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B.A., B.Sc.,


and Drama

(Applicable to the students who

joined the first year of the

degree course in July 2003 and


A. Poetry:

Text: Spectrum – Board of

Editors – OUP

The following selections are

prescribed :
1. Samuel
an ode

2. John ..Ode to

Keats Psyche


3. Walt Pent-up

Whitman Aching


...I would
4. Emily
not paint a
5. Gerard


7. Robert ...Mending

Frost Wall

8. Wilfred ...Strange

Owen Meeting

9. W.H.
Shield of
B. Drama :

Text: Pride of plays

Ed.K.G. Sheshadri

Anuradha Publishers.


Unit Text Author


1 Dejection : an Ode

2 Ode to Psyche John Keats

From Pent up Walt

Aching Rivers Whitman

I would not Paint a Emily

Picture Dickinson
5 God'sGrandeur

6 Song Offerings Tagore's

Robert Lee
7 Mending wall

8 Strange Meeting

The Shield of W.H.

Achjlles Auden


D.1. The Bishop's Norman

Candlesticks Mckinnel

D.2. The Bear Anton

D.3. The Death Trap Saki

D.4. The Valiant Holworthy Hall

and Robert


D.5. The Monkey's W.W. Jacobs

Paw Dramatized

by Louis N.


D.6. The Best Laid Farrell Mitchell


D.7. The Trial of Mazie Hall

Billy Scott

1. Dejection : an Ode
- S.T. Coleridge

1.1. Introduction : Author

Samuel Taylor Coleridge (S.T.

Coleridge) is described by Charles

Lamb as “Logician, Metaphysician

and the Bard”. He had a very disquiet

life which was made more tumultuous

by his own sensitive and uneven

temperament. He was bom on

October 21, 1772 in Ottery, St. Mary,


Coleridge wrote very little, most of it

fragmentary. His reputation as a poet

rests on four to five poems composed

within a short period of six years like

“The Ancient Mariner”, “Christabel”,

“Kubla Khan”, “Frost at Midnight” etc.

His poems are classified as :

1. Personal Poems

2. Political poems and

3. Romantic poems.

Personal poems pay a touching

tribute to the days of hope and joy

experienced by the poet in the

company of Wordsworth. The poems

written during this phase gave him a

sense of belonging and a feeling of

personal security. During this period

only he had written the poem,

“Dejection: an ode” which expresses

the poet's sense of failure and

sterility and bewails the loss of

creative powers. Political poems talk

about Coleridge's interest in political

scenario of Europe and especially of

France, French Revolution and

England. Romantic poems give him

a reputation as a poet that rests on

three of his great romantic poems:

“The Ancient Mariner”, “Kubla Khan”,

and “Christabel” All the three evoke a

magical and mysterious mood.

Coleridge possesses an unusual gift

of evoking the mystery of things. He

is said to have the most vigorous

imagination among the romantic

poets. The major poems of Coleridge

have a strange dreamlike atmosphere

as dreams are no shadows; they are

the very substance of his life. He

fed on his dreams and vitalized them

in his poems. His love of the

supernatural led him to an

exploration of the middle ages, and

he was fascinated by the romances

and legends associated with them.

The essence of Coleridge's

romanticism lies in his artistic

treatment of the supernatural.

1.1.1. Introduction : Poem

Coleridge's attitude to nature as

depicted in the “Ode to Dejection” is

radically different from the attitude

he held earlier under the persuasive

influence of Wordsworth and his

sister Dorothy and expressed in such

poems as “The Aeolian Harp”

Coleridge was young and promising

but his creative potentialities were

muffled by an acute sense of

emotional insecurity felt by him. The

Wordsworths with their affection and

encouragement, stimulated his

creative imagination. He felt his inner

vitality being fructified and life

assumed some meaning for him. This

filled his heart with joy, which made

him perceive joy all around, and in

the company of Wordsworth, he came

to believe that the source of this joy

lay in nature. However, in his later

years due to estrangement from

Wordsworth and the influence of the

transcendental philosophy of
Germany, changed his attitude and

Nature ceased to be the physical

manifestation of a divine spirit

capable of exerting moral and

educative influence. It was reduced

into just a lifeless mass. As a

consequence of his misfortunes, a

stifled, drowsy, unimpassioned grief

has come to grip his mind and he

finds the beauty of nature utterly

incapable of raising the spirits.

Nature is beautiful as usual and he

has been gazing at its beauty for the

whole evening, but his inner spirits

have been left untouched :

Hints for Study

I see, not feel, how beautiful they

He comes to the conclusion that the

fountains of the passion and the life

are within and it would be utterly

futile to hope that he could win them

from outward forms. Actually, in “The

Dejection : an ode” the triumph of

Coleridge as an artist consists not in

transcending the neurotic state but in

giving it an adequate verbal shape”.

This is stated in four phases.

1. He briefly, describes his neurotic

state in which his pre-occupation

with the grief in his heart renders

him incapable of experiencing

though he keeps gazing at them

for the whole evening. It is this

neurosis that has made him look

at Nature as ‘the cold inanimate


2. Next he elaborates his concept of

joy and further he describes how

he came to lose it.

3. Giving utterance to his emotions,

he tries to expel his viper

thoughts from his mind but fails,

for he still thinks of the wind as

a ‘Mad Lutanist’ making ‘Devils


4. He is unable to transcend his

neurosis; but he succeeds in

giving it an adequate verbal

“Dejection : an Ode’, a verse letter
was first written on 4 April, 1802. It

was thoroughly revised and published

in the Morning Post on the fifth

October, 1802. Originally it was a

poem of 340 lines but the standard

text incorporating further revision,

consists of 139 lines and is divided

into eight stanzas. The ode was first

addressed to Sara Hutchinson, but in

a letter to his friend Poole, Coleridge

gave him the impression that it was

addressed to him. Later, he made

others believe that it was addressed

to Wordsworth.
Hints for Study

1. Coleridge wrote very little

2. He wrote personal, political

and romantic poems.

3. Personal poems - joy, hope,

despair, sad, melancholic.

4. Dejection-sad.

5. Attitude to nature.

6. Nature - divine - misfortunes

- neurotic state - incapable of

- experiencing beautiful things

- unable to transcend his


7. Dejection - a verse letter -

written in 1802.

1. to introduce students to various

forms of poetry.

2. To understand the rise and fall of

the poetic powers of Coleridge.

3. To make the students appreciate

the poem.

Unit Structure

1.1. Introduction: Author

1.1.1. Introduction : Poem

1.1.2. Summary

1.1.3. Critical Evaluation

1.1.4. Paraphrase

1.1.5. Explanatory Notes

1.1.6. Paragraph Questions

1.1.7. Model Annotations

1.1.8. Answers to Check

Your Progress Questions

1.2. Summary:

In a tranquil night, a dull melancholic

breeze is producing mournful sounds.

The poet sees the old moon in the

lap of the new one which foretells

a furious storm. The poet also fears

that, the furious winds will also

disturb the peace of the night. The

sounds of rain and storm raise his

drooping spirits in the past. The poet

wishes that the wind could swell into

a storm and will awaken his dull pain.

The poet is taken hold of by a grief-

dull, drowsy, unimpassioned grief.

The poet is not able to express

himself in words, sighs or tears. He

has been vacantly gazing at the

western sky and its particular hue of

yellow green all through the peaceful

evening. He has been watching the

beauty of the floating clouds, the

stars gliding, the moon shining in

another cloudless part of the sky. But

he has not been able to feel this

beauty because of the grief that he

has felt in his mind. He has lost his

spirits and feels that even if he has

been watching these beautiful things,

his spirit could not be raised as

external forms of nature cannot

animate a person if the real sources

of life and vitality lying within his

heart have dried up.

Then the poet begins to address the

lady and by addressing the lady he

says that we receive from nature only

what we give it. The happy or

mournful spectacles that nature

appears to be presenting to us get

that peculiar colour from our moods.

Nature appears to the poor care-worn

people of the world as cold and

lifeless. If we want to see in Nature

something of higher worth, our own

soul must send forth a glory and

radiance to envelop its objects and a

potent voice to endure its sound and

sweetness. The source of this glory

and sweetness is joy. This joy is the

power giving principle and the power,

a beautiful one in itself, enables one

to create beautiful things. Only pure

people can experience the purest

form with noble thoughts and

feelings. The sweetness of natural

sounds and the brightness of natural

sights proceed from joy.

The poet had experienced this joy in

the past. This enabled him to make

light of his misfortunes. He had to

lose the joy when he was stormed

with wordly sorrows and cares. He

grieves for the cause of such a loss.

The fact is that it has caused decline

of the shaping spirit of the

imagination. In order to escape his

oppressive grief and to reduce the

sensitivity of his heart, he began to

indulge in abstract philosophy and

metaphysics. When it grew to be a

habit, his poetic faculties were

rendered ineffective.

Then the poet desires to dismiss the

depressing thoughts of his mind and

turns his attention to the storm

raging outside. The sound of the wind

strikes him like the prolonged scream

of agony emitted by a human being

constantly under torture. He thinks

that it would be much better if the

wind were to blow against a bare

rock, a tree blasted by lightning, a

pine-grove unvisited, or a lonely

house believed to be haunted by a

ghost. The wind seems to be

celebrating the devil's Christmas. He

takes wind as an actor who is capable

of producing all kinds of tragic

sounds. The sounds appear to be the

painful groans of a defeated,

retreating army. It also reminds the

poet of a touching story written by

Thomas Otway about a little girl who

has lost her way on a lonely moor.

The girl moans desperately in grief

and fear and she cries aloud hoping

that her cry would get the attention

of her mother.

The poet has no inclination to sleep.

He prays that the lady may rarely

experience such a sleeplessness. He

prays that sleep may visit her and let

the morning bring her a light heart,

gay imagination, and cheerful eyes.

The poem concludes with the prayer

that joy may raise her spirit and all

things that exist in the world are for

her and for her sake and that she

may be blessed with happiness and


1.3. Critical Evaluation

“Dejection : An ode” is a very sad,

melancholic poem. It may be

considered the agonized cry of a poet

who feels that he has lost his potent

voice before he could create. As the

poem was written in a state of great

mental torment the feelings were

intensified and aggravated.

The poem begins with the sad

realization that though the poet could

see the beautiful things he cannot

feel it. The poet has to look at all

beautiful things – a tranquil evening

with fleece like clouds leisurely

floating in a distant part of the sky,

the crescent moon, the phantom

light-vacantly. He has to cry

My genial spirits fail.,

And what can these


To lift the smothering

weight from off my


He realizes that the joy within an

individual is a creative principle as

it colours the poet's thoughts and

feelings – life's effluence. There was

a time when he possessed the joy.

Then his creative powers were very

active. As he succumbed to his

afflictions, he lost his joy and his

inborn gift of the shaping spirit of

imagination. The fountains of his

poetic creativity dried up and he

could only produce the agonized

scream as that of the wind of the

moor. The loss is bewailed; but

actually Coleridge's poetic powers

were never fully sapped; they were

suspended; and if he would not bring

them to adequate realization, the

reasons will have to be sought

1.4. Paraphrase

Well, if the poet who wrote the old

ballad of Sir Partrick Spence was

correct in the forecast of weather,

this night, will be disturbed by winds.

Look, the new moon is overspread

with a pale ghostly light. I can see

the old Moon in the lap of the new

one. It foretells a furious storm and

rain. This wind could immediately

swell into a storm and rain drops fall

pattering rapidly. The sounds of the

rain and the strom have raised my

drooping spirits and given my soul a

flight of imagination. I wish that even

now they could produce in me the

customary thrill and could awaken

this benumbing pain.


Mine is a grief that does not cause

any painful emotion. It is just blank

and dull. It is suppressed, drowsy,

unagitated kind of grief. O Lady, this

cheerless and listless mood! I have

been gazing at the western sky and

its peculiar hue of yellow green. I

am still gazing at the sky but how

vacant and blank that gaze is! The

clouds appear to be floating behind

or sometimes between the clouds.

When they are not covered by the

stars, they look bright; when they

are screened by them, their light

becomes dim, but even then they are

visible. The crescent moon is

perfectly still in a part of the sky

where there are neither clouds nor

stars. I can see all these objects of

nature looking so beautiful but, I do

not feel it.


I have lost my genial spirits. How

can I expect the beauty of natural

objects to lift from my heart the

overwhelming burden of my grief.

The real sources of passion and life

are within one's heart. Now they

have dried up. I cannot expect the

external forms to animate me.


O Lady! we receive from Nature but

what we give. It is we who invest

it with joy or gloom. Nature appears

to be happy or mournful depending

on the type of mood we have. The

objects of nature are cold and

lifeless. The human soul must itself

send forth a sweet and powerful

voice which will endow the sounds of

nature with sweetness.

O pure of heart, you need not ask

me what this strong music in the soul

is, where it exists and what it does.

The source of this light or glory is

joy, my lady, which is granted only

to the pure of heart, in their purest

moments of life. Joy is at once life

and the thoughts and feelings which

arise from life. Joy is the power -

giving principle and the power itself.

Nature gives us the gift of a new

Earth and a new Heaven. The

sweetness of the sounds and the

brightness of the sights proceed from

this very joy. It is because of the joy

in our own hearts that we feel happy.

All the sweet melodies and pleasant

sights of nature are simply the echo

and reflection of this joy.


There was a time when, the joy in

my heart enabled me to make light

of my sorrows and sufferings. That

was the time when hope grew around

me and I was able to derive pleasure

out of hopes that did not even belong

to me. But now I have been crushed

by earthly sorrows and cares. What

grieves me is that every fit of

depression renders ineffective my

inborn gift of the creative power of

imagination. I thought to change my

nature and conquer my excessive

sensitiveness. But my metaphysical

musing has grown to be a habit of my

soul. as a result of which my poetic

faculties have been incapacitated.


O poisonous thoughts, you are like

the fearful dream of reality and you

have enveloped my mind. But now I

dismiss you. The sound produced by

the wind is like a prolonged scream

of agony. You wind, that are blowing

furiously outside, instead of playing

upon the lute you should blow

against a bare rock, a mountain lake,

a tree struck with lightning, a pine-

grow untouched ever by any

woodman, or a lonely house long

believed to be haunted by witches.

You wind, you are producing sounds

worse than the ones heard in winter.

You are making sounds as if you were

celebrating a devils’ Christmas

among them. You are an actor, adept

in producing all kinds of tragic

sounds. You are a mighty poet caught

in a spell of poetic frenzy. But now

those sounds are silenced and there

is a brief pause. Now another sound,

less intense and loud than the ones

produced by the retreating army can

be heard. This new sound is less

fearful and is even tempered with

a little delight. It is like the tender

story, written by Thomas Otway, of

a little girl who has lost her way on

a desolate moor not very far from

home. The little girl sometimes

moans low in grief and fear and

sometimes she screams loudly

hoping that her mother would hear

her cries and come to her rescue.

It is already midnight but I have no

inclination to sleep. May gentle sleep

descend upon her eyes with its

healing touch. May all the stars shine

brightly and silently above her

dwelling. May she get up from bed

with a light heart, with her

imagination gay and her eyes

cheerful! May joy raise her spirits and

sweeten her voice! May all living

creatures from one end of the world

to the other exist only for her! May

all things of the earth receive life

from the emanation of joy in her

soul! O simple-hearted and dear

Lady, may you be guided by heaven!

May you feel happy for ever and

1.5. Explanatory Notes

Motto: The motto is taken from the

Ballad of Sir Patrick Spence first

printed by Thomas Percy in his

Reliques of Ancient English Poetry in

1765. In the lines quoted here, the

speaker says that he has seen the

new Moon with the old Moon in her

arms and, that he is afraid, this sign

forebodes a deadly storm.

The poet sees the old Moon in the

lap of the new Moon, foretelling the

coming-on of rain and a squally blast.

He wishes the storm to below and

startle the dull pain in his heart.

1. Bard : the poet who wrote the

Ballad of Sir Patrick Spence,

2. Weather - wise : could predict the

changes in weather accurately;

3. Tranquil: calm and peaceful.

3-4. This night ...winds : this night

appearing to be so calm and

peaceful at this moment will not

pass without being disturbed by

fierce winds.

4. That ply a busier trade : winds

which are more active.

5. Ply: to work at steadily.

6. Which mould you cloud in lazy

flakes : winds which split the cloud

into small flakes leisurely floating

in the sky.
7. Dull sobbing draft: a very weak

current of air making a sobbing


8. Aeolian lute : a stringed musical

instrument upon which the wind is


6-7. “In Romantic poetry the Aeolian

lute is a standard symbol of the

poet's mind worked upon by

nature's inspiration (the wind), and

the lute moaning to the ‘sobbing

draft’, conveys to the reader a

mood of despair”. (Raymond


9. Which better far were mute :

moaning and taking by the dull

sobbing draft naturally suggests

despair and self- pity.

10. The New-moon winter-bright :

the new Moon as bright as in

11. Phantom light: pale or dim light;

ghostly light.

9-12 The moon has a peculiar place in

the poetic activity of Coleridge.

According to Bowra. Coleridge took

the moon as “a symbol of the

poet's power to transform the

material world into a world of

imagination”. Here, the moon

overspread with a phantom light

points to his dejection, a certain

chilling of his springs of poetry.

14. Squally blast: furiously raging


16. Slant night-shower : the shower

of rain falling at the time of night

driven in slanting lines by the


20. Might startle this dull pain :

might awaken this benumbing or

paralyzing pain. In the first stanza,

Coleridge, through a clever use of

image, has suggested the chilling

up of his poetic imagination. This

has driven him to dejection. There

is a very dull pain in his heart.

He longs for a violent storm that

could invigorate his mind and, at

least, get him out of his pitiable



The poet is not able to provide any

natural outlet of his stifled,

unimpassioned grief. He has been

gazing at the beautiful sights of

nature but he thinks he has lost the

capacity to feel that beauty.

21-22. In these two lines, the poet

describes the nature of his grief.

It is a suppressed, sleepy kind

of grief. It is unaroused, passive.

It does not cause any piercing

sensation in his heart. His grief

is related to the ‘dull pain’.

23-24 The poet has not been able to

express his grief in words, sighs

or tears. He is feeling a kind of

choking sensation.

25. O Lady : According to some

critics, his wife Sarah

Hutchinson. We also know that at

one stage, the expression read

‘O William’ meaning William

Wordsworth. After the poet's

estrangement with Wordsworth,

‘William’ was changed to ‘Lady’.

25-26. The sweet song of the throstle

has been trying to divert the

poet's attention to something

more pleasant. The poet,

however, has continuously been

in a sad and cheerless mood.

