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Physics Department

8.044 Statistical Physics I Spring Term 2003

Exam #2

In a weakly interacting gas of Bose particles at low temperature the expansion coef

ﬁcient α and the isothermal compressibility KT are given by

1 ∂V 5 a 3/2 2 3 b 2 2

α ≡ = T V + T V

V ∂T P 4 c 2c

1 ∂V 1 2

KT ≡ − = V

V ∂P T 2c

where a, b and c are constants. It is known that the pressure goes to zero in the limit

of large volume and low temperature. Find the equation of state P (T, V ).

U = AP 2 V

terms of A, P and V .

Assume that one also knows the thermal expansion coeﬃcient α and the isothermal

compressibility KT .

1 ∂V 1 ∂V

α≡ and KT ≡ −

V ∂T P V ∂P T

c) Find the constant volume heat capacity, CV , in terms of the known quantities.

In a particular molecular solid the individual molecules are localized at speciﬁc lattice

sites and possess no center of mass motion. However, each of the N molecules is free to

rotate about a ﬁxed direction in space which we will designate as the z direction. As

far as the rotational motion is concerned the molecules can be considered to be non-

interacting. The classical microscopic state of each molecule is speciﬁed by a rotation

angle 0 ≤ θ < 2π and a canonically conjugate angular momentum −∞ < l < ∞

about the z axis. The energy of a single molecule is independent of θ and depends

quadratically on l. Thus the Hamiltonian for the system is given by

N

li2

H=

i=1 2I

where I is the moment of inertia of a molecule about the z axis.

a) Represent the system by a microcanonical ensemble where the energy lies be-

tween E and E + ∆. Find an expression for the phase space volume Ω. Use

Sterling’s approximation to simplify your result. [It may be helpful to consult

the attached information sheet.]

b) Based on your calculations in a) ﬁnd the probability density p(θ) for the orien-

tation angle of a single molecule and explain your method.

c) The probability density p(l) for the angular momentum of a single molecule can

be written in the form p(l) = Ω /Ω where Ω = Ω(E, N ) is the quantity you

found in a). Find Ω . Do not try to simplify your answer. Do explain how to

eliminate E from your expression for p(l).

d) Find the energy of the system as a function of temperature, E(T, N ).

2

PARTIAL DERIVATIVE RELATIONSHIPS LIMITS

ln n

Let x, y, z be quantities satisfying a functional lim =0

n→∞ n

relation f (x, y, z) = 0. Let w be a function of

any two of x, y, z. Then √

lim n n = 1

n→∞

∂x ∂y ∂x

=

∂y w ∂z w ∂z w lim x1/n = 1 (x > 0)

n→∞

∂x 1

=

∂y z ∂y lim xn = 0 (|x| < 1)

n→∞

∂x z

x n

∂x ∂y ∂z lim 1+ = ex (any x)

= −1 n→∞ n

∂y z ∂z x ∂x y

xn

lim =0 (any x)

COMBINATORIAL FACTS n→∞ n!

The number of ways of choosing L objects from WORK IN SIMPLE SYSTEMS

a set of K objects is

K! System Intensive Extensive Work

quantity quantity

(K − L)!

if the order in which they are chosen matters, and

Hydrostatic P V −P dV

K!

system

L!(K − L)!

Surface S A SdA

STERLING’S APPROXIMATION

When K 1 Reversible E Z E dZ

ln K! ≈ K ln K − K or K! ≈ (K/e) K cell

Dielectric E P EdP

material

DERIVATIVE OF A LOG

Magnetic H M HdM

d 1 du(x) material

ln u(x) =

dx u(x) dx

OF RADIUS R

π α/2 α

R

(α/2)!

MIT OpenCourseWare

http://ocw.mit.edu

Spring 2013

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