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MIT8 044S14 Practexam4 03

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MIT8 044S14 Practexam4 03

Mehran_Kardar]_statistical_physics__of_particles

© All Rights Reserved

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Physics Department

Practice Exam #4

(k)

We have seen that the bulk motion of a solid or liquid can be described by harmonic

normal modes (that is, normal modes each having a harmonic oscillator Hamiltonian)

known as phonons. In a similar manner the two dimensional waves on an interface

between a liquid and its vapor can be described by harmonic normal modes known

as “ripplons” each having a single direction of polarization perpendicular to the in

terface. The dispersion curve for theseelementary excitations is isotropic and given

by hω(k)

¯ ≡ (k) = bk 3/2 where k = kx2 + ky2 . For a rectangular sample with di

mensions Lx and Ly , the wavevectors allowed by periodic boundary conditions are

k = (2π/Lx )mx̂ + (2π/Ly )nŷ where m and n can take on all positive and negative

integer values.

a) What is the density of allowed wavevectors D(k) such that D(k)dkx dky gives

the number of allowed wavevectors in the area dkx dky around the point k in

k-space?

b) Find an expression for the density of states as a function of energy D() for

the ripplons in terms of the parameter b and the area A = Lx Ly . Sketch your

result.

c) Find an expression for the ripplon contribution to the constant area heat ca

pacity CA (T ). Leave your result in terms of a dimensionless integral (do not

try to evaluate the integral). How does CA (T ) depend on T ? Sketch the result.

d) Does the system exhibit energy gap behavior? Explain your reasoning.

1

Problem 2: Impurity Atom (35 points)

1.5 ∆ d e

∆

b c

ENERGY

0

a

An impurity atom in a solid has 3 electrons (spin 1/2 Fermions) above a ﬁlled, inert

electronic shell. These electrons have available to them 5 spatial single-particle states,

ψa , ψb , ψc , ψd and ψe with energies a = 0, b = c = ∆, and d = e = 3∆/2. In what

follows, assume that there is no interaction between the electrons. [Note that part g

revisits b,c,d and f.]

a) How many 3-particle states are available to the atom? Be sure to take into

account both the spin and spatial variables when determining your number.

b) Write down the terms in the partition function Z(T ) arising from the states

corresponding to the two lowest 3-particle energies.

c) Write down the terms in the partition function Z(T ) arising from the states

corresponding to the two highest 3-particle energies.

f) What is the asymptotic value for the heat capacity at very high T ?

g) Repeat b), c), d) and f) [but not a) or e)] for the case where the three identical

particles are spin 0 Bosons∗ .

∗

I will treat to a free dinner in the fall anyone who answers a) for spin 0 Bosons without resorting

to brute force.

2

Problem 3: Realistic Super Insulation (20 points)

TH T TC

Two parallel plates of inﬁnite extent are separated by a vacuum and maintained at

temperatures TH and TC . The surface of each plate acts as a black body. A thin

conducting sheet is suspended in the vacuum as shown in the ﬁgure. Heat can be

transferred to the sheet only through the vacuum. The sheet has an absorptivity

α < 1, and a power reﬂectivity r = 1 − α.

b) Find the heat ﬂow from the hotter plate to the colder plate as a fraction F of

that which would occur in the absence of the sheet.

sample so small that the thermodynamics of the assembly is dominated by that of

the paramagnet alone. The assembly is cooled adiabatically by reducing the applied

magnetic ﬁeld from 8 kilogauss to 20 gauss. What is the ﬁnal temperature if the

initial temperature was 1 Kelvin? [This does not require an extensive calculation.]

3

Hydrostatic system −P dV

Surface ﬁlm S/dA

Linear system F dL

Dielectric material E dP

Magnetic material HdM

Energy E dE = T dS + Xdx

Helmholtz free energy F = E − TS dF = −SdT + Xdx

Gibbs free energy G = E − T S − Xx dG = −SdT − xdX

Enthalpy H = E − Xx dH = T dS − xdX

(n) = (n + 12 )h̄ω n = 0, 1, 2, . . .

p(n) = e−(n+ 2 )h̄ω/kT /Z(T )

1

1

¯ + hω(e

¯ ¯

hω/kT

− 1)−1

Radiation laws

Kirchoﬀ’s law: e(ω, T )/α(ω, T ) = 14 c u(ω, T ) for all materials where e(ω, T ) is the

emissive power and α(ω, T ) the absorptivity of the material and u(ω, T ) is the uni

versal blackbody energy density function.

Stefan-Boltzmann law: e(T ) = σT 4 for a blackbody where e(T ) is the emissive power

integrated over all frequencies. (σ = 56.9 × 10−9 watt-m−2 K−4 )

MIT OpenCourseWare

http://ocw.mit.edu

Spring 2013

For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use, visit: http://ocw.mit.edu/terms.

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