27-29. Throughout this peaceful and

pleasant evening, the poet has

been gazing at the western sky

and its peculiar tint of yellow


30. With how blank an eyes : with

a perfectly vacant eye.

33. Those stars .... or between :

the stars appear to be floating

behind the clouds and sometimes

between the clouds.

34. Now sparkling ... always seen

: when the clouds do not cover

the stars, they appear to be


35. Crescent moon : the new moon

in the shape of an arc.

38. I see, not feel, how beautiful

they are: The poet is able to

see the beauty of nature but his

grief has rendered him incapable

of feeling it.


The natural cheerfulness of the poet

has forsaken him. The real sources of

passion and life are within and when

they have dried up, merely external

forms of beauty cannot raise his


39. My genial spirits fail: I have

lost my natural cheerfulness.

42. Smothering weight: crushing


45-46. “I cannot hope to derive from

external Nature the life and

depth of emotion which have

their source in the soul”.


The moods that we see in nature are

actually our own moods. Nature does

not have any life of its own. It

appears to be joyous or mournful

according to our being happy or sad.

47. O Lady : the poet again

addresses Sara Hutchinson.

49. Ours is ... shroud : whether

Nature appears to be happy or

mournful depends on whether we

are happy or sad.

51. That inanimate cold world :

that world of Nature consisting of

lifeless and senseless objects of


52. The poor loveless ever-

anxious crowd : the wretched

human beings uncomforted by

the healing power of love and

inflicted with cares and worries.

50-57. We have already seen how the

poet believes that the mystic

colouring of one's inner life

animates every object of Nature.

This type of intuition that can

shape Nature is denied to the

‘poor loveless ever anxious

crowd’. This crowd is devoid of

love and joy. But Nature gets its

life from the beholder's own love

and joy. The loveliness of Nature

as well as the sweetness of its

sounds is bom within the soul


The source of light and glory that

can invest the Earth with loveliness

and sweetness is joy. This joy can be

experienced only by the pure in their

purest hour. This joy enables one to

see a new Earth and new Heaven.

59-63. In the previous stanza, the poet

had talked of ‘a fair, luminous

cloud and ‘a sweet and potent

voice’that must emanate from

on'e soul and envelop the whole

earth if one is to see something

‘of higher worth’ in Nature, that

would otherwise remain an

‘inanimate cold world’.

64-65. The poet wants to suggest that

the source of the Earth –

enveloping radiance and the

strong in the soul is joy. And this

joy is experienced only by the

pure in their purest hour.

67-70. Joy...the proud : Joy is the

power-giving principle and the

power itself which, uniting in


74. All melodies the echoes of the

voice : whatever sweet melodies

we hear outside are the echoes

of the strong music in the soul.

73-75. We...light : we posses that joy

in our soul. All the delightful

sounds and sights that attract

our ears and eyes proceed from

it. This joy is the source of glory

and music in our soul.

The delightful scenes of Nature

are only the reflections of our

inner glory. This poet was once

capable of experiencing this joy.

But now he has lost it.

Coleridge has not explained the

nature of this joy but it is clear

that it is a creative principle

having moral implication. Nature

is just cold and inanimate. The

beauty we see in it actually

exists within our soul. The source

of this beauty is joy. So Joy is

a kind of creative principle. Only

the pure-hearted and virtuous

people like Sara can experience

n. The artist cannot create

anything in its absence.


There was a time when the poet was

capable of experiencing this joy.

Then he was full of hope. He could

weave dreams of happiness. Now his

shaping spirit of imagination has

greatly declined. He took to abstract

philosophy and metaphysics but this

has stifled the poet in him.

77. Dallied with distress : played

with distress; made light of


76-79. There was ... of happiness :

the poet recalls the time when he

could experience joy.

82. Afflictions : sorrows and


83. Nor care... mirth : I am not

much bothered that these

misfortunes rob me of my


84-86. But oh ... imagination : what

grieves the poet is that each fit

of sorrow weakens his inborn gift

of imagination and renders it


87-91. “Coleridge says that his only

resource against his increasing

melancholy was deliberately to

divert his mind from his feelings

to cultivate a quiet mode of life,

and to immerse himself in deep

metaphysical studies, in the hope

of changing his nature and

conquering his excessive

sensitiveness’. (HoIIingworth)

92-93. My metaphysical tendencies

which were only a part of my

personality have affected my

whole personality. They have

become a habit with me and the

poet in me has been stifled.


The poet dismisses his depressing

thoughts and turns his attention to

the various sounds being made by

the wind. The wind appears to be

screaming with agony. These sounds

appear to be similar to the ones

produced by a retreating army. He

feels that the wind is producing a

moaning sound like the one made by

a little girl who has lost her way. The

wind appears to the poet as an actor

adept in producting all kinds of tragic


95. Reality's dark dream :

thoughts that bring to the

poet's mind the dark reality

and hence make life appear

like a frightening dream.

96-97. I turn ... unnoticed : the

poet dismisses his depressing

thoughts and turns his

attention to the wind that has

long been raging outside

unnoticed by him.
99. Lute : the Aeolian lute

mentioned in line 7.

Bare crag: a rock without any

overgrowth of trees or shrubs.

Mountain tairn : a small lake

in the mountains.

Blasted tree : a tree struck

and burnt by lightning.

Pine-grove : a large group of

pine trees growing at one


Whither woodman never

climb : where a woodman

never dared to climb.

Clomb : the old past tense

102. Long held the witches’

home : believed for a long

time to be haunted by the


97-103. What a scream ... for thee

: when the poet turns his

attention to the wind raging

outside, he feels that it is

producing a loud scream of

agony prolonged by constant


104. Mad lutanist: a furious and

reckless musician playing upon

a lute.

Devils’yule : Christmas

weather, with wild revelry fit

for devils.

Yule : the season or feast of

Christmas. The poet thinks

that the wind, the mad

lutanist, is producing sounds

as if it were celebrating


104-107 The poet address the wind as

a reckless musician and says

that in this month of showers,

of dark brown gardens, of

peeping flowers, of blossoms,

buds and tremulous leaves, it

is producing sounds worse

than the ones heard during the

bleak months of winter, as if

it were celebrating a devil's

Christmas. The sounds

produced by the wind remind

the poet of the devil's howling

and shrieking in maliciousjoy.

108. Thou Actor ... sounds : The

poet compares the wind to an

actor who can accurately

produce all kinds of tragic

111-113. The wind is a mighty poet

caught in a spell of inspiration.

Coleridge wants to know what

this mighty poet is singing

about. The sounds produced

by the wind are similar to

those of an army of defeated

soldiers. As they retereat in

panic, they groan in pain and

shudder with cold.

120. Otway's self : the poet Otway

himself. Thomas Otway

(1652-85) was a dramatist,

noted for The Orphans and

Venice Preserved. Both the

plays were highly sentimental

and the pathetic plight of their

heroines drowned the

contemporary audiences in


117-125. The poet imagined that the

wind was telling him about a

retreating army. Then there

was pause. Now the poet

imagines another less fearful

tale. The sounds produced in

it are less intense and loud.

And there is a touch of delight

in them. The sounds being

produced by the wind now

remind the poet of a pathetic

story about a lost little girl

written by Thomas Otway. This

little girl lost her way on a

lonely moorland, not very far

from home. Sometimes she

cried in bitter grief and fear,

for she felt really lost, and

sometimes she cried aloud

hoping to attract the attention

of her mother.


The poem concludes with a prayer for

Sara. May gentle sleep visit her! Then

next morning, may she get up with

a light and cheerful heart! May she

experience joy!

127. Vigil: sleeplessness.

Full... seldom ... keep : the

poet prays that Sara may not

have such an experience of


129. But a mountain birth : This

has been taken for an allusion

to the mountains in travail

which will bring forth – a

mouse, i.e., nothing of


130-131. May all the stars shine brightly

but silently over her house as

if they were keeping a watch

over the sleeping earth.

136. Eddying : moving in a

whirelpool; moving in a
circular manner; here the

word is used to mean


1.6. Paragraph Question:

1. Comment on the theme of the

poem “Dejection; an ode”.

2. How did Coleridge think about

his past?

3. Briefly comment on the

technique used to describe the


4. How did Coleridge describe his

own grief?

5. Comment on Coleridge's views

on Nature.
6. Write a note on ‘wind’ and ‘rain’

as presented in ‘Dejection: an


1.7. Model Annotation

1. My genial spirits fail.

i. Fix the context.

Coleridge in ‘Dejection : an

ode' admits his inability to

create anything new.

ii. Who is referred to as ‘My’?

Coleridge is referred to as


iii. Give the meaning of the

word ‘spirits’.

‘Spirits’ means creative

powers of the poet.

2. I see, not feel, how beautiful

they are

i. Give the meaning

The poet is not able to feel

the beauty of nature though

he has been gazing at it for


ii. Who is referred to as ‘I’?

Coleridge, the poet is

referred to.

iii. What is referred to as


Nature is referred to as


I. Check Your Progress Questions

1. The poet sees the ______

2. The furious ______ disturb

the _______ of the night.

3. The poet feels


4. We receive from ________

only what we give it.

5. The source of glory and

sweetness is _________

6. The little girl has lost her

way on a lonely

II. Fill in the blanks

1. ______ is a sad and

melancholic poem.

2. The poet can _______ the

beautiful things but he

cannot ______ it.

3. The joy within an _______

us a ________ principle

4. The loss is ________.

5. The poem talks about

________ poetic powers.

6. The old ballad of

________ was correct in

the forecast of _______

7. The wind and the sounds

of ram could ________this

benumbing _______.
III. Fill in the blanks

1. The poet has lost his

______ spirit.

2. _________ appears to be

3. Nature gives us the gift of

a new _______ and a new


4. The sound produced by the

______ is like a


5. _______wrote a story

related to a little girl.

6. The poet has the

inclination to ________

7. The motto is taken from

the Ballad of _______.

8. The Ballad of Sir Patrick

Spence was printed by

_______ in his _______ in

1.8. Answers to Check Your
Progress Questions

I. 1. Old

2. Wind, peace

3. grief

4. nature

5. Joy,

6. Moor

II. 1. Dejection : an Ode

2. See, feel

3. individual, creative

4. bewailed

5. Coleridge's

6. Sir Patrick Spence, Weather

7. awaken, pain.
III. 1. genial
2. Nature

3. Earth, Heaven

4. Wind, agony

5. Thomas Ottaway

6. Sleep

7. Sir Patrick Spence

8. Thomas Percy, Reliques of

Ancient Englsih Poetry,

2. Ode to Psyche
- John Keats

2.1. Introduction

John Keats (1795-1821) was the

son of a London livery stable keeper.

He was first apprentised to a

pharmacist and later to a surgeon. He

abandoned his medical ambition to

become a poet. He educated himself

from books and the companionship

of Leigh Hunt and other well-known

writers. His famous odes explore the

joy of imagination and beauty and

their ability to transmit life and

reality. His narrative poems display

a luxury of sensuous observation and

romantic human experience. Though

Keats suffered much from the early

loss of his father and mother and

brother, a first hand love-affair, lack

of home and need of money, his joy

in life was as intense as his suffering.

Keats died of consumption in Rome

on 23 February 1821.

Keats was a man peculiarly sensitive

to all the pleasures and beauties. He

found an exquisite delight in fine

tastes, in graceful or noble forms, in

light, in colour, in sound, in physical

exertion. For him beauty was a joy

for ever. Keats, like all the great

poets of his time, belonged to the

Romantic school. He was also a

classicist in the sense that he had

much of the spirit of the old Greeks.

In the great odes Keats's own

philosophy of life finds its supreme



1. to introduce the learners to ode


2. to make the students appreciate

the poem.

3. to introduce the students to the

myth of psyche.

Unit Structure

2.1. Introduction

2.2. The Ode

2.3. Ode to Psyche: Composition

2.4. The Legend of Psyche

2.5. Summary

2.6. Meanings for Difficult Words

and Phrases.

2.7. Critical Appreciation

2.8. Paragraph Question

2.9. Model Annotation Passage

2.10. Select Passages for


2.11. Answers to Check Your

Progress Questions

2.2. The Ode

The word ode in Greek simply means

‘song’ and was applied by the Greek

to any kind of poetic composition that

was written to be sung to music, from

a dirge to a drinking – song. Greek

odes were of two kinds –those

written for a single voice, such as the

lyrics of Sappo and Alcaeus (Seventh

Century B.C) and those written for

a group, of which the best examples

are the odes of Pindar (500 AC). The

former were regular and fairly simple

in metre and the latter highly


The great English writers of odes

before Keats were Spenser, Milton,

Dryden, Gray, Collins, and

Wordsworth. Among Keats's

contemporaries and successors in the

writing of odes the most

distinguished are Shelley, whose

“Skylark” and “West wind” are

written in regular stanzas;

Coleridge's “Dejection : an ode”,

Tennyson's “ode on the Death of the

Duke of Wellington” are some of the

best odes for study.

Keats's great odes are “To

Autumn”, Grecian urn”, “To a

Nightingale” “To Psyche” and “On

Melancholy”. These odes are

concerned with significant aesthetic


2.3. Ode to Psyche : Composition

Keats is always remembered for his

Odes. Although he has left behind

a number of odes, his fame chiefly

rests on the six beautiful odes,

namely ‘To a Nightingale’, ‘To

Autumn’, ‘To Melancholy’ ‘To Psyche’,

‘To Grecian Urn’ and ‘To Indolence’.

In the odes Keats reached his own

full ripeness as a poet at last. He

presented himself as a poet and as a

human being who achieved identity.

He wanted to express his own inner

experience through his poetry with a

sense of speaking for all mankind.

These odes illuminate Keats's life. In

all these odes, he stood at a point

of perfect balance, confident in his

ability to meet the future, able to

contemplate his past with calm and

rejoicing in the beauty of the season,

the joy of an answered love, the

delight of a mastered craft.

‘Ode to Psyche’ exhibits his love for

the Greek legend of Psyche and

Cupid. The imagination of the poet

works wonder in this poem and

perhaps no poem contains so much

imagination as this single poem. It

was written towards the end of April

1819 and handed over to one of his

friends J.H. Reynolds. It was

published only after the death of J.H.

Reynolds in 1852. The poem was

originally intended to be a sonnet –

a short poem consisting of 14 lines.

Later he changed his mind and added

more lines to the originally planned

poem of 14 lines. The word ‘Ode’was

added to the original title ‘To Psyche’

and developed into a new ode form.

“Ode to Psyche” was the first of the

spring odes. It is wonderful in many

ways, and Keats worked hard at it.

He described the poem as “the first

and the only one with which I (Keats)

have taken even moderate pains”.

Psyche is borrowed from traditional

myth. Keats had been reading

Apuleius's story of Cupid and Psyche,

a tale of young love set in a magic

palace in an enchanted valley. Psyche

was also the goddess of the soul in

late classical legend.

Keats successfully employed it to

express his ideas about the maturing

of man's soul through suffering and

trials and its final perfection through

its association with Love. Thus the

poem deals with Psyche's love for

Cupid or the soul's of love.

This Ode was sent by Keats to George

and Georgiana Keats in America in

a letter of April 1819. Keats wrote :

“The following poem – the last I have

written – is the first and the only with

which I have taken even moderate

pains. I have for the most part dash'd

off my lines in a hurry. This I have

done leisurely. I think it reads the

more richly for it, and will, I hope,

encourage me to write other things in

even a more peaceable and healthy

spirit. You must recollect that Psyche

was not embodied as a goddess

before the time of Apuleius the

Platonist, who lived after the

Augustan age, and consequently the

Goddess was never worshipped or

sacrificed to with any of the ancient

fervour – and perhaps never thought

of in the old religion. I am more

orthodox than to let a heathen

Goddess be so neglected”.

2.4. The Legend of Psyche

The legend of Psyche was told by

Apuleius in The Golden Ass, of which

a beautiful translation was written by

Adlington, an Elizabethan. scholar.

Psyche was a king's daughter in

Greece, who by her beauty incurred

the jealousy of Aphrodite. Cupid was

dispatched by his mother to inspire

Psyche with love for some base

fellow, but fell in love with her

himself, and carried her to a beautiful

valley, where he visited her every

night under cover of the dark. At

length curiosity provoked Psyche to

light a lamp, when she recognized

the beauty of the God of Love. But

a drop of hot oil fell on Cupid's

shoulder: the god awoke in anger and


After many wanderings she fell into

Aphrodite's power and was kept as

her slave. A series of impossible talks

set her, but thanks to the aid of birds

and ants she performed them all.

Finally she was forgiven by

Aphrodite, reunited to Cupid, and

made an immortal. The fable typifies

the purification of the human soul by

passion and suffering.

In this Ode Keats addresses Psyche,

and asks to be forgiven for telling

her secrets even to herself. He has

had that day a vision, or dream, of

two fair creatures lying side by side

among flowers in a wood, and has

recognized in them Cupid and Psyche

(1). The next stanza (2) describes

the goddess and refers to the fact

that she was not made immortal till

the days of simple religious faith and

observance were gone by; hence she

has never been duly worshipped. He

offers himself as her worshipper. In

the last stanza. (3) this idea is

worked out in detail. Keats seems to

regard Psyche as the personification

of Beauty rather than of the human

soul. The story of Psyche may be best

told in the words of William Morris in

the ‘argument’ to ‘the story of Cupid

and Psyche’ in his Earthly Paradise :

‘Psyche, a king's daughter, by her

exceeding beauty caused the people

to forget Venus; therefore the

goddess would fain have destroyed

her: nevertheless she became the

bride of Love, yet in an unhappy

moment lost him by her own fault,

and wandering through the world

suffered many evils at the hands of

Venus, for whom she must

accomplish fearful tasks. But the

gods and all nature helped her, and

process of time she was re-united to

Love, forgiven by Venus, and made

immortal by the Father of gods and


The princess Psyche was beloved by

Cupid, the god of love, who,

nevertheless, forbade her to look

upon his face. However, overcome by

curiosity, one night she took a lamp

to see his countenance; her hand

trembled and a drop of burning oil fell

on his shoulder and awoke him. He at

once left her, and she wandered over

the whole world in search of him.

At last Jupiter took pity on her and

reunited her with him.

2.5. Summary

The thought of the Ode develops as


Stanzas 1 and 2. The poet's vision of

Cupid and Psyche, lying side by side

amid beautiful flowers in a forest.

Stanza 3. “Latest bom” of the

goddesses, Psyche was never


Stanza 4. Therefore the poet will

worship her.

Stanza 5. His worship will be by

means of his poetry.

