT ] 1

p(m = 1 | ≤ ~ /2I) = =

Z −1 + 2(Z −1 exp[−~2 /2IkT ]) 2 + exp[~2 /2IkT ])

d)

∞

X Z ∞

2 2

Zrot,1 = exp[−(~ /2IkT ) m ] → exp[−(~2 /2IkT ) m2 ] dm

m=−∞ −∞

∞ 1/2

m2

Z

2πIkT

= exp[− ] dm = ∝ β −1/2

−∞ 2(IkT /~2 ) ~2

| {z }

Gaussian normalization

1 ∂Z1

Erot = N < >= N −

Z1 ∂β

1 Z1 1

= N − − = (1/2)N = (1/2)N kT

Z1 2β β

5

Problem 5: Why Stars Shine

a) The electostatic potential outside the charged sphere depends only on r, the magnitude

of the distance from the center of the sphere.

|e|

φ(r) = r≥R

r

The potential energy of another proton, considered to be a point particle, in this field is

e2

V (r) = qφ(r) =

r

Then the minimum energy that the second proton must have to get within a radial distance

R of the first is

e2 (4.8 × 10−10 )2

Emin = V (R) = = = 1.92 × 10−6 ergs

R 1.2 × 10−13

b) In problem 4 of problem set 2 we found the following expression for the kinetic energy of

a particle in a three dimensional classical gas.

r

2 1 E

p(E) = √ exp[−E/kT ]

π kT kT

Now find the probability p+ that a given proton in the stellar plasma has an energy greater

than Emin .

Z ∞

p+ ≡ prob(E > Emin ) = p(E) dE

Emin

∞

r ∞

√

Z Z

2 1 E 2

= √ exp[−E/kT ] dE = √ y exp[−y] dy

π kT Emin kT π ymin =Emin /kT

2 √

≈ √ ymin exp[−ymin ]

π

This is going to turn out to be a very small number, probably too small to be represented

on a hand calculator. Therefore, let’s work toward getting its logarithm.

" r #

2 Emin

log10 (p+ ) = log10 √ + log10 exp[−Emin /kT ]

π kT

E E

log10 exp[−Emin /kT ] = − min log10 (e) = −(.4343) min

kT kT

Emin 1.920 × 10−6

= = 3.476 × 102

kT 1.381 × 10−16 × 4 × 107

p+ = 0.2 × 10−149

6

c)

r

8kT

<v> =

πm

1/2

8 × 1.381 × 10−16 × 4 × 107

= = 9.18 × 107 cm/sec

π × 1.67 × 10−24

ρ 100

n = = = 5.99 × 1025 protons/cm3

Mproton 1.67 × 10−24

d) The fusion rate per proton is p+ times the collision rate per proton. But in general a rate

equals the reciprocal of the characteristic time between events, so

1.01 × 10−9

τfusion = τcollision /p+ = = 5 × 10140 sec

0.2 × 10−149

The universe is about 15 billion years old, corresponding to a time

If the mass of the sun is 2 × 1033 grams then the number of protons it contains is given by

2 × 1033

Nprotons = = 1.2 × 1057

1.67 × 10−24

Then for the entire sun, the total number of fusions per second is found as follows.

= Nprotons /τfusion

7

MIT OpenCourseWare

http://ocw.mit.edu

Spring 2013

For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use, visit: http://ocw.mit.edu/terms.

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