The lateness of Psyche is emphasized

as much as her loveliness. Keats

feels that he is creating the worship

of a goddess unworshipped in

classical times. Typical of Keats is

the melancholy tone which can be

detected in his enjoyment.

The poem gives some of the best

examples of Keats's unerring creation

of hyphen-words “soft-conched ear”,

“cool-rooted flowers, fragrant-eyed”,

and “dark-cluster'sd trees and wild –

ridged mountains”.

In the lines

‘Mid hush'd, cool-

rooted flowers


Blue, silver-white, and

budded Tyrian,
we see and smell the flowers and

sense stillness of the air around them

and the coolness of the moist earth in

which they grow.

The student of Milton will be

reminded of Lycidas in 1.2 and the

Ode on the Morning of Christ's

Nativity in II. 32-35, repeated in II.

46-49. Stanzas and rhyme-scheme

are alike irregular, and a number of

the lines do not rhyme.

2.6. Meanings for Difficult words

and Phrases

1. tuneless number : metrical, not

musical, harmony.
2. by sweet... dear : an obvious

reminiscence of Lycidas, 6, “bitter

constraint and sad occasion dear”.

4. soft-conched : one of Keats's

exquisite compound words. It cannot

be rendered in plain prose, but calls

up a perfect image of the soft and

shell - shaped ear of the goddess. A

conch is a sea –shell.

5. with awakan'd eyes : this phrase

refers, of course, to the writer, not

to Psyche.

7. thoughtlessly : “in a careless,

dreamy mood”.

12. roof: originally written fan. It is

curious that Keats should have

thrown away the rhyme.

13. trambled : “set trembling” by the

14. ‘mid ... fragrant – eyed : every

beauty that flowers have – scent,

form, stillness, coolness, colouring –

is summed up in this and the next


15. blue ... Tyrian : originally written

“blue, freckle-pink, and budded

Syrian”. Tyrian or Syrian would

equally convey the ideas of the

purple dye obtained from

Mediterranean shell-fish and

exported from Tyre, a city which

formed part of the Syrian empire.

16. bedded grass : “the grass of which

they had made a bed”.

17. bade adieu : cf. 18.23. There are in

the present Ode several echoes or

anticipations or other Odes.

20. at tender ... aurorean love : “when

young Love should open their

eyelids, like ‘the opening eyelids of

the mom” (cf. Lycidas, 26). Aurora

is the goddess of dawn.

25. Olympus : a lofty range of

mountains in Thessaly. In early

Greek mythology the gods were held

to live on the peaks of the range

itself; later, however, they were

relegated to the vault of heaven, to

which the name of their old home

was then transferred.

hierarchy : “divine government.” For

the reason why Psyche is called

latest - born of the gods and

goddesses see Introduction;

26. Phoebe : an epithet of Diana, the

moon-goddess. sapphire region'd

star : the planet Venus, shining in

the sapphire blue of the summer

evening sky. Venus is often known

as the mom-star.
30. delicious moan : cf. ‘tears of perfect

moan; in Milton's epitaph on the

Marchioness of Winchester.

32. no voice, no lute, etc : from this

point to the end of the verse there

are repeated echoes of the

nineteenth stanza of Milton's Hymn

on the Morning of Christ's Nativity: -

The oracles are


No voice or hideous


Runs through the arched roof in

words deceiving.

Apollo from his


Can no more divine

With hollow shriek the steep of

Delphos leaving

No nightly trance or breathed spell

Inspires the pale-eyed priest from

the prophetic cell.

Not only in the main thought and

in the references to an “oracle” and

to a “pale-mouth'd prophet,” but still

more markedly in the cadence of the

lines and the wail - there is no other

word for it - of the iterated, stressed,

long vowels, Keats's stanza recalls


34. Shrine : “oracle,” see note on 1. 3.

38. when holy ... the. fire : a reference

to the nature – workship of the

Romans : every element had its

patron deity. It has been said of

Keats himself that “he never saw

an oak-tree without beholding the


41. lucent fans : “shining wings”.

42. faint Olympians : the gods are called

faint because the days of their rule

are gone by. By the epithet Keats

makes us realize the passing of the

generations : “the old order

changeth, giving place to new”.

52. where branched thoughts ... wind

: in these lines and in the rest of

the stanzas Keats develops in detail

his fantastic metaphor. His mind is

the forest, full of the varied beauty

of nature and myth; his thoughts

are the pine trees, in the midst of

which he will build a fane or temple

dedicated to the worship of Psyche;

the flowers are apparently his

verses, tended by “the gardener

Fancy”, and the rose-clad temple of

poetry is to be prepared and thrown

open for the entrance of Psyche.

Probably by the “fane” he means the

ode, which with this beautiful

imagery he brings to a close.

54. far... by steep : Ruskin observes

that “Keats, as is his way, puts

nearly all that may be said of the

pine into one verse, though they are

only figurative pines of which he is

speaking ... (men) must not leave

unread, in considering the influence

of trees upon the human soul, that

marvelous Ode to Psyche”Keats

draws here upon what he had seen

himself, for in a letter to Tom Keats

written from Keswick in June 1818

he had described the fail of London

thus : “it oozed out from a cleft in

perpendicular rocks, all fledged with

ash and other beautiful trees”.

57. moss-lain : “couched upon moss”.

Dryads : Dryads and Hamasdryads

were the same.

61. buds, and bells, and stars : i.e.,

flower-buds, and blossoms that open

into bells and stars.

63. who breeding ... the same : the

gardener in an ordinary garden can

produce, by grafting and so on, new

varieties : but his skill is small

compared with the creative fertility

of the poet, whose flowers of verse

are never twice alike.

66. a casement... Love in : window

2.7. Critical Appreciation:

‘The Ode to Psyche’ consists of 67

lines which can be divided into five

irregular stanzas. The poet actually

does not know if he is in a state

between sleep and wakefulness. He

says that while wandering

thoughtlessly he was surprised to see

two fair creatures

“Couched side by side

in deepest grass,

beneath the

whispering roof”

The girl passionately loved by Cupid;

the goddess who was never

worshipped or sacrificed to with any

of the ancient fervour and perhaps

never thought of in the old religion,

the personification of mind or soul –

all these remain somewhat discreate

in the poem. The opening scene of

the two lovers on the grass seems

tenuously related to the poem.

The poet expresses his regret over

the neglect of this goddess Psyche

by the Greeks who did not build any

temple for her. Psyche was thus

deprived of the worship and honour

that were her due.

He says that he will save Psyche from

the neglect that she has suffered and

will supply the want of incense, song,

music priest, temple, grove and so

on. He sees the goddess in his

imagination, and requests her to

allow him to be her worshipper. He,

in fact, wants to build a temple for

her in the land of imagination.

He gives details of the mental

landscape where the temple of

Psyche is to be built. In this land of

the mind, winds will blow, streams

will flow, birds will chirp, bees will

hum and fairies will be lulled to sleep.

The temple will be full of soft delight

for the goddess.

The poem ends with the hint of the

union of Psyche and Cupid which will

give birth to happiness. It deals with

his favourite themes related to the

maturing of human soul through pain

and suffering. The poet has employed

various symbols to explore his

themes in this poem. Psyche is the

human soul which can be perfected

through suffering. Thus Psyche seeks

to restore human values in the face

of growing materialism and attempts

to give Love back to the Soul.

2.8. Paragraph Question
1. What is the theme of the poem


‘The Ode to Psyche’ is a poem

about Love. It tells us about the

importance of human life on

earth. When the human soul is

deprived of love, it undergoes

pain and suffering. The poem, in

fact, deals with Psyche's love for

Cupid or the soul's love of Love.

In showing the love-affair of

Cupid and Psyche, the poet

implies his own love for Fanny

Brawne also. The poet actually

intends to construct for Psyche a

temple in his heart. The process

of soul – making through pain

and suffering forms the theme of

the ‘Ode to Psyche’.

2.9. Model Annotation Passage

“Yes, 1 will be thy priest, and

build a fane

In some untrodden region of my


i. From which poem is this passage


This passage is taken from

Keats's ‘Ode to Psyche’.

ii. Who is the ‘I’ referred to here?

The poet Keats is referred to


iii. For whom does the poet want to

be a priest?
He wants to be a priest of

goddess Psyche.

2.10. Select passages for


1. Their arms embraced, and their

pinions too

Their lips touch'd not but had not

bade adieu.

i. What is the title of the


ii. Who is the Poet?

iii. Whose arms are embraced?

2. ‘No voice, no lute, no pipe, no

incense sweet

From chain – swung censer

No shrine, no grove, no oracle,

no heat

Of pale – mouthed prophet


i. Where do you find these


ii. Who is the poet?

iii. Who is deprived of all the

honour mentioned in the


I. Check Your Progress Questions

Fill in the blanks

1. John Keats was first

apprenticed to a ________

and later to a _______

2. Keats died of _______ in

________ on ________.
3. Keats belonged to

_________ school.

4. The word ‘Ode’ in Greek

means ________

5. Name some of the writers

of odes in English.

6. Name some of the odes of


7. Name some of the Keats'

II. Fill in the blanks:

1. “Ode to Psyche” exhibits

his love for the Greek

legend of _______ and

2. ‘Ode to Psyche’ was

intended to be a


3. Keats had been reading

_________ story of

Psyche and cupior.

4. The Ode was sent to

________ and ________

5. The Legend of Psyche was

told by Apuleius in


6. Psyche incurred the

jealousy of _________

7. _________ was forgiven

by Aphrodite

8. Psyche was beloved by

III. Fill in the blanks:

1. “The Ode to Psyche”

consists of _______ lines.

2. It is divided into ________

irregular _______

3. A _______ is to be built

for Psyche.

4. The poet sees the goddess

in his ______

5. The poem ends with the

print of the ______ of

_______ and Cupid.

6. The poem is about

2.11. Answers to Check Your
Progress Questions

I. 1. Pharmacist, surgeon

2. Consumption, Rome, 23

February 1821

3. Romantic

4. Song

5. Sponser, Milton, Dryden,

Gray, Wordsworth

6. Skylark, Westwind

7. To Autumn, Grecian urn, To

a Nightingale, To Psyche, on


II. 1. Psyche, Cupid

2. Sonnet

3. Apuleius’

4. George, Georgiana Keats

5. The Golden Ass

6. Aphrodite

7. Psyche

8. Cupid

III. 1. 67

2. five, stanzas

3. temple

4. imagination

5. Union, Psyche, Cupid

6. Love
3. From Pent-up Aching
-Walt Whitman

(Give Me the Splendid

Silent Sun)

3.1. Introduction

Walt Whitman (1819-1892) was bom

in Newyork and brought up in

Brooklyn. Leaving school at the age

of eleven, he made a living by doing

odd jobs. He worked as a painter,

school teacher, office clerk, reporter

and editor. But none of his jobs gave

him any fulfilment until he was

blossomed into a poet. His collection

of poems ‘The Leaves of grass’

earned him a reputation as a Major

American Bard and it created a

universal and democratic

consciousness among the Americans.

He was acknowledged as the poet of

Democracy and America.

The poems devoted to engaging the

newly created New World personality

in a real hero and now –nineteenth

century America – constitute the

central section of Leaves of Grass.

There are three clusters and one

single long poem that may be

grouped :

National Crisis

Drum – Taps

Memories of President Lincoln

Rehabilitation and adjustment

“By Blue Ontario's Shore”

Autumn Rivulets.


1. to appreciate the poem

2. to understand the message

Unit Structure

3.1. Introduction

3.2. The Poem

3.3. Meanings for Difficult Words

and Expressions

3.4. Summary

3.5. Paragraph Questions

3.6. Select Passages for

3.7. Answer to Check Your

Progress Questions

In the prescribed poem which is also

known by another title “Give Me the

Splendid Silent Sun” Whitman praises

both the serene life of countryside

and the active life of the city too. He

is attracted so much by the endless

and noisy chorus of Manhattan that it

becomes part of his own self. When

he turns towards Nature, it is the

rustic life that comes before him first.

The ‘unmow'd grass, ‘The juicy

autumnal fruits’ and ‘The fresh corn’

remain indispensable. The rural

domestic life and the throbbing urban

life are like his two eyes that have of

course only one sight.

3.3. Meanings for Difficult Words
and Expressions :

dazzling - bright – light

unmow'd grass - uncleared grass

land above sea-

plateaus -

arbor - shady place

chief health of
primal sanities -

trample - walk on, stamp

timothy - a type of grass

- endless eyes
3.4. Summary

Whitman's poem “from Pent up

Aching Rivers” is in praise of both

the urban and country life. Whitman

seems therefore unique in supporting

both the ways of life. Although he has

yearning for leading an undisturbed

life in a village far away from the

madding crowd and far away from

cities, he cannot remain there for

ever as he belongs to one of the

cities of America. The first stanza of

the poem presents his different

wishes in a remote village. He likes

to enjoy “the perfectly quiet nights

on high plateaus west of Mississippi,

looking up at the stars”.

He wants to trod on the ‘unmow'd

grass’. He has a strange wish too. He

wants to marry ‘a sweet – breath'd

woman who will never tire him. He

desires to have ‘a perfect child’. The

wishes of the poet rise slowly to the

level of obsession and he keeps on

repeating them like a parrot. He says

“give me solitude,

give me

Nature, give me again

O Nature

Your primal sanities”.

After praising the rural domestic life

in the first stanza, he starts glorifying

his unforgettable life in cities too.

Although he is tired of the strife in

cities. his heart still loves the

phantoms of faces there.

The poet says,

‘ Let me see new ones


let me hold new ones

by the

hand every day'

give me such shows –

give me

the streets of


He is always thrilled to listen to the

trumpets and drums while the

soldiers march on the streets. The

sights of the theatre, bar room, and

huge hotel never tire him. He loves

to watch people endless streaming,

with strong voices, passions and

pageants. He takes pride in

announcing to the world as follows :

“Manhattan faces and eyes

forever for me!”

Whitman loves men, women and

even lovers who stroll on the big

streets of Manhattan. As the poet


“give me interminable

eyes –

give me women –

give me comrades and


by the thousand !

‘Let me see new ones

everyday –

let me hold new ones

by the

hand every day’

give me such shows –

give me

the streets of

Manhattan !”

The love of Manhattan, in fact,

overtakes his love of rural life. It

has become part and parcel of his

life. Although he wants to trod on

the grassy earth in a countryside,

his heart remains with Manhattan for

3.5. Paragraph Questions
1. How does the poet describe the

beauty of rural domestic life

through the poem ‘Pent up

Aching Rivers’.

2. How does Whitman describe the

beauty Manhatten?

3.6. Select Passages for


1. Give me solitude, give me

Nature, give me again,

O Nature your primal sanities!

i. Who is the poet?

Walt Whitman is the poet.

ii. What is the name of the

‘Pent up Aching Rivers’ is the


iii. What do you mean by the

words ‘Primal Sanities’?

Chief health of mind is the


2. ‘Manhattan faces and eyes

forever for me’

i. Name the poet?

Walt Whitman is the poet.

ii. What is the name of the


‘Pent up Aching Rivers’ is the


iii. Give the meaning of this

The poet has developed a

strong liking for city life.

I. Check Your Progress Questions

Fill in the blanks

1. Walt Whitman was born in


2. Whitman published a

collection of poems under

the title ________

3. Whitman presents the

________ life of country


4. Whitman is attracted by

the noisy chorus of

5. The rural domestic life and

the throbbing urban life

are like his two

II. Fill in the blanks:

1. Whitman praises both the

________and ________


2. He wants to ________ on

the unmoved ______

3. He desires to have a

perfect ________

4. He is tired of the

________ in the cities.

5. He loves the city _______

3.7. Answers to Check Your
Progress Questions

I. 1. New York

2. The Leaves of Grass

3. Serene, active

4. Manhattan

5. eyes.

II. 1. Urban, Country

2. troad, grass

3. child

4. strife

5. Manhattan
4. I would not Paint a
- Emily Dickinson

4.1. Introduction

Emily Dickinson (1830-1886) was

born on December 10, 1830 in a

small American town called Amherst.

She was educated at home. She had

been writing poems in solitude. At

her death, Emily Dickinson left over

a thousand unpublished poems. Only

a few friends knew she had written

them. Many were more ideas for

poems jotted on whatever scrap of

paper came to hand.


1. to appreciate the poem

2. to understand its content and


3. to make the learners understand

that death ends everything

Unit Structure

4.1. Introduction

4.2. Emily Dickinson's Poems

4.3. Explanatory Notes

4.4. Summary of the Poem

4.5. Critical Summary

4.6. Model Annotation

4.7. Answers to Check Your

Progress Questions

4.2. Emily Dickinson's Poems

All Miss. Dickinson's poems are short,

broken for the most part into four

line stanzas; all have an

unmistakable personal stamp. They

are as compressed as a telegram.

They are like oracular messages but

witty and jaunty at times. She is

preoccupied with death as the

gateway to the next existence. She

speaks again and again of isolation in

this world.

The poems of Emily Dickinson are

a continual appeal to experience

motivated by an arrogant passion for

truth. But her chief truthfulness lay

in her insistence on discovering the

facts of her inner experiences. She

was not only fully alive to the

phenomena of her own

consciousness, but described and

distinguished the states and motions

of her soul with great accuracy.

It is possible to see the greatest part

of Miss. Dickinson's poetry as on

effort to cope with her sense of

privation. There were in her life three

major privations :

1. She was deprived of an orthodox

and steady religious faith

2. She was deprived of love

3. She was deprived of literary


One way in which Miss. Dickinson

tried to cope with her sense of

privation was to assert repeatedly

the paradox that privation is more

plentiful than plenty, that to

renounce is to possess the more. Her

poetry continually proclaims that to

lose or forego what we deserve is to

some how to gain. We may say that

this central paradox of her thought

is a rationalization of her neurotic

plight, but we can better add that it

is a discovery of something about the

soul. Miss. Dickinson appears in her

poetry to have been very sensitive

person. She is equally sensitive to

pain and suffering.

Emily Dickinson had no formal theory

of poetics, but she had a constant

idea of the manner in which the poet

is inspired. Uncontrolled, the poetic

possession leads into the sheer

nonsense of automatic writing and

Dickinson had no more success than

any other artist has ever had in

expressing every creative impulse.

4.3. Explanatory Notes:

I would not - she (Emily) does not want

paint to paint a picture or a

I'd rather be - she wants to be an object

the one of art; One also refers to

God, the omnipotent.

Its bright - art is considered an

impossibility impossible one; may be


delicious - beautiful

wonder how - the painter has to feel the

the finges picture-but the implication

feel is that the fingers cannot

feel the art.

Celestial - heavenly.

Torment - severe physical or mental


Sumptuous - looking expensive and

Despair - the state of having lost

all hopes.

Cornet - a brass musical


Ceilings - roof

Ether - air like

Pontoon - any of several boats or

hollow metal structures

joined together to support

a temporary road over a


Enamoured - fond or delighted

revere - to feel deep respect or


Dower - dowry or treasure given;

here it literally refers to

the bounty or treasure.

4.4. Summary of the Poem

The poem is narrated in first person

narrative. The poetess herself

subjects her in narrating her own

desires. So ‘I’ is used.

I would not paint a picture as I want

to be the part and parcel of that

very art. The picture is an impossible

one as it makes the poetess feel

delicious. I wonder how could the

finger feel such a rare, celestial star

to make such a severe physical or

mental suffering which would result

in despair.

I would not sound like comet, a brass

musical instrument as I want to be

one with the world of music, softly

raised to heaven and be out of this

world through villages of ecstasy. I

would endure myself a balloon but

I would rather be a lip of metal to

bridge the gap as pier to my Pontoon.

I would never wish to be a poet. It's

fine if I own my ear. The license to be

a poet may be a delight, content, of

respect. It is an awful privilege. If I

fill my art with boots of melody which

could stun myself what would be the

richs that I could inherit.

4.5. Critical Summary

The poem “I would not Paint a

Picture” is written in first person

narrative. In this poem, the poetess

herself subjects her desire to be a

painter, singer and a poet.

Ultimately, the poem relates its

author with other fine arts.

Emily Dickinson never wants to be a

painter as she wants to merge herself

with the world of painting as painting

is closely related to the world of

poetry. Poem itself is a mute picture

or speaking picture. She wonders

how could her finger feel that ecstasy

while making a picture and stir to

make such a severe physical or

mental suffering. The end is despair

as art in an artist may fail.

Dickinson never desires to be a

singer like a musical instrument,

Cornet; rather she wants to be one

with the world of music and softly

be raised to the ceilings through the

villages like an ethereal thing. She

desires to have ecstasy by making

herself a balloon. She also wishes to

be a lip of metal which can bring forth

new numbers in plenty to bridge the

gap as a pier to her Pontoon.

Dickinson has never wished to be a

poet as she wanted to save her ear.

She knows that the license to be a

poet is a delight. However, she is

content that it could give her some

respect. It is an awful privilege. In

the end of the poem she boldly

asserts that if she fills all her poetry

with bolts of melody which could thrill

herself what would be the richer or

treasure than she could inherit.

Thus the poem talks about the

possibilities of being a painter, singer

and poet. It shows her confrontation

with her profession. She is not able

to realize her own existence and

cherish the very idea of being a poet.

4.6. Model Annotation

a. I would not talk, like comets.

1. Fix the context.

This line is taken from Emily

poem, “I would not paint – a


2. Who is referred to as ‘I’?

The poet or Emily Dickinson

is referred to.

3. What is the meaning of the

word Comet?

Comet is a brass musical


I. Check Your Progress Questions

Fill in the blanks:

1. Emily Dickinson was born

in ______

2. Dickinson's poems are

3. Her poems are

compressed as a


4. Dickinson is preoccupied

with ________

5. She was deprived of

II. Fill in the blanks:

1. The poem is narrated in

________ person


2. I would not paint a ______

3. I would not sound like a


4. I would never wish to be a

5. The poetess subjects

herself to be a

_______and a ________.

6. Poem itself is a ________


4.7. Answers to Check Your

Progress Questions

I. 1. Amherst

2. short

3. telegram

4. death

5. love

II. 1. first
2. picture

3. Cornet

4. poet
5. Painter, signer, poet

6. mute
5. God's Grandeur
- G.M. Hopkins

5.1. Introduction

Gerard Manley Hopkins (1844-89)

was a Jesuit priest who took to

writing poetry. Although his poems

center on religious themes, they are

raptures at the beauty and splendour

of Nature. He is very much reckoned

with the modem poets, thanks to his

innovative techniques and aesthetic

theory. ‘God's Grande ur’,a sonnet by

Hopkins is a protest against man's

materialistic aspect of the world. Yet

the poet has not lost his hope on

mankind as it is well protected by

the Holy Ghost that broods over the

‘bent' world as a dove.


1. to make the learners understand

the poem

2. to make them appreciate the


3. to understand God's grandeur

and splendour

Unit Structure

5.1. Introduction

5.2. God of Hopkins

5.3. The Poem

5.4. Summary
5.5. Critical Appreciation

5.6. Meaning of Difficult Words

and Phrases

5.7. Critical Summary

5.8. Model Passage for


5.9. Answers to Check Your

Progress Questions

5.2. God of Hopkins

Nature and glory in nature must be

grasped by reaching to nature's

qualities and self hoods. The god of

Gerard Manley Hopkins is not inside

nature – ‘he is under the world's

splendour and wonder’ – but one

thing he does; through the nature he

has made, he passes the voltage of

the current of his love his grandeur.

It is impossible to read Hopkins

without being aware of his strong

preference for words of native, old

English origin, often more common

Latinate words. Many are

monosyllables; many more

compounds : together they give

much of both the power and the

rootedness, what he called the

‘keepings’ of his poetry. The

monosyllabus are often verbs :

Generations have

trod, have trod, have


And all is seared with

trade; bleared,
smeared with toil.,

And wears man's

smudge and share

man's smell: the soil

Is bare now nor can

foot feel, being shod.

5.3. The Poem

The sonnet ‘God's Grandeur’ was

written by Hopkins in February,

1877. This sonnet is a protest against

the materialism of the age. Till the

time God continues to brood over it

there is hope for the world. God's

glory is going to burst out like the

shine of the gold tinsel.

5.4. Summary

The world is full of the glory of God,

This glory will burst out like the foil

of gold. It gathers greatness like the

oil crushed from olives. It achieves

magnificent proportions after human

ego has been crushed under religious

disciplines. Just as oil becomes useful

only when crushed out of seeds, man

partkes of God's glory only after

religious devotion.

Generations of men have trodden the

same path without recognizing God's

power to punish them. Everything in

this world has been made ugly by

crass materialism, by commercial

activity, and by human toil for

monetary ends. The world bears

man's smudge and smells of man's


Despite man's activities leading to

the destruction of the beauties of

nature, it remains fresh and

undestroyed. Although the sun

moves to the western horizon and the

earth is plunged in darkness, yet the

sun is set to rise again the next day.

Likewise there will be a renewal of

nature. From darkness would come

light; from winter, spring. In nature

there is a never drying source of

freshness, which envelopes the world

in spring. The Holy Ghost broods over

the ‘bent’ world and this brings forth

renewed life. The Holy Ghost looks

after mankind with the same

protective care as a dove looks after

its brood.

5.5. Critical Appreciation

‘God's Grandeur’ is one of the

loveliest poems of G.H. Hopkins. The

poem is permeated with the glory

and grandeur of God. The poet begins

by saying that nature has been made

ugly by the industrialization of the

age. Everything has become seared

and corrupted.

Generations have

trod, have trod, have


And all is seared with

trade; bleared,

smeared with toil;

And wears man's

smudge and shares

man's smell

The poet, laments the indifference of

people to the beauties of nature that

lie round. Hopkins feels certain that

the grandeur of God will sill shine

forth. Man had tried to kill nature but

it will rejuvenate itself because the

spirit of the Holy Ghost lies over it:

The poem states its meaning with

severe precision and hence the

development of the thought becomes

slightly difficult. For ceaseless,

untiring effort the poet uses the

structure “have trod” and repeats it

thrice in the same line. The Holy

Ghost bending over the world and

thus proving God's grandeur

connects it with the opening

statement – “The world is charged

with the grandeur of God”. The poet,

being confident of the grandeur of

God, is sure that “nature is never

spent”. He sees natural beauty being

seared, blurred and smudged by the

footfall of man, but the poet never

becomes despondent. He is aware of

the wings of the Holy Spirit spreading

over the earth so that the ‘dearest

freshness’ of nature will be revived.

The theological element of the poem

is insignificant. The conviction of the

poem transcends any particular

doctrinal belief. And everything is

bound in typical Hopkinsian

language. It is very sinewy, strong,

personal, and inventive, the internal

rhymes in ‘seared’ and ‘bleard’ and

‘smeared’ are very happy indeed. The

rhymes suggest richness and

plenitude. The poem comprises some

very individual and very personal


5.6. Meanings of Difficult Words

and Phrases:

Line The world is full of the grandeur

1. of God.

Line This grandeur of God will shine

2. forth like the foil made of gold,

Shook foil – metal foil... which

is beaten to make thin foil.

Hopkins said : “I mean foil in

the sense of leaf or tinsel, and

no other word whatever will give

the effect I want. Shaken gold

foil gives off broad glares like

sheet lightning and also a sort of

fork lightning owing to its zigzag

dints and creasings and network

of small many – cornered


Lines The ooze of oil crushed – When

3-4. olives are crushed they give oil.

Likewise the poet suggests that

human ego improves under

religious crushing

Line reck his rod – pay attention to

4. the punishing power of God.

Line The poet says that unmindful of

5. divinity, people have followed

the same way.

Line seared with trade – withered

6. because of the application of the

heat of trade, bleared – blinded;

smeared – covered with dust


Line And wears man's smudge –

7. the nature wears the marks of

man's corruption and pollution.

Shares man's smell – Man –

made machinery and its foul

smell have corrupted nature.

Line The soil is bare now – The

8. growth of nature has been

arrested. nor can foot feel, being

shod – Because man is wearing

shoes he is unable to feel the

softness of the soil.

Line Deep down the earth the same

10. freshness still persists.

Line The poet says that the sun goes

11-12. down through the western

horizon and the world is plunged

into darkness, yet the next day

also dawns. Likewise nature also

refreshes itself.

Line Holy Ghost – one of the Trinity.


Lines The nature is renewed because of

13-14. the presence of the Holy Ghost.

Here Hopkins compares the Holy

Ghost to a dove. Just as the dove

broods over her young ones, the

Holy Ghost gives a protective

covering to the earth. So the

world is full of the grandeur of


5.7. Critical Summary

The poet objects to the

industrialization of the world without

caring even a little about the

spiritualism. But he has full faith in

the greatness of God. Hopkins is

certain that the grandeur of God will

ever shine inspite of man's lust for

money. Man has tried to kill Nature,

but it will rejuvenate itself, because

the spirit of the Holy Ghost lies over

it. The world is full of the glory of

god and it will shine like the foil of

gold. As oil is crushed from olives,

man grows in religious devotion when

his ego is crushed by discipline. But

generations of men have trodden the

same path without realizing God and

His greatness. Everything in the

world has been made ugly as man

starts calculating in terms of

monetary ends. The world, therefore

smells his ugliness drowning the

fragrance of Nature.

Although the sun sets in the western

horizon, plunging the whole world in

darkness it will certainly rise in the

East the next day. Likewise, there

will be a renewal of Nature and from

darkness will come light and from

Winter Spring. The Holy Ghost, the

poet is sure, broods over the ‘bent’

world and this brings forth new life.

God's Grandeur opens with an

explosive metaphor expressing the

immanence of God. The poet's

awareness of created beauty as a

reflection of God is so intense that

he cannot understand why it is not

obvious to all men.

The next quatrain sets in contrast

man's use of nature, his failure to

recognize it as news and praise and

grandeur of God, his failure to use

created things to pursue his own end.

The lines are also summary of the

particular sins of the nineteenth


Then the sestet rounds out the

contrast by stressing the constant

renewal and renascence of natural

beauty. God continues to express

himself in the world.

This is not a mixture of mere fanciful

images but a recognition of clearest

freshness deep down things – more

than a cold intellectual perception

that by his Presence, Essence and

Power. God is in all things. It is an

experience. It is flushed by the

intuition that the world brings to the

sensitive heart, a message loaded

with divine love. There St. Ignatius

urges man to look on the created

world about him as an effort of God

to communicate His love to man, as a

vision of God's love.

Hopkins was experiencing the

physical universe and a bond

between God and man, as a message

from the Divine Goodness, as ‘news,

word, expression’of the Eternal lover

is emphasized.
5.8. Model Passage for
Annotation :

1. It will flame out, like shining

from shook foil,

It gathers to a greatness, like the

ooze of oil crushed.

i. From which poem is the

passage taken?

It is taken from the poem

“God's Grandeur” by


ii. What do you think will flame

out like shining foil?

The world will flame out like

shining foil.

iii. What makes world gather to

a greatness?
When the ego of the man

is crushed like oil seeds, it

gathers to a greatness.

2. Because the Holy Ghost over the


world broods with warm breast

and with ah! Bright wings.

i. Where do you find these


We find these lines in the

poem ‘God's Grandeur’

ii. Name the poet.

Hopkins is the poet.

iii. What do you mean by Holy


The third person of the

iv. With what bird is the Holy

Ghost compared?

It is compared with the

brooding dove.

I. Check Your Progress Questions

Fill in the blanks:

1. Hopkins is a ________


2. His poems centre on

_______ themes

3. “God's Grandeur” is a


4. The Sonnet is a protest

against the _______ of the


5. The world is fall of glory of

6. The Holy Ghost broods

over the _______

7. The poem is _________ in

II. Fill in the blanks:

1. Hopkins has full _______

in _______.

2. Man calculates in terms of


3. The name of the saint is


4. Man has to communicate


5. Physical _________is a

bond between ________

and _________
5.9. Answers to Check Your
Progress Questions

I. 1. Jesuit

2. religious

3. Sonnet

4. materialism

5. God

6. bent

7. theological

II. 1. faith, God

2. monetary

3. St. Ignatius

4. God

5. Universe, Man, God.

6. Song Offerings

(From Tagore's Gitanjali)

6.1. Introduction

Gurudev Rabindranath Tagore was

born in Calcutta on May 7,1861.

Tagore's greatness as a poet was

recognized by the west when he

published an English rendering of

some of his Bengali poems under the

title ‘Gitanjali’. These verses with

their deep mysticism and delicate

lyrical loveliness took the world by

storm. He was awarded Nobel Prize

for the collection of songs called


1. to read and understand the poem

2. to understand the theme – God-

man relationship

Unit Structure

6.1. Introduction

6.2. Tagore and His Poems

6.3. Critical Evaluation

6.4. Model Passage for


6.5. Select Passages for


6.6. Answers to Check Your

Progress Questions
6.2. Tagore and His Poems

Tagore is a humanitarian to the core.

Love of man, passion for Nature and

yearning for God can be found in all

his poems. He seeks contact with the

Divinity by union through love of


His poems ring with his intense

longing for union with the Divine. He

considers himself as the beloved of

God and his heart is in anquish when

he is separated from him. Then

comes the fulfilment of the desire

and the ecstasy of joy when he meets

his Creator. The yearning of the

beloved is beautifully expressed in

the form of poems.

The poet sings as God wills him to do

so. It is only under divine inspiration

that he can sing. When inspired in

this way, his heart breaks with pride

and joy, and tears (of joy) pour out

of his eyes. In such moments of

inspiration, his soul is one with the

divine and he stands face to face

with God. Thus the passage gives an

account of the mystic bliss that

illuminates his being as he sings of


There is much that is discordant,

ugly, foul and wicked in the human

soul but music purifies the soul of the

wickedness. The discordant elements

are reduced to harmony, and peace

descends on the human soul. Thus

music has an ennobling and uplifting

effect on the human soul; mystic

bliss results when one devotes one's

talents to the work ship of God. In

such moments the human soul rises

high to become one with God, its


The human soul is likened to a bird

with its wings out – spread, flying

across the sea of eternity in its

efforts to reach the divine. The poet

knows that God takes pleasure in his

song, for harmony of discordant

notes is the basis of a song, and such

harmony is also the basis of God's

creation. A musician brings order out

of disorder, just as God Himself

imposed law and order on chaos -

a welter of warring elements – and

in this way creation took place. This

creation is the music of God. That

is why it is only through music that

the poet can reach Him. It is only

through music that the human soul

can become one with the divine. It

is a mystic experience which only

inspired singers can have.

Even in moments of such mystic

inspiration, he does not hope to have

a full glimpse of Him. He only hopes

to touch His feet with the out-spread

wings of his . soul. Thus the image of

the bird is continued in these lines.

However, intoxicated with the

ecstatic joy, resulting from his

inspired singing, he forgets that he is

the servant of God and not His equal.

God is his lord and master, but in

such moments of mystic ecstasy he

begins to feel that he is the equal

and friend of God, instead of being a

mere humble devotee.

The poet thinks that he sings because

God wills him to do so. He

harmoniously sings because he is

divinely inspired. Under divine

inspiration his heart puffs up with joy

and pride, and tears of ecstasy well

up in his eyes, In such moments of

ecstasy he stands face to face with

his Maker.

All the discordant, ugly, evil and

wicked forces which envelop human

soul transform into the harmony of

sweet music which ennobles and

elevates human soul. Peace and

harmony begin to inspire it.

Forgetting his physical existence the

poet is lost in meditation and prayer.

His soul endeavours to reach the

Infinite like a joyously singing bird.

The poet knows that God is pleased

with his singing. He knows that only

as a singer he can realize Him. A

great musician creates order out of

disorder, and thus, he is endowed

with Good-like vision and quality.

God created the universe out of a

welter of chaos and confusion. The

beautiful creation is Almighty's

music. Similarly a gifted musician or

a poet dissolves jarring notes into the

harmony of sweet music and creates

beauty and joy,

The poet says with the great humility

that even in moments of mystic

inspiration he cannot enjoy the full

view of God. He only hopes to touch

His feet with edge of the outspread

wings of his bird-like soul.

Intoxicated with the rapture of

singing the poet forgets that he is

the humble devotee of God and not

his friend and equal. He calls Him his

friend and not Lord and Master.

i. The poet uses a telling and vivid

image in this lyric. The human

soul is compared to a bird and

the sea is likened to the infinite.

ii. This lyric reveals Tagore's love

for music. He was a great singer


The poet prays to God, to drive out

spiritual poverty from his heart and

to give him the strength to bear with

equanimity both joys and sorrows.

He prays to fill his heart with love

and sympathy for the service of the

poor and to give him strength never

to disown the poor and never to

surrender before the offensive

behaviour of the rich and the

arrogant; God will give him the

strength to remain calm and

undisturbed by the petty activities,

“the din and dust”, of daily life. He

will give him the strength to

surrender himself joyously and

lovingly to His will and service. This

lyric reveals the poet's unshakable

faith in God.

The poet expresses his faith in the

reincarnation of the soul after the

death of the body, as well as his faith

in the oneness of all, in the total

identity of Man, God and Nature.

God is Omnipresent. He is one and

indivisible. He expresses Himself in

myriad shapes and forms. Every form

of life and every object of nature is

an expression of the divine.

Man is afraid of death, for death

means the departure of the soul to

some unknown, unfamiliar place from

the present world which is known and

familiar. The poet says nothing is

new and familiar. God is everywhere

and everything is an expression of

the divine. Thus the old is present

in the new. God is always our

companion in whatever world, and in

whatever shape, the soul may be

reborn. Human life, is endless, and

one manifestation of life is linked up

with another through ties of love. The

constant renewal of the old is a sign

of the pleasure of God in the act of

creation. The old is being constantly

renewed and the process is eternal.

Man's fear of the unknown and the

unfamiliar arises from his ignorance

of the real nature of the Divine. Once

man grasps the basic fact that all

forms of life are so many different

manifestations of the same Divine,

the Supreme, then nothing will

appear new and unfamiliar to him,

and all his fears will vanish. The

poet's prayer is that he may never

lose the bliss which results from a

realization of the eternal truth that

it is the one God, who manifests

Himself in the myriad shapes and

forms of the phenomenal world.

This poem is a direct expression of

Tagore's pantheism. It expresses his

faith in the reincarnation of the soul

and in the fundamental unity and

oneness underlying the variegated

visible phenomena. God reveals

Himself both in Nature and Man.

God is present everywhere. All

mankind is one. He expresses Himself

in various shapes and forms. The

commonest things in nature and

human life are symbols of Eternity.

The One Inseparable and Changeless

dwells in the hearts of all. Being

children of one Creator all men are

friends and brothers, and not

strangers. Distance of time and place

is meaningless in such close

relationship. It is the Divine that has

brought the distance near and has

made a brother of the stranger.

Man is afraid of death because he

will have to leave his accustomed

dwelling place for some unknown and

unfamiliar destination. But he

realizes that there is no difference

between the old and the new,

between this life and the life beyond

because the Divine is his constant

and never-failing companion in

whatever shape he (the soul) is born.

The divine process of the renewal of

the old is eternal and it reveals his

joy in the act of creation.

The poet feels satisfied and happy

that his songs led him from door to

door, and with them he has felt about

him searching and touching his

world. It was his songs that taught

him all the lessons he ever learnt;

they showed him secret paths, they

brought before his sight many a star

on the horizon of his heart. They

guided him all the day long to the

mysteries of the country of pleasure

and pain, and at last, to what palace

gate have they brought him in the

evening at the end of my journey?

The poet says that all his life he has

sought the Divine, his Maker, through

his songs. He has used them in the

service of his Maker. Whatever he

has learnt, and whatever experience,

of pleasure or of pain, he has

acquired, has been acquired through

his songs. It is through them he has

acquired many pearls of wisdom. It is

through them that he has seen into

the heart of things.

The poet hopes that at last his songs

would lead him to the gates of the

palace of the Divine which is his

destination, and which will be the end

of his journey. The poet hopes to

have a mystic reunion with God

through his songs.

6.3. Critical Evaluation

Tagore's “Song Offerings” is a

collection of free verse translated

from his Bengali poems. The poet

feels very proud when he is ordered

to sing devotional songs at the feet

of Almighty God. When he looks at

the feet of God, all his sufferings

naturally melt into a happy bird that

starts spreading wings across the

sea. Tagore as a poet conies very

near to the feet of God and he,

forgetting himself as an ordinary

man, starts calling Him his friend

although the fact remains that He is

only his Lord.

In poem XXXVI the poet prays

fervently for the well being of his

self. He wants God to make him rich

in his heart, so that he may be able

to bear both joys and sorrows lightly.

He has not forgotten the humanity

when he prays for his own self. The

poet does not want to be frightened

by the mighty rich, nor does he want

to ignore the poor. He prays to God

to give him enough strength to raise

his mind above the daily trifles. At

last he wants all his strength to be

surrendered to God as He is his


In another song, Tagore says that he

has been very close to all the people

due to his nearness to God. It is

God who has blessed him to become

brother of the whole humanity and

friend of all the people.

Tagore as a faithful follower of God

is ready to go anywhere if He leads

his way. He considers birth and death

the same and he has the firm faith

that He and He alone is the only

companion of his endless life. When a

man understands his Creator, he will

never become alien to anyone in the

Tagore as a poet rightly feels that

he is known to the whole world only

through his songs. It is again his

songs that taught him all the lessons

he ever learnt, and showed him the

secret path to attain God. It is his

devotional songs that guide him all

the day to the eternal world. His

songs have made him remain

disinterested and love the whole

Model Passage for Annotation :
1. Drunk with the joy of singing
I forget myself and call thee

Friend who art my Lord.

i. From which poem is this line


It is taken from the poem

Gitanjali, “Song Offerings”

by Tagore.

ii. Who is ‘thee’ referred to?

It is God who is referred to.

iii. Is God his friend or Lord?

God is only his Lord, but

forgetting himself he calls

Him friend.

6.5. Select passages for


2. Give me the strength never to

disown the poor or bend my

knees before insolent might.

3. It was they who led me from

door to door.

I. Check Your Progress Questions

Fill in the blanks:

1. Tagore was bom in ______

2. Gitanjali is the _______

rendering of ________


3. Tagore was awarded

______ prize for ‘Gitanjali’

4. Tagore is a ________

5. His poems ring with his

intense longing for union

with the ______

6. The human soul is likened

to a ________
7. God is ________and


8. The poet knows that

________ is pleased with

his _______

9. The poet sings to God to

drive out ________

II. Fill in the blanks :

1. Man is afraid of ______

2. ________ is our


3. Man fears of the


4. Tagore's poems are

expressions of ________
5. The divine process of

renewal of the _________

is ________

6. The poet longs to have a

______ union

III. Fill in the blanks :

1. ‘Song offerings’ is a

_________ verse.

2. He prays to ________

3. God blessed _________

4. Tagore is a faithful

follower of _______

5. It is his ________ songs

that guide him.

6.6. Answers to Check Your
Progress Questions

I. 1. Calcutta

2. English, Bengali

3. Nobel

4. humanitarian

5. Divine

6. bird

7. lord, master

8. God, singing

9. spiritual.

II. 1. death

2. God

3. unknown

4. pantheism

5. old, eternal
6. mystic, God
III. 1. free

2. God

3. him

4. God

5. devotional
7. Mending wall
- Robert Lee Frost

7.1. Introduction

Frost's poems are the direct outcome

of his rich experience. They are

astonishingly simple; so simple that

even the average reader can grasp

the meaning at the very first reading.

Though one may miss the inner

significane, he may need explications

provided by critics to understand the

poem in all details. Frost had the

knack of observing everything keenly

and speculating deeply on everything

observed. He could make humble

things exciting. His poem is never

a mere transcript of actuality. Every

object through deep meditation is

sublimated and made to have far

–reaching significance. Sight and

insight, fact and fancy, observation

and meditation, experience and

intuition, wisdom and whimsy – these

go into his process of verse making.

It is poetry rising out of deep

personal experience of life,

expressing profoundly – felt emotions

and realized thoughts. It is, as he

called it locative art (as opposed to

abstract or cosmopolitan art). It is

art rooted in a place, the place being

the country side of New England.


1. to make the learners read and

appreciate the poem

2. to make the learners

comprehend the poem.

Unit Structure

7.1. Introduction

7.2. Frost and Poetry

7.3. Summary

7.4. Meanings for Difficult Words

and Phrases

7.5. Select Passages for


7.6. Model Annotation Passage

7.7. Model Paragraph Questions

7.8. Answers to Check Your

Progress Questions

7.2. Frost and Poetry

Frost believed that form and content

are both important in poetry. A good

poem is one where the two are

inextricably fused. He, therefore,

refused to agree with his great

contemporaries that poetry should be

liberated from form. But we should

also recognize that Frost made

completely new use of the old forms

he chose to use, such as the ballad,

the sonnet, the ode and dramatic

poems in blank verse.

Quite frequently, he used the

technique of understatement. It is

said that this tone of understatement

was learnt by Frost from his New

England neighbours with their innate

simplicity and natural wisdom. This

has made people think that Frost's

philosophy is of the cracker – barrel

variety. It may be homely philosophy

close to the earth, but it is

wholesome and profound with the

wisdom of generations behind it.

Another common device used by

Frost is repetition. It may be

repetition of ideas, or of rhythms or

of certain keywords and phrases. The

effect of such repetitions is

cumulative. At times, a whole phrase

is repeated like the refrain of folk

songs. At other times a word

repeated calls our attention to

different points of view of different

significances. Frost's poems are,

therefore, the result of careful art

and great skill.

7.3. Summary

The poem ‘Mending Wall’ exists in

the tension created by two opposing

attitudes – one traditional and

orthodox and another liberal and.

modern. The wall has always been

a traditional symbol of division. The

poem has a humble start – mending

a boundary wall – but moves on into

the larger sphere of reference. We

are led to contemplate on the

correctness of dividing the world by

erecting boundaries – in the forms

of geographical barriers, political

consideration, orthodox social

customs and attitudes. Can whole

mankind be one great family or

should we erect dividing walls

between neighbours?

The poem starts with the statement

that there is something that does not

love a wall. The poet is broad -

minded to realize that division is

unnatural. The gaps in the stone wall

that divide his plot from his

neighbour's are not man – made

gaps. Hunters sometimes dig into the

wall to drive out hiding rabbits, but

the gaps now found in the spring

season do not appear to be such

“artificial” ones. Nobody seems to

know when the gaps were made.

Nature herself seems to be against

the idea of creating artificial barriers

between man and man. Indeed there

seems to be something in nature that

does not love a dividing wall.

The poet and his neighbour agree to

mend the wall – to close the gaps on

a particular day. But as they proceed

with the work the poet is haunted

by certain doubts. He wants to know

why there should be a wall at all

between his plot and that of his

neighbour. If there are cows, perhaps

a wall is necessary, but both of them

do not own any cattle. His plot has

apple trees and his neighbour's plot

has only pine trees. Nature herself

has clearly emphasized this

difference. None can imagine that his

apple trees will one day stray into his

neighbours plot, and eat the cones

under the pines. Hence what is the

need for an artificial barrier, like a

stone wall? His neighbour cannot

understand this kind of logical

reasoning, because he is steeped in

traditional narrowness of outlook. He

justifies his action by saying that

good fences make good neighbours.

The poet wants to know, before he

mends the wall, the meaning of his

action. By building the wall what is he

trying to “keep in or keep out”?

His neighbour is not troubled by any

such thought. He calmly continues

his labour. He carries a stone in each

hand and moves towards the wall in

the shade of trees. He appears to

the poet as an old savage carrying

stone – weapons and moving in the

darkness of not only the trees, but

also of the mind. The neighbour is

secure in his faith that “good fences

make good neighbours”.

Frost, here, seems to be against the

idea of division – political, social etc.,

- but at the sametime he does not

seem to be totally against it. His

point of lamentation seems to be that

men erect barriers even when there

is no justification; walls exist even

where they are not necessary. Frost

implies that tradition and blind

custom still hold sway over the

people and it is not an easy task to

convert such people to a broader and

a generous attitude. Men are divided

today by outmoded beliefs, attitudes,

and practices in religion, politics and

social intercourse. A careful scrutiny

will reveal that such lumber is quite

unnecessary. An attempt has to be

made towards integration.

7.4. Meanings for Difficult Words
and Phrases

Mending: repairing.

Line Something; i.e., some natural

or supernatural force that does

not love a wall; i.e., that

damages and breaks down walls.

Line the frozen ground-swell: The

reference is to the unsettling

effect of heavy frost suggesting

an earthquake.

Line spills sun : throws down the

upper stones in the wall.

Boulders – stones

gaps – abreast : fairly wide

4. gaps,
Where they yelping dogs. In
7-9. order to deprive rabbits of hiding

places hunters break down wall.

Line No one... heard them made :

This suggests a supernatural

cause for the gaps in the wall.

Line I let... know : The poet sent

information to his neighbour

about the broken boundary wall.

Line the line: i.e., the border line

between the two estates.

Line loaves : i.e., of the size of bread

loaves. Balls : i.e., round and

spherical pieces.

Line wear : hurt the surface of their

fingers, bruise them and crack

the skin.
Line It comes more : The poet's point
is that no wall is needed between

him and his neighbour. So

building it is useless as playing a


Line He is ... orchard : Pine trees

grow in the neighbour's estate,

and the poet is cultivating a

garden of apple trees.

Line Good fences ... neighbours : This

is the central theme of the poem.

Line they : i.e., the fences.


Line Isn't .... Are cows? : Fences help

to prevent quarrels between

neighbours where they own

cows, which may wander from

one estate to another and cause

Line no cows : i.e., no cause of
quarrelling which can be

removed by fences.

Line Something ... a wall : The

opening line of the poem is


“Elves” : fairies, tiny

supernatural beings with magical

powers which are exercised

either for helping or hurting


Line an old-stone savage : a savage

of the old stone – age.

Line in darkness ... trees : the point

is that neighbour's mind is in


Line He says again : The neighbour,

in spite of his mental ‘darkness’is

given the last word.

7.5. Select Passages for

1. He is all pine and I am apple


2. Before I built a wall I'd ask to

know. What I was walling in or

walling out.

3. I see him there

Bring a stone grasped firmly by

the top

In each hand, like an old-stone

savage armed.

4. He only says, “good fences make

good neighbours”.
7.6. Model Annotation Passage

He says again, “good fences make

good neighbours”.

1. Fix the context.

This passage is taken from the

poem ‘Mending Wall’ by Robert


2. Who says so?

The poet's neighbour says so.

3. Explain this passage

The poet's neighbour wants a

wall to be built between his

house and poet's. Good fences

according to him, will make them

both live at peace.

7.7. Model Paragraph Questions
1. Discuss the appropriateness of

the title of the poem. ‘Mending


2. Is ‘Mending Wall’ a poem of

conflicting ideologies? Discuss.

3. The relevance of the poem

‘Mending Wall’in modem times.

I. Check Your Progress Questions

Fill in the blanks:

1. Frost's poems are the

direct outcome of hi


2. Frost believed the

________ and _______

one is important in a

3. Frost made completely

________ use of


4. Frost used the technique

of _______

5. Frost's philosophy is of the

_______ variety.
II. Fill in the blanks:

1. The wall has been a

traditional symbol


2. They mend a _________


3. _______ sometimes dig in

the wall.
4. The _______ and the

_________ agree to mend

the _______

5. Good _______make good


7.8. Answers to Check Your

Progress Questions

I. 1. experience

2. form, content,

3. new, old

4. understatement

5. cracker-barrel

II. 1. division

2. boundary

3. Hunters

4. poet, neighbour, wall

5. fences, neighbours
8. Strange Meeting
(Wilfred Owen)

8.1. Introduction

Wilfred Owen (1893-1918) is

regarded as one of the best war

poets. A man who has personally

witnessed the horrors of war, he has

written a number of poems against

it. He fairly quickly became the best

known poet of the war and his work

was an influence upon poets of the

1930's, by its toughness and

unpleasantness and its experiments

with half – rhyme and onomatopoeia.

He is a descriptive poet and a

concrete one; but the words are

chosen also for their immediate

emotional effect. His verse is mostly

straight forward.

‘Strange Meeting' is a famous poem

that condemns war. The poet brings

out the futility of war in the form of

a conversation between two soldiers

who meet in hell after their death.


1. to understand and appreciate the


2. to understand the horror in the


Unit Structure

8.1. Introduction
8.2. Meaning for difficult words

and expressions

8.3. Summary of the Poem

8.4. Model Passages for


8.5. Answers to Check Your

Progress Questions

8.2. Meanings for difficult words

and expressions

Tunnel - an underground passage

Scooped - dug

grained - pulled out

glee - joy

boil bloody - grow violent

break ranks - stop fighting

trek from
- move backwards

citadel - fortress

cess - tax

- wounded with the


- turned the thrust of the


8.3. Summary of the Poem

The first part of the poem portrays

the real nature of hell wherein two

soldiers, after their death, meet. The

path to the hell lies through a

profound tunnel. The poet, after

reaching the murky place, is shocked

to find dead bodies strewn

everywhere. He does not know

whether they are actually dead or

merely lost in thought. As he is

intensely probing the dead bodies,

a man suddenly gets up and starts

conversing with the poet.

The man confesses that he has

wasted his whole life on earth by

indulging in romance. Now he feels

that hell is not as bad as it is made

out to be. He was surrendering

himself before a woman who had

actually enslaved him with her long

hair and beautiful eyes. Although

people laughed at him, he was not

in a position to understand his folly.

The strange speaker says that man

will never learn lessons from history.

Although war is but self-destructive,

man goes on waging wars and

praising them also. He, instead of

marching forward, moves only

backward when he indulges in

unnecessary wars. He feels that the

wheel of progress always gets struck

by the drops of blood. He therefore

wants to wash them with water lying

in deep untainted wells. While the

majority of men ‘boiled bloody’, the

speaker retained his ‘mastery’ and


He rightly feels that it is better to die

for peace than for war which inflicts

death like a heavy tax. Although he

was killed by the poet, he does not

consider him his enemy. They remain

close friends. The killer and the killed

find fault only with the war and not

among themselves.

8.4. Model Passages for


1. I went hunting wild

After wildest beauty in the world

which lies not calm in eyes or

braided hair

i. Identify the speaker.

The speaker is the stranger

whom the poet meets in hell.

ii. What was the speaker doing

while alive?
He was running after

beautiful women.

iii. Does he regret his folly?

Yes. It is a confession.

2. Coverage was mine and I had


Wisdom was mine and I had


i. In which poem do you come

across these lines?

We come across these lines

in the poem ‘Strange


ii. Name the poet.

Wilfred Owen is the poet.

iii. What does the speaker

He has courage, wisdom and

a divine intuition that war is

an evil.

I. Check Your Progress Questions

Fill in the blanks:

1. Wilfred Owen is a


2. “Strange Meeting”

condemns ______

3. It is written in the form

of _________ between

________ soldiers who

meet in _______after


4. The path to hell lies

through a profound

5. It is better to die for


6. The _________ and the

_________ only find fault

with the war.

8.5. Answers to Check Your

Progress Questions

I. 1. War

2. War

3. Conversation, two, hell,


4. tunnel

5. peace

6. killer, killed.
9. The Shield of Achilles
(W.H. Auden)

9.1. Introduction

Wystan Hugh Auden was born in York

in 1907. A revolutionary to start with,

Auden later compromised himself

with the existing situation. His later

poems are more concerned with

religious and philosophical matters.

He is anti-romantic in outlook. He is

a poet of wide and various gifts.


1. to make the learners read the

poem and understand it.

2. to make them appreciate the

3. to understand the content and


Unit Structure

9.1. Introduction

9.2. Auden's Title

9.3. Meanings for Difficult Words

and Expressions

9.3.1 to 9.3.9 - Stanza's 1 to

9 (Meanings)

9.4. Critical Summary

9.4.1. Introduction

9.4.2. Use of Mythical


9.5. Critical Analysis

9.6. Model Passages for


9.7. Answers to Check Your

Progress Questions

9.2. Auden's Title

‘The Shield of Achilles’ is the title

poem in the volume of poems,

published in 1955. The

meaninglessness of a life without a

faith is presented in these poems.

9.3. Meanings for Difficult Words

and Expressions

9.3.1. Stanza 1

She – That is, the mother of Achilles,

according to Greek mythology.

Achilles was one of the Greek heroes

of the Trojan War.

Over his shoulder – at the long of

shield of Achilles which was hung

over his shoulder. This shield was

specially made for him by

Hephaestus, the blacksmith of the

gods. The shield is a symbol of art,

art which mirrors the culture and

conditions of life which prevail at

some particular time.

For wines and......untamed seas –

the shield of Achilles was well –

decorated with beautiful scenes and

sights carved upon it. In this way

the shield mirrored Greek culture and

way of life.
Vines and Olive trees – They

constitute the engraving, on the

shield of Achilles.

And ship......sea – beautiful Greek

ship sailing across wild, stormy seas

which had not yet been ‘tamed’or

subdued by mechanical power.

On the shining metal – the shining

surface of a shield made by some

modem blacksmith.

An artificial wilderness – The

reference is to the contemporary

waste land in which life is artificial,

and people are spiritually dead. It is

all a spiritual desolation, and life is

unnatural, empty and hollow.

And a sky like lead – this symbolizes

the ugliness and murkiness of the

contemporary urban – industrial


9.3.2. Stanza 2
Without a feature – One uniform

scene of decay and desolation,

without any change or redeeming


Bare – without any vegetation;

totally desolate

No sign of neighbourhood – in a

modern city man is lonely even

in crowd.

Unintelligible multitude – The

masses unable to communicate

their emotions, their suffering,

their spiritual loneliness.

A million boots in line – millions

of soldiers. Men are like dumb-

driven cattle in the modern age.

Without expression – their faces

are blank, and not expressive of

their emotions.

A pain without a

feature......Waiting for a sign –

the entire stanza is symbolic of

spiritual desolation and deadness

of the modem age.

9.3.3. Stanza 3
Out of the the place –

dictators or military commanders

speak to the people.

Only the voice is heard, and the

face is not seen.

Dry and level – emotionless, and

uniformly the same; nor changed

with passion.

No one was ......... discussed –

personal touch is entirely

lacking. The people must obey,

and ask no questions.

To grief – to their death.

9.3.4. Stanza 4
Ritual pieties – scenes of

religious rites and ceremonies

engraved on the shield.

Heifers – Cows.

Libation – distribution of sweets

after a religious ceremony.

The shining metal – the modem


Flickering forege-light-the dim

light in the workshop of modem


9.3.5. Stanza 5
Barbed – the

carving was of a field enclosed

by wire. It was the concentration

camp in which prisoners of war

are kept.

As three pale figures ...............

in the ground – They were the

enemies captured in the war.

They were tied to the three

stakes and shot dead. The

passage is thus a mockery of the

crucification of Christ.

9.3.6. Stanza 6
The mass and majority of the

world – the three soldiers who

were shot dead were flatered by

their generals and rulers and

were called the noblest and most

majestic of men.

Lay in the hands of others – were

entirely helpless.

Their shame...... could wish –

they suffered the worst possible

9.3.7. Stanza 7
For athletes at their games-on

the shield of Achilles were

engraved scenes from the world

of games and sports, scenes of

healthy, manly exercises.

Moving their sweet

music - scenes of dancing, with

beautiful feet moving in rhythmic


But a weed – chocked field –

it symbolizes the spiritual

desolation of the modem age.

9.3.8. Stanza 8
Rugged Urchin - not any

handsome athlete, but a boy in

tatters, shabby and awkward.

That vacancy - the weed -

chocked field, the contemporary

waste land.

A bird flew......stone - this is

symbolic of the cruelty and

brutality of the modern age.

That girls are ...... a third -

symbolic of the sex and violence

so characteristic of the modern


Him - the rugged urchin,

symbolic of the contemporary

waste lander.

Of any world ...... another wept-

the noble world of the past when

people were truthful and

9.3.9. Stanza 9
Armourer - the maker of armour,

the black smith.

Hephaestus – the blacksmith of

the gods, symbolic of artists in

the past, as well as in the


That is – the goddess who in

Greek mythology was supposed

to be the mother of Achilles.

Here she stands for the


9.4. Critical Summary

9.4.1. Introduction

“The Shield of Achilles” is the title

poem in the volume of poems

entitled, The Shield of Achilles,

published in 1955. The lyric is divided

into three parts, and each part

consists of three stanzas. Thus there

are nine stanzas in all.

9.4.2. Use of Mythical Technique

In this lyric Auden has used the

mythical technique to make his

comment on the modern condition.

The mythical method consists in

juxtaposing the past and the present.

The past is contrasted with the

present. The shield symbolizes art,

image of the human condition. In the

shield of art Hephaestus (the artist)

shows Thatis (the audience), not the

classical city, but the plain of modem

life on which multitudes are ordered

about by totalitarian rulers.

That is, the mother of Achilles, in

Greek mythology, looks at the shield

hung over the shoulders of her son.

The shield of Achilles was made by

Hephaestus, the blacksmith of the

god. On it the artist had carved

beautiful scenes depicting orchards,

well – governed cities with marble

statues and calm seas with beautiful

ship sailing on them. But quite

different scenes are carved by the

artist on a modern shield. There are

scenes depicting the artificial and

desolate life of the contemporary

waste land. It depicts a vast plain,

desolate, bleak and barren, without

anything to eat, or a place for rest

and shelter. This is the modern waste

land, full of crowds, who like dumb –

driven cattle are unable to think for

themselves, and mechanically carry

out the dictates of their leaders and

rulers. They are men all hollow

within. Their rulers have no personal

contacts with them. They speak to

them in an impersonal voice, over the

radio, prove by statistics that their

cause is just, and so persuade them

to go to the war in which they are

sure to be killed. It is a terrible

indictment of dictators of today in

their ‘wooing poses’. The beautiful

world of the past has been

juxtaposed with the desolate and

bleak modem age, and in this way

its hollowness has been commented


In the second, part, it is the religious

decay and desolation in the modem

age that is commented upon. On the

Homeric shield, were carved scenes

of religious ritual, showing cows

decorated with flowers, and wine and

food being served in celebration of

some ceremony. But on the modem

shield are carved big concentration

camps where pale prisoners of war

are tied to the stake, and brutally

shot dead. In the past also there was

much cruelty. Christ was crucified,

but the crucification was necessary

for the regeneration and redemption

of mankind. But the mass-killings in

the modern age carry no such

significance. They are merely a

measure of the spiritual degeneration

of the contemporary waste landers.

In the third part on the Homeric

shield were carved pictures of

Athletes busy in their games, and

men and women dancing rhythmically

and sweetly. On the modem shield,

there are no dancing floors or

playgrounds but only‘weed-choked’

fields. There are no sportsmen but

only ‘rugged urchin’ callously

throwing stones at birds, or girls

being raped, or boys quarrelling

among themselves and knifing each

other. Life is brutal and beastly,

entirely lacking in sympathy, love

and friendship which characterized

the life in the past. War and violence

has always been there, but violence

in the past was not soul – less or

brutal as it is to–day. In the past

there were heroic warriors, like

Achilles, fighting for their religion, for

their country, or for their beloveds;

today there arc only

“rugged–urchins, and senseless

violence. The contemporary scene

terrifies Thatis, and the lyric ends as

she goes away crying dismay.

9.5. An Evaluation

The lyric ‘The Shield of Achilles’ is

divided into three parts and each part

consists of three stanzas. It is a fine

lyrical poem in which the poet puts

the classical myth of Achilles and his

shield to bring out the contrast

between the heroic past and unheroic

present. It is a carefully balanced and

well – integrated poem in which

Auden has tried to bring out the

whole ages of history within the

compass of a lyric. Thatis’

observation of her son's shield

presents the horrors of a world

without faith.

The image of ‘an unintelligible

multitude’ marching column by

column in a cloud of dust portrays

the negative aspects of the horrors

of a world without redemption. He in

fact contrasts the ideas of harmony

and humane community with moral

blindness and militarism. The last

stanza, however, changes the pattern

to give a twist at the end. The shining

metal of the shield, symbol of death

is replaced by the shining breasts of

Thatis, a symbol of beauty and life.

The concluding stanza of the poem

stresses the despair of Thatis and

the inevitability of the death of her

warrior son. Hephaestus who

designed such a shield for Achilles at

last nobbles away. Auden seems to

convey to the readers that making a

shield like that of the classical myth

was unnecessary in view of the

inevitable death of man, though he

may be as brave and strong as

Achilles himself. For, we are aware of

the fact that even the mighty Achilles

would not live long. Thatis too goes

away crying with dismay. The poet

sums up the poem with his idea that

even the great Achilles, who would

slay others, will be slain by someone

else. War is destructive and no one

can escape falling a victim to it. John

Fuller writes : “The shield of

Achilles” by contrast, puts the post-

war scene into just the kind of

oblique and dramatically archetypal

context that brings out both its full

horror and its religious meaning.

Thatis looks for the classical virtues

on her son's shield. She works for

order and good government but finds

only its negative image – a spiritless

totalitarianism. She looks for

religion, but finds only a military

execution parodying the crucifixion.

She works for art and finds only an

aimless violence. Thatis's dismay is

counterbalanced by the fated

shortness of Achilles life, so that

Hephaesto's provision of such a

shield seems significantly like the

Christian God's provision of man's

free-will as though the landscape of

evil were a necessary condition for

9.6. Model Passages for

1. Column by column in a cloud of


They marched away enduring a


Whose logic brought them,

somewhere else, to grief

i. Write the name of the poem

& poet.

The Shield of Achilles is

the poem written by W.H.


ii. What happened to marchers

at the end?

They all marched to the

Valley of Death.
iii. Does the poet criticize war?


He points out that war is

self-destructive. It makes

people mad and they kill one


2. As three pale figures were led

forth and bound

To three posts driven upright in

the ground.

i. Who is the poet?

W.H. Auden is the poet.

ii. What is the title of the


“The Shield of Achilles”

iii. What does ‘three posts’ refer

It refers to crucifixion scene.

The poet wants to convey

that religion has no place in

the modern society which is

crumbling with war.

3. Moving their sweet limbs

Quick, quick to music

But there on the shining shield

His hands had set no dancing –


But a weed-choked field.

i. What is name of the poem?

“The Shield of Achilles”

ii. What is name of the poet?

W.H. Auden

iii. How does he contrast the old

shield with the modem?

Men and women are seen

dancing rhythmically in the

shield. On the Modern shield,

on the other hand, there are

no dance floors, but only

‘weed-choked field’.

iv. What does it symbolize?

It symbolizes the spiritual

desolation of the modern


I. Check Your Progress Questions

Fill in the blanks:

1. Auden Was bom in

________ in _________

2. His later poems are

concerned with _______

and ________ matters

3. “The Shield of Achilles”

was published in ______.

4. The meaninglessness of a

________ is presented in

the poem.
II. Fill in the blanks:

1. “The shield of Achilles” is a


2. The mythical method

consists in juxtaposing the

________ and the


3. The shield symbolizes


4. ________shows_____ not

the classical __________

but the plain of _______


5. _______is the mother of


6. The shield of Achilles was

made by _______

7. The second part deals with


8. ________was crucified.

9. On the Homeric shield

were carved pictures of


10. The contemporary scene

terrifies ________
III. Fill in the blanks:

1. The lyric is divided into

2. Thatis’ observation of her

son's shield presents the

_________ of a world

without __________

3. The shining metal of the

shield is a symbol of


4. The poem concludes with

the _______ of Thatis.

9.7. Answers to Check Your

Progress Questions

I. 1. York, 1907

2. religious, philosophical

3. 1955

4. Life
II. 1. lyric
2. past, present

3. art

4. Hephaestus

5. Thatis

6. Hephaestus

7. religious

8. Christ

9. Athletes

10. Thatis

III. 1. 3

2. horrors, faith

3. death

4. beauty, life

5. despair

D.1. The Bishop's

(Norman Mckinnel)

D.1.1. Introduction

Norman Mckinnel, an actor himself

has written a number of one-act

plays and short stories. The plot of

this one-actor has actually been

taken from the opening chapters of

Victor Hugo's great classic ‘Les

Miserables’. It shows how a convict

gets himself completely changed,

thanks to the selfless love showered

on him by a bishop. The character of

the bishop is clearly contrasted not

only with the convict.


1. to make the learners read the


2. to make them understand the

theme and its propose

Unit Structure

D.1.1. Introduction

D.1.2. Summary

D.1.3. Notes and Meanings

D.1.4. Model Annotations

D.1.5. Select Passages for


D.1.6. Paragraph Questions

D.1.7. Model Answer for

Paragraph Questions
D.1.8. Answers to Check Your

Progress Questions

D.1.2. Summary

The bishop is a lover of humanity. He

likes the downtrodden so much that

he helps them even by selling his own

possessions. He visits their houses

braving cold and stormy weather to

comfort them. A man, who has

dedicated his life to salvage the

sinners, he is highly respected and

loved by all the people around. He is

not at all disturbed or annoyed, when

the convict threatens to kill him or

decamps with his candlesticks. For,

he being a holyman, is readily willing

to mortify his body to gratify the soul

of the desperadoes. persome, his

sister is an antithesis to the bishop.

She is like every ordinary woman who

is concerned more with the material

needs of her life. She cannot stand

the sudden disappearance from the

kitchen of the salt cellers which her

brother has sold out to help a poor

woman pay her debts.

One night a convict enters his room

stealthily and brandishing his long

knife, forces the bishop to provide

him food. He appears to be

ravenously hungry as he has got no

food for three days. He looks more a

beast than a man. The stony prison

walls have made his heart stony too.

He eats voraciously like a wild beast.

Having been in the prison hulks for

ten long years, he has forgotten even

his name and is conscious of only his

number 15, 729 by which he is called

out. The bishop is not at all perturbed

at his rude behaviour, but only feels

sorry for his miserable life.

The convict has a pathetic past to

reveal to the bishop. Like Jean

Valjean of Victor Hugo's great classic

Les Miserables, he stole bread for his

dying wife. He was sentenced to ten

years in the prison hulks. He lost his

wife, he lost his happiness and he

lost everything in life. The prison, it

seems has erased not only his name,

but his conscience too. Instead of

refining him, it has damned his soul

for ever. So he does not hesitate to

steal once again when he sees the

silver candlesticks of the bishop who

has been very sympathetic and kind

to him. But the bishop feels happy

in his happiness. He thinks that the

candlesticks are very much useful

only to the convict rather than to a


After sometime, enter a sergeant and

three gendarmes with the convict

bound. They want to verify if the

candlesticks, the convict carries with

him, are stolen from the bishop's

house. Persome, the bishop's sister

is very happy to get the candlesticks

back. But the bishop loves the sinner

more than the things that have

tempted him to sin. He does not want

to send the convict once again to the

hell. So he informs the sergeant that

the candlesticks are gifted only by

him to his ‘friend’. He even allows

him to escape through the woods at

the back of his cottage. He hopes

against hope that the convict will

turn a new leaf in his life and his soul

be redeemed one day or other.

D.1.3. Notes and Meanings

rebuke - scold.

- a French title given to

bishops like ‘My Lords’.

chatter - to talk idly

nin com
- an idiot, good for nothing

salt – cellar - a small container of salt

comforter - a woolen muffler

scamp - a worthless fellow

audacity - foolish courage

entrails - bowels

minx - wanton girl

- quietly, without being


vermin - insects

hulks - old ships used as prisons

chain-mate - fellow prisoners

collaring - seizing

defiance - aggressiveness

- going in a stealthy

mon dieu - my god.

D.1.4. Model Annotations

1. That was when I was a man. No

I'm not a man, now I'm a


a. From which play is this

passage taken?

This passage is taken from

the play ‘The Bishop's

candlesticks' by Norman

b. Identify the speaker.

The convict who has escaped

from the prison is the


c. Who he is he talking to?

He is talking to the Bishop.

d. What is he talking about


He is talking here about his

horrible experiences inside

the prison which actually has

turned him brutish. He is not

recognized as a human being

at all but a number – a mere

lifeless number.

2. He has more need of them than

I. My mother would have wished

it so had she been here’.

i. Who says this?

The Bishop says this to his


ii. Who has more need?

The convict has more need.

iii. What does the word ‘them’

refer to?

‘Them’ refers to


iv. What do you understand

about the speaker from this


The Bishop is kind-hearted

and a selfless lover of

humanity. His love does not

discriminate people. He
loves even a beast like

convict more than himself.

D.1.5. Select Passages for


You have your soul to lose, my

son; it is of more value than my


O god! They took away my name,

they took away my soul, and

they gave me a devil in its place.

Yes it is a pity. They were

beautiful; but still, dear, one can

eat salt out of China just as well.

But – but I don't understand;

this gentleman is my very good

Always remember, my son, that

this poor body is the Temple of

the Living God.

D.1.6. Paragraph Questions.

1. Give a brief character sketch of

the Bishop.

2. Why was the convict sentenced

to ten years in the prison hulks?

3. How is Persome contrasted with

her brother?

4. What do we learn about the


D.1.7. Model Answer for

Paragraph questions

Give a brief character sketch of the

The story of the convict is so pathetic

that we cannot help feeling pity on

him. For, he is the one who has been

wronged by the society. He steals

bread only to save his ailing wife.

But he is thrown inside the teeth of

prison nearly for ten long years. Now

he is a mere number and a beast.

It is the love of the Bishop that

redeems his soul. The Bishop allows

him escape from the hold of the

police, but he is sure that the convict

cannot escape from his love.

I. Check Your Progress Questions

Fill In the blanks:

1. Mckinnel is also an

2. The plot is taken from


3. The _______showered a

selfless love on a ______

4. The convict had no food to

eat for _______days.

5. The convict stole ______

for his wife.

6. The bishop allowed the

________ to escape

through the _______

D.1.6. Answers to Check Your

Progress Questions

I. 1. actor

2. Les Miserable

3. bishop, convict
4. three

5. bread

6. convict, woods
D.2. The Bear
(Anton Checkhov)

D.2.1. Introduction

Anton Chekhov, the great Russian

writer was bom in the year I860.

Although he began learning medicine

at first, he took to writing later. One

of the great writers of 19 century

Chekhov is always remembered for

his short stories and plays which of

course portray the lives of innocent

peasants and the middle-class.

The one-act play ‘The Bear’ unmasks

two characters - one an attractive

widow who pretends to be in deep

mourning for the death of her

husband and a middle - aged land

owner who looks boorish. Their

falsity is vanished into thin air when

they fall in love. Their quarrel, it

seems, is nothing but a smoke screen

to hide their real nature.


1. to make the learners read the


2. to make them comprehend the

training and the theme.

Unit Structure

D.2.1. Introduction

D.2.2. Summary

D.2.3. Glossary
D.2.4. Select Passages for


D.2.5. Model Annotation

D.2.6. Select Paragraph


D.2.7. Model Answer

D.2.8. Answers to Check Your

Progress Questions

D.2.2. Summary

The play ‘The Bear’ by Anton

Chekhov is a comedy of manners.

Here we find a widow, who makes so

much fuss about her love on her dead

husband, suddenly falling headlong

in love with another man whom she

has never met before. Popova is the

unfortunate widow. She buries

herself within the four walls of her

house and refuses to stir out after

the death of her husband Nikolai

Mihailovich. She makes a vow never

to take off the mourning till she goes

to her grave, although her dead

husband was mean, harsh and

unfaithful to her. She instructs her

servants to give ‘Toby’ an extra bag

of Oats as the horse was very much

loved by her husband. Louka, the

faithful servant of Popova, wants his

young mistress to be well disposed

towards the outside world which is

brimming with life.

One day, Smirnov, a middle aged

land owner enters her house

demanding twelve hundred roubles

which her dead husband owes him.

But Popova is in such “a state of

mind” that she does not feel like

talking to a stranger. Infuriated at

the callous attitude of Popova,

Smirnov starts behaving rudely to

the widow. He is boorish, noisy and

uncouth. He resolves not to leave her

house until he is paid. Popova, rudely

shaken calls him ‘an ill-mannered

bear’, a brute and a monster’. He

is in her opinion, as clumsy as the

animal bear itself unrelenting end

violent. Smirnov too is equally

vociferous in accusing her. He, infact,

unmasks her ‘mourning – mania’ by

pointing out that she has not

forgotten to powder her face while

mourning her dead husband.

Both of them decide to settle the

issue by a duel. Smirnov surprisingly,

undergoes introspection and starts

wondering her bravado. He

interestingly goes soft and feels like

a devoted lover. He, while teaching

her how to use pistol, proposes to

her. He confesses that he has gone

off his head, like a fool. Although

Popova takes a dislike to Smirnov at

first, now accepts him. Both of them

are seen embracing, when Looka

enters the room with workmen.

Popova now with downcast eyes asks

her men not to give any oats to Toby

– the horse, very much loved by her

dead husband.

Checkhov, through the play, conveys

to the readers that people must not

be judged by their appearance. It is

true that Popova's hatred towards

the stranger is not as genuine as her

love towards her husband. She does

not love Nikolai, but loves only love.

She is showy and dubious. When she

is confronted with Smirnov, all her

dubious grief vanishes and she

becomes a normal woman.

D.2.3. Glossary
Promenading - walking for pleasure

- beggar with leprosy

(Luke 19)
liveries - Uniforms for servants

Toby and
- Names of horses

shoved - pushed roughly

ponders - reflects

excise - person in charge of

officer collecting taxes

awful row - terrible quarrel

- one who is weak and


lout - ill-mannered person

- a person who chatters a

pandering - gratifying a vulgar desire

blubber - weep noisily

- woodcock in white, an
white snipe

Tamar - a Russian name for a girl

spite - hurt

boor - insensitive person

- freedom from

brazen - shameless

soppy - sentimental.
D.2.4. Select Passages for

1. My love will only fade away when

my poor heart stops beating.

2. When at last I got here, forty

miles from home, and hoping to

be paid my money, I'm treated to

a “state of mind”!

3. I'd rather sit on a barrel of

gunpowder than talk to a woman.

4. You'd be more likely to meet a

cat with horns or white snipe

than a constant woman!

5. He was the breath of my life, I

worshipped him as if I were a

pagan and he my god.

6. You've buried yourself alive, yet

you haven't forgotten to powder

your face!

7. You're a boor! An ill-mannered

bear! A brute! A monster!

8. Madame jevous prie .... I am so

happy to know that you're not

paying me any money.

9. I've had enough of it! Black eyes,

passionate eyes, red lips,

dimpled cheeks, moon light

whisperings, bated breath-

Madam, I won't give you two

pence for all the lot of it.

10. The devil take it – you can hang

me head downwards on that nail

there if a woman is capable of

loving any living thing apart from

a lap-dog!

D.2.5. Model Annotation

You've buried yourself alive, yet, you

haven't forgotten to powder your


1. Where does this passage occur?

This passage occurs in the one-

act play ‘The Bear’ written by

Anton Chekhov.

2. Who is the speaker?

Smirnov, the middle-aged

landowner is the speaker.

3. To whom is it spoken?

To Popova, the young widow.

4. Why does the speaker criticize

her so?

Because, Smirnov feels that she

is not true to herself. Inspite of

her black dress and ‘state of

mind’ she has not forgotten to

powder her face to look pretty.

D.2.6. Select Paragraph


1. Justify the title “The Bear”

2. Give a brief summary of the,

quarrel between Smirnov and


3. Describe how Smirnov and

Popova fell in love with each

D.2.7. Model Answer:
1. Sketch the character of Popova.

Popova is a split personality. She

wants to love and be loved like

any other woman. But she tries

to hide her real self by wearing

a mask. She is unmasked by the

bold and frank Smirnov the

moment he proposes to her. She,

in fact, falls in love with the idea

of love rather than Nikolai, her

dead husband. The more she

boasts of her love, the more we

understand, she is superficial.

She even adores the horse Toby,

which was the favourite of her

dead husband. But the moment

she has chosen Smirnov as her

lover, she asks her servants not

to take care of Toby. Chekhov's

Popova, of course, proves the

wise words of Shakespeare that

‘Frailty thy name is woman’.

I. Check Your Progress Questions

Fill In the blanks:

1. Chekov is a _______


2. The widow pretends to be

________ for the death of

her ________

3. The landlord books


4. The Play, ‘The Bear’, is a

comedy of _________

5. The widow's name is

6. Her husband's name


7. ________ demands twelve

hundred ___________

8. In the end, the widow

becomes a normal


D.2.8. Answers to Check Your

Progress Questions

I. 1. Russian

2. mourning, husband

3. boorish

4. manners

5. Popova

6. Nikolai Mihailorich

7. Smirnov, roubles
8. woman.
D.3. The Death Trap

D.3.1. Introduction

‘Saki’ is the pen name of Hector Hugh

Munro who was born in Burma in

1870. Starting his career as a

political satirist, Saki wrote a number

of novels, plays and short stories.

Many of his stories like that of O.

Henry have an unexepected twist at

the end. He died on 14 November



1. to make the learners read the

2. to make them understand the

story and appreciate the theme

Unit Structure

D.3.1. Introduction

D.3.2. Summary

D.3.3. Glossary

D.3.4. Select Passages for


D.3.5. Model Annotation

D.3.6. Select Paragraph


D.3.7. Model Paragraph Question

D.3.8. Answers to Check Your

Progress Questions
D.3.2. Summary

‘The Death Trap’unravels to the

readers the mystery of the death trap

carefully laid by the dying prince, to

kill his enemies. The readers, in fact,

have the sense of satisfaction as the

play has poetic justice at the end.

The play ‘The Death Trap’ shows

how a man, helpless will tend to act

when he is on the verge of death.

Prince Dimitri is the last king of his

clan. Despite being young, he is

surrounded by enemies who are hell

bent on murdering him and bringing

Prince Karl, a rival claimant, to the

throne. They are waiting for the

marching out of the Andrieff regiment

from the capital. The prince himself

is aware of the design of his enemies.

He feels he can never escape from

them. Dr. Stronetz is the only faithful

friend of the Prince. He gains

admission into the room of his friend

on the pretext of examining his

health. To his great shock, he finds

out that the prince is suffering from

a fatal malady and he cannot survive

beyond six days. So the enemies of

the prince do not lay hands on him

and leave him to have natural death.

The prince who feels very happy to

have escaped death, thanks to his

physician friend, is later filled with

despair when he comes to know that

the words of his friend are but true.

A youngman of seventeen, he is

brimming over with high spirits and

wants to enjoy life with all its

fascinating beauty. He cannot be

considered a coward as he hates

death. The doctor comes forward to

help him. He hands over to him a

phial of poison to drink so that the

prince can take his own life before

being murdered.

The prince is not prepared to die a

lonely death. He wants his enemies

too die with him. So he mixes poison

in the drinks and shares with the

conspirators. To his great satisfaction

they all fall dead one by one right

before his eyes. They all are caught

in the death trap of the dying prince.

He breathes his last as a man fully


D.3.3. Glossary
scabbard - sheath for a sword

finger of
- divine will

nonplussed - perplexed, confused

spoofed - deceived

malady - disease

- clasps hands to show


phial - small bottle

staggers - totters,
reels - rocks unsteadily

- acted in advance to
prevent something

sparsely - thinly scattered

goblet - drinking cup

D.3.4. Select Passages for


1. Oh, I know this is our great

chance, still I wish the boy could

be cleared out of our path by

finger of Heaven rather than by

our hands.

2. My sword has gone to be reset,

my revolver is being cleaned, my

hunting Knife – has been mislaid.

3. Life is so horribly facinating

when one is young and I've

tested so little of it yet

4. I have made my examination. My

duty is a cruel one .... I cannot

give him six days to live.

5. Spoofed them! Ye gods, that was

an idea, Stronetz!

6. I had seen men who were

stricken with a mortal disease

look like that

7. That would have been better

than this “to-be-left-till-called-

for” business.

8. I am a monarch. I won't be kept

waiting by death. Give me that

little bottle.
9. Long life to Prince Karl!

Gentlemen of the Kranitzki

Guards, drink to your future


10. That is true, because you will

never serve another prince.

Observe I drink fair!

D.3.5. Model Annotation

‘That is true, because you will never

serve another Prince. Observe, I

drink fair!’

1. Where does this passage occur?

This passage occurs in Saki's

one-act play ‘The Death Trap’

2. Who is the speaker?
Prince Dimitri, sovereign of an

East European Principality is the


3. What is the irony of this


The prince knows very well that

his enemies who have been

poisoned by him will have no

opportunity to serve other

princes. But his enemies take his

words in a normal sense until

they fall down dead.

D.3.6. Select Paragraph


1. Justify the title ‘The Death Trap’.

2. What is the role of Dr. Stronetz

in the play
3. How does Prince Dimitri trap the

conspirators in the end?

4. Sketch the character of Dimitri.

D.3.7. Model Paragraph


Justify the title “The Death Trap”

The title of the play ‘The Death Trap’

focuses the theme of the play

–Revenge. Dimitri, although very

young is destined to die young as he

is inflicted with an incurable disease.

To make the matters worse, he is

surrounded by his enemies too who

are sure to kill him. As he is sure of

his own death, he does not hesitate

to lay a trap to kill all his enemies.

He, hiding his animosity offers them

a drink for the health of their leader.

His enemies without knowing the fact

that it is poisoned, drink and die one

by one. Thus the title justifies the

plot of the play.

I. Check Your Progress Questions

Fill In the blanks:

1. Saki is the pen name of


2. Saki was bom in ________

3. Saki started his career as

a ________

4. The death trap is laid by

the dying _________to kill

his ________
5. Prince _________is the

last King.

6. The enemies want to bring


7. _______ is the only

faithful friend at the


8. The Prince mixed _______

in the drink.

D.3.8. Answers to Check Your

Progress Questions

I. 1. Hecto Hugh Munro

2. Burma

3. Political satirist
4. Prince, enemies

5. Dimitri

6. Prince Karl

7. Dr. Stronetz,

8. Poison.
D.4. The Valiant
(Holworthy Hall and Robert Middlemass)

D.4.1. Introduction

It is a very popular one-act play

staged more than 5000 times. The

title of the play is from the famous

lines of Shakespeare's ‘Julius


‘Cowards die many

times before their


The valiant never

taste of death but


The theme of the play actually causes

the readers’ wonder and reverence.

Dyke, the prisoner does not fear the

consequences of his self-imposed

introspection. He keeps his real

identity to his heart till his death.

But the readers are able to identify

him through the lines of poems he



1. to make the readers learn the


2. to make them understand its


Unit Structure

D.4.1. Introduction

D.4.2. Summary
D.4.3. Glossary

D.4.4. Passages for Annotation

D.4.5. Model Annotation

D.4.6. Paragraph Questions

D.4.7. Model Answer

D.4.8. Answers to Check Your

Progress Questions

D.4.2. Summary

The play ‘The Valiant’ reveals the

pathetic story of a young prisoner

who wants to remain unidentified till

his end. Even the warden who has

moved with many hardcore criminals

inside the prison is perplexed at the

adamant nature of the boy. He, with

Father Daly tries all his best to make

James Dyke, the prisoner, confess his

past life. The mystery is unraveled at

the end when he is confronted with a

girl who meets him in the prison.

Dyke is a prisoner awaiting his death.

He has been sentenced to death as

he has murdered a man who

according to Dyke deserves death. As

he has nothing to grudge against the

law of the land, he is prepared to

meet his Creator soon. The warden

makes arrangement to have Dyke in

his own room so that the prisoner

may feel relaxed. He shows him

thousands of letters he is receiving

everyday, inquiring the identity of

the prisoner.
Although Dyke receives Liberty Bonds

worth 2500 dollars for his fabricated

autobiography in a magazine, he has

no mind to claim the sum, as he does

not know what to do with the money.

A girl by name Josephine Paris

meanwhile travelling more than 1000

miles from Ohio meets him in the

prison to verify if Dyke is her own

brother Joe, lost eight years ago. She

comes alone as her mother is sick.

Although she has faint memories of

her brother, she hopes against hope

that she can recall common things

both of them have shared years ago.

Her brother, in her opinion, is so

much interested in Shakespearean

plays that he can quote a number of

lines from them. Whenever she feels

sleepy, he bids her good bye with the

lines from Romeo and Juliet.

But Dyke, on meeting Josephine

informs her that he has no interest in

poetry, neither does he have a sister

at all. He says that he has acquainted

with a boy by name Joseph Anthony

Paris who died a brave man at Vimy

Ridge while trying to save a fellow

soldier. Now the girl, on hearing the

incident at the battle field narrated

by a fellow soldier feels very proud of

her brother. She is very much happy

to know that her brother is not a

murderer, but a martyr. Dyke hands

over to the girl the Liberty Bonds and

requests her to wear a golden star in

memory of her dead brother. Before

she leaves the place he asks her to

recall the lines of poetry, her brother

used to recite. He echoes every word

of the poem long after the girl has

left the prison.

‘Sleep dwell upon

thine eyes

Peace in thy breast

I would I were sleep

and Peace, so

sweet to rest!’

Now the readers are able to

understand that Dyke is none other

than her own brother. It is true, as

he says, ‘The Valiant never taste of

death.... But once’.

D.4.3. Glossary
string-tie - narrow tie

necktie party - hanging

blue devils - depression

fortitude - strength

forboding - ominous

awful Dutch - serious trouble

reprieve - remission of sentence

flat-footed - positively

ponders - reflects

frisked - searched thoroughly

snugly - comfortably
reticence - being reserved

plucky - brave

grimace - contortion of the face

insouciant - indifferent

tardily - slowly

D.4.4. Passages for Annotation

1. He intends to die as a man of

mystery to us. Sometimes I

wonder if he isn't just as much of

a mystery to himself.

2. He pleaded guilty all right, but he

doesn't act guilty.

3. Then... as man to man ... and

this is your last chance ... who

are you?

4. And his soul tonight seems as

dark and forboding to me as a

haunted house would seem to

the small boys down in


5. You're not going to execute a

name ... you're going to execute

a man

6. ... Why, I'm still not sorry and

Pm not afraid, because Pm quite

with the other fellow ... the law

is quite with me, and its all

balanced on the books.

7. This boy never heard of

Shakespeare ... much less

learned him.

8. Tell her its from a man who was

at Vimy Ridge and saw your

brother die.

9. “Sleep dwell upon thine eyes

peace in thy breast;

I would I were sleep and peace,


sweet to rest”.

10. “Cowards die many times before

their death;

The Valiants never taste of death

but once”.
D.4.5. Model Annotation

This boy never heard of Shakespeare

... much less learned him.

1. Who speaks these words?

The warden of the prison, in the

play ‘The Valiant’ speaks these

words to the girl who has come

there to make an inquiry of her

lost brother.

2. Who is the ‘boy’ referred to here?

Dyke is the boy referred to here

3. Is the speaker correct?

No the speaker is incorrect. The

boy actually can recite the words

from Shakespeare's plays.

4. What do you know of


He is the greatest playwright of

Elizabethan time, read and

enjoyed by people all over the


D.4.6. Paragraph Questions

1. Sketch the character of Warden


2. Describe the interview between

Josephine Paris and James Dyke.

3. Justify the title of the play.

D.4.7. Model Answer

Justify the title of the play

The title of the play is taken from the

famous lines of Shakespeare's Julius


“Cowards die many

times before their


The Valiants never

taste of death but -


The hero of the play is awaiting his

death. Although many people try

their best to bring out the secret from

his heart, he is tight lipped and

remains unidentified till the end. He

faces death with a smiling face after

bidding farewell to his own sister. But

he is very careful not to reveal his

identity to her. He lets her feel that

her brother is a martyr and not at all

a murderer like Dyke. It is only after

he recites words from Shakespeare's

plays, the readers are able to identify

him. Thus the title ‘Valiant’ suits the

hero as he remains valiant till his


I. Check Your Progress Questions

Fill In the blanks:

1. The title, ‘The Valiant’ is

from Shakespeare's


2. _________ is the prisoner

3. The boy has an _________


4. Father's name is _______

5. Dyke is sentenced to

________ as he has

_________ a man.

6. Dyke receives _______

worth ________ dollars.

7. ________ meets him in

the prison.

8. Josephine Paris is


9. Josephine Anthony Paris

died a brave man


10. ________is Josephine's

D.4.8. Answers to Check Your
Progress Questions

I. 1. Julius Caesar

2. Dyke

3. adamant

4. Daly,

5. death, murdered

6. Liberty Bonds,

7. Josephin Paris

8. Ohio

9. Vimy Ridge

10. Dyke
D.5. The Monkey's Paw
W.W. Jacobs
Dramatized by Louis N. Parker

D.5.1. Introduction

W.W. Jacobs was a famous writer of

tales of the sea and most of his

stories center round supernatural

phenomena and oriental mysticism.

The eerie atmosphere is sustained till

the end of the play. The incidents

that encircle the characters, although

unnatural are made to look natural.

The dead monkey's paw which

deserves little or no attention

becomes a dominating force, ruining

completely the peaceful life of the old


1. to introduce short stories to


2. to make the learners read and

understand the short story.

Unit Structure

D.5.1. Introduction

D.5.2. Summary

D.5.3. Glossary

D.5.4. Select Passages for


D.5.5. Model Annotation

D.5.6. Select Paragraph


D.5.7. Model Answer

D.5.8. Answers to Check Your

Progress Questions

D.5.2. Summary

The play-wright, in fact, introduces

the oriental supernatural ism into the

threshold of the west. Mr and Mrs

White, the old couple have a peaceful

life with their only son until they

come across a monkey's paw. It is

handed over to them by a colonel

who had been to the East. The paw,

claims the colonel, is notorious for

fulfilling three wishes of three men

and it will look quite natural too. The

paw has surprisingly been spelled by

a ‘fakir’ to show that everyone's life

has been destined beforehand and

there is no escape from that.

The colonel says that the third wish

of the first claimant was but death.

The colonel himself was the second

claimant and he no longer wants to

possess the paw now. He, in fact,

throws the mummied paw into fire.

But to their ill luck, it is retrieved

by Mr. White who wants to test his

luck with it. Disposing the colonel

by giving him money, the old man

becomes the sole owner of the paw


The first wish of Mr. White the third

owner is quite simple. He wishes to

have 200 pounds to clear the debt on

his house. To his horror, he feels the

paw twisting in his hand like a snake

while wishing. As there is no instant

effect to the wish the family members

of Mr. White consider it a hoax. They

do not attach any importance to the

magical effect of the paw. But to their

horror, they are informed that

Herbert, their only son gets killed in

an accident in the company. They

receive 200 pounds as compensation

for the loss of their son.

The rudely shaken couple now realize

the evil spell of the paw which in fact

has caused the death of their only

son. The mother frantically wants to

see her son alive. She, therefore,

forces her husband to make use of

the second wish to get her son back.

The old man taking the sinister paw

in his hand makes the second wish

of seeing his son back alive. There is

immediately a knock at the door and

the ghost of Herbert is trying to enter

their house.

The knocking steadily increases as

the mother tries to open the door.

Realising the unnatural and eerie

atmosphere created by his second

wish, Mr. White now wishes to end

the game, he started foolishly. Now

before the ghost enters the house,

he wishes his son dead once again.

The paw therefore has fulfilled all its

three wishes. The three claimants of

the paw have been thoroughly

deceived as Macbeth is deceived by

the witches.

D.5.3. Glossary
alcove - recess in a room

ruffled - disordered

lemme - let me

addle -confuse

bog - marsh

yarn - long story

marm - madam

- drink made of rum and

puddle - a small muddy pool

- shot made without taking

careful aim

- a heavy wheel to regulate

fly wheel

- an ascetic – a ‘sanyasi’
who begs for food

ladle out - distribute

shirty - annoyed

- chopped meat cooked in a

cylindrical casing

dotty - foolish

abstractedly - preoccupied

drearily - in a dull manner

wrenches - tears away

cowering - crouching in fear

tugging - pulling hard.

D.5.4. Select Passages for


1. He put a spell on it and made it

so that three people could each

have three wishes.

2. And he wanted to show that fate

ruled people. That everything

was cut and dried from the

beginning, you might say.

3. It would all happen so natural,

you might think it a coincidence

if so disposed.
4. Let it bum! Let the infernal thing


5. It moved! As I wished, it twisted

in my hand like a snake.

6. Wish to be an emperor, Father,

to begin with. Then you cannot

be hen – pecked.

7. Sounds like the Arabian Nights.

Don't you think you might wish

me four pair o'hands?

8. He was telling his mates a story.

Something that had happened

here last night. He was laughing

and wasn't noticing and ... and

... the machinery caught his ...

9. Herbert! Herbert! My boy! Wait!

your mother's opening to you!

Ah! It's moving.

10. I wish him dead and at peace.

D.5.5. Model Annotation

I wish him dead and at peace.

1. Who says this?

Mr. White, the father, says this.

This has been the third wish of

the father who has lost his only

son in an accident.

2. Who is the person the speaker

wants to die?

It is actually the ghost of

Herbert, son of Mr. White to be

at peace.
3. Fix the context
This sentence has been taken

from the play ‘The Monkey's

Paw’ by W.W. Jacobs.

D.5.6. Select Paragraph


1. Sketch the character of Mr.


2. How does the playwright build

the atmosphere of suspense and

horror in ‘The Monkey's Paw’.

3. The part played by the Monkey's


D.5.7. Model Answer

How does the playwright build the

atmosphere of suspense and horror

in the ‘monkey's Paw’?

The title of the play itself sounds

awful and the incidents narrated send

cold shivers down the readers’ back.

The play actually centers round a

mummied paw of a monkey which

has already cast evil spell on two

people –one, yearned for his own

death and the other was forced to

fling the paw into fire. The third

victim Mr. Whiteman loses his only

son as he lays his hand on the evil

one. The dry paw, in fact, wriggles

like snake when Mr. White wishes for

200 pounds. He gains 200 pounds

by losing his son in an accident. His

second wish makes his dead son

knock at his door and therefore he

hurries to wish once again. Thus the

atmosphere of suspense and horror is

sustained till the end of the play.

I. Check Your Progress Questions

Fill In the blanks:

1. The monkey's paw ruins

the peaceful life of the

________ couple

2. The monkey's paw is

notorious for fulfilling

______wishes of _______


3. The paw is spelt as


4. The third wish is _______

5. Mr. White's first wish is

6. Mr. And Mrs. White's son,

_______is killed in an

accident and they get

_______ pounds.

7. The second wish is to see

their ______alive.

D.5.8. Answers to Check Your

Progress Questions

I. 1. Old

2. three, three

3. fakir

4. death

5. 200

6. Herbert, 200

7. son
D.6. The Best Laid Plans
(Farrell Mitchell)

D.6.1. Introduction

Farrell Mitchell, an English master in

a country school, has borrowed the

title ‘The Best Laid Plans’ from Robert

Bums’ poem ‘To the Mouse’.

‘The best laid schemes

o'mice an’ men

Gang aft a-gley”.


1. to make the learners read the


2. to make them understand the

story and its theme

Unit Structure

D.6.1. Introduction

D.6.2. Summary

D.6.3. Glossary

D.6.4. Select Passages for


D.6.5. Model Annotation

D.6.6. Select Paragraph


D.6.7. Model Answer

D.6.8. Answers to Check Your

Progress Questions

D.6.2. Summary

The play shows how the two burglars

Jack and Bill scheme to steal the

diamonds from the house of a

richman and at last how they are,

inspite of their best laid plans,

outwitted. All of them are arrested as

one of their companions pretending

to be a cop fails to wear the type

of shoes normally worn by the


This is a play that shows how the best

laid plans of a burglar end in failure,

thanks to a careless error committed

by his accomplice. Jack is the thief

for all waters. He is well calculative

and accurate in action although he is

nabbed by the “police” many times.

But he is at last arrested by the real

detectives from Scotland yard, as his

police friend has neglected to wear

the regulation boots.

One day Jack with his friend Bill,

plans to thieve the house of Spender

– a millionaire. They enter the house

when Spender and his friend Wood go

for an outing. The richman carefully

hides his box of diamonds worth

about 65000 pounds in a place and

keeps the key under the rug. But the

burglars are very easily in possession

of the ‘sparklers’ as they open the

box without much difficulty.

Unexpectedly Spender and his friend

return home much earlier. They

stand aghast at the terrible sight of

their diamonds being robbed.

Immediately they decide to call the


Jack, the thief, looking unruffled

requests Wood to open the screen

to see if it is raining. Not satisfied,

he asks Wood for the second time

also to verify if it is raining. For,

he has a strange story to tell them

that a soothsayer has assured him of

his safety when there is no rain. He,

therefore will have no fear of arrest

when it is dry. Unexpectedly, there

comes a policeman to find out if the

inmates have any problem. On seeing

the two burglers, he rightly identifies

them as Jack and Bill, the notorious

thieves and prepares to take them

As the three men begin stepping out

of the house, they are stopped by

the detectives of Scotland yard and

their well laid plan fails to click. The

policeman who comes to arrest the

burglars is none otherthan their own

companion Cuthbert. Jack, it seems,

is so clever to have Cuthbert always

stand by if there is any problem for

him. As he is arrested by the fake

police beforehand, he cannot be

arrested by the real police despite

being caught red-handed. But his

plan fails to succeed as his

‘policeman’ on that day is unmindful

of his shoes. He has chosen to wear

light-soled shoes, as they will be of

great help while burgling, instead of

regulation boots worn by cops.

Wood is very much surprised to know

how he has been made use of by the

thief. When Wood opens the windows

twice to see if it is training, it is

actually a signal to the standby

policeman to enter the house. The

burglar has at last been outsmarted

by Spender and Wood and thrown

into prison.

D.6.3. Glossary
dawdle - delay

crib - box

sparklers - diamonds
old bean - old chap

flatties - slang for ‘policeman’

yard - Scotland yard

in apple-pie
- in perfect order

coast is
- there is no danger

dilly-dallied - wasted time

out of joint - dislocated

bobbies - British Policemen

copped - caught

choky - slang for ‘prison’

get your
- get angry
wool off

windy - nervous

beak - slang for ‘magistrate’

What about - why not have a little

a spot drink?

- drink taken before going

night cap
to bed

wheeze - plan

- a police van for

Black Maria
transporting prisoners

D.6.4. Select Passages for


1. I plan everything down to the

least thing; then when I'm sure

everything's in apple-pie order, I

do the job.

2. I'll let them know one day when

I write my life-story.

3. You'll have plenty of time to

write it when you go to prison.

4. There's no doubt about it. It's as

dry as a bone.

5. She said I'd never be caught as

long as it was a dry night.

6. Our policeman are so marvelous!

It's the first time I've ever known

one to be on the spot when he

was wanted.

7. That's all right, officer. As a

matter of fact, you've just come-

in time.
8. Thank you sir, And how, if you

don't mind, I'll get along with

these two. The sergeant will be

at the telephone-box and he'll

get the Black Maria to come and

pick them up.

9. No Policeman on duty would ever

dare to come out in light-soled

shoes like that.

10. You actually got me to signal to

your friend for you!

D.6.5. Model Annotation

“You actually got me to signal

to your friend for You!”

i. Identify the speaker

‘Wood, the friend of Spender,

says these words.

ii. To whom it is spoken?

It is addressed to Jack the


iii. Who is the friend?

Cuthbert, the imposter is the


iv. What is the signal?

Opening the window twice is the


D.6.6. Select Paragraph


1. Describe all the arrangements

made by Jack for the burglary at

the house of Spender.

2. How did the best laid plans of

Jack miscarry?

3. Comment on the role of window

and shoes in ‘The Best Laid


D.6.7. Model Answer

How did the best laid plan of Jack


Jack a burglar always executes his

missions precisely. He always keeps

a standby – a ‘policeman’ to rescue

him if he is caught. Although he is

caught red-handed while stealing the

diamonds of Spender he is not ruffled

at all. He cleverly requests Wood to

open the windows twice to see if it

is raining with a fabricated story of

soothsayer to convince him. The

‘police’ after getting the necessary

signal enters the house and arrests

Jack and his companion. While taking

them out they ate waylaid by the

real policemen from Scotland yard.

The only mistake committed by the

‘policeman’ is wearing a light-soled

shoes instead of regulation boots

worn by genuine cops. Thus the well

laid plan of Jack fails to click.

I. Check Your Progress Question

Fill in the blanks :

1. The title “The Best Laid

Plans” is borrowed from

______ poem ________.

2. The two burglars _______

and Bill scheme to steal

the ________

3. They are arrested


4. They plan to thieve a

house of_______

5. The burglar is outsmarted

by __________ and


D.6.8. Answers to Check Your

Progress Questions

I. 1. Bums’, “To The Mouse”

2. Jack, Bill, diamonds

3. Scotland Yard

4. Spender, Wood

5. Spender, Wood
D.7. The Trial of Billy Scott
(Mazie Hall)

D.7.1. Introduction

Mazie Hall's one – act play ‘The Trial

of Billy Scott’ is a hilarious comedy

on English – speaking people. The

playwright presents the story in the

form of court proceedings. It has all

the features of a regular court – trial.

Billy Scott is accused of using

singular verb with a plural subject.

The judge after listening carefully to

the arguments of both the sides

sentences Billy Scott, the accused,

to one year's hard labour in a junior

high school. The arguments of the

Prosecuting Attorney are relevant

even today as there are a number of

Billy Scotts living with us spoiling the

language. The judgement, of course,

suits many such Billy Scotts.


1. to make the learners read the


2. to make them understand its

theme and content.

Unit Structure

D.7.1. Introduction

D.7.2. Summary

D.7.3. Glossary
D.7.4. Select Passages for


D.7.5. Model Annotation

D.7.6. Select Paragraph


D.7.7. Model Answer

D.7.8. Answers to Check Your

Progress Questions

D.7.2. Summary

Mazie Hall ridicules the way the

language English is spoken by many

people without bothering about the

damage caused. The playwright

perhaps intends to convey to the

readers that it is the native speakers

who have maimed the language more

than the foreigners. They least care

the grammar or structural pattern of


Billy Scott actually is not an

individual to be accused; he is a type.

The playwright correctly takes him to

the court and makes him listen to the

mistakes he has committed so far –

breaking verbs, fracturing pronouns

and murdering phrases. Although the

defence attorney tries all his best to

convince the jury that verb is always

changing and unreliable, the Judge

is fully convinced that Billy Scott is

a person to be punished. He is

therefore ordered to undergo one

year's hard work in a Junior High

D.7.3. Glossary




?DIJ;7: E< IE >;BF OEK
2;8IJ;H "E:


2;8IJ;H 7D:D7J?ED7B?IJ

MEH: JE M>?9> 7 <EBBEM?D=



called you
- here abused

swell - slang for ‘good’

darned - slang for ‘damned’

conjugations - different forms of a verb

erroneous - wrong

sifting - analyzing

in recess - period of break in work

- wooden hammer used by

gavel the judge to knock on the

table to bring order.

D.7.4. Select Passages for

1. Bill Scott, you are accused of

using a singular verb with a

plural subject.

2. If this man, and others who

might be encouraged by his

example, should be allowed to go

unchecked you would soon find

the very streets of our fair city

filled with broken verbs,

fractured pronouns and

murdered phrases!

3. He has always abused me. He

never considered my tenses, nor

my voice. He never cared

whether I agreed with the

subject. He threw me around,

and this is result.

4. Ladies and gentlemen of the

jury-this man has admitted that

he is unreliable, changeable and

thoroughly irritating.

5. He says everything is ‘swell’.

‘That's a well pie’. ‘We had a

swell game’. ‘He is a swell guy’

and ‘I saw a swell ship’.

6. He'd say, T been to the store’or

‘He done his lessons in school’.

7. Do your verbs always agree with

their subjects? And what of your

tenses? Do you always use the

proper auxiliary with your

8. This is a crime against

Washington, against Patrick

Henry, against our early history.

9. No, Ladies and gentlemen, I tell

you no one can learn all the

peculiarities of this fellow, verb!

D.7.5. Model Annotation

“I sentence you to one year's hard

work in Junior High School”.

1. Fix the context.

This sentence has been taken

from the play ‘The Trial of Billy

Scott’ by Mazie Hall.

2. Who speaks these words?

The jury gives his judgement

3. Against whom is this judgement


It is delivered against Billy Scott

as he is found guilty of using

singular verb with a plural noun.

4. Why is he asked to undergo

hardwork in Junior High School?

He is ordered to undergo one

year's hardwork in Junior High

School to learn grammar once

again thoroughly.

D.7.6. Select Paragraph


1. Write in your own words the

arguments of the prosecuting

Attorney and the Defence

2. Bring out the sense of humour in

the play.

D.7.7. Model Answer

Humour in the play

The very idea of prosecuting the man

who spoils the language is both

humorous and novel. Billy Scott has

committed a crime although not

against the humanity, certainly

against the language – his mother

tongue. He therefore deserves

punishment. It is dictatorial if he is

punished without fair trial. There are

witnesses too – the people who are

affected by him. The judge after

listening to the arguments of both

the sides comes to the conclusion

that he must be sent once again to

a junior school to learn English from

the beginning. This is the correct

judgement awarded to the culprit and

this judgement awaits many Billy

Scotts among us.

I. Check Your Progress Question

Fill in the blanks:

1. “The Trial of Billy Scott” is

a ___________

2. Billy Scott is accused of

using ________ verb with

a __________ subject

3. Scott is sentenced to

________ gem's hard

labour in a _________


4. Hall ridicules the way

_________is spoken by


5. The ___________ tries to

convince the judge.

D.7.8. Answers to Check Your

Progress Questions

I. 1. Comedy

2. singular, plural

3. One, Junior

4. English

5. attorney
(7 pages)
October 2008




(For those who joined in July 2003

and afterwards)

Maximum: 100
Time: Three Hours

SECTION – A (50 marks)


1. a. Answer ONE of the following

questions in about 250

words: (20)
i. How does Abbas succeed

in arousing the

confidence of his

readers through the

story “The Refugee”?

ii. What reasons does Sir

John Squire give for

destroying books?

iii. Give an account of

Gangarin's space flight.

b. Answer any TWO of the

following questions in about

100 words:

(2x5 = 10)

i. In what way is Nepal am

example for the world?

ii. Describe the second

meeting between

Toynbee and Nehru.

iii. What has civilization

done to man?

iv. What made Anderson

furious at night?

v. What are Huxley's

impressions on


c. Choose any FOUR of the

given passage and answer

the questions given below


(4x5 = 20)

i. In this drawing-room in

a house in London, I was

witnessing an exhibition

of Mahatma Gandhi's


1. What is the title of

the lesson?

2. Give the name of

the author.

3. Who is the “I”?

4. Who was exhibiting

Mahatma Gandhi's


ii. She had, I presume,

read of how Garfield,

Lincoln and other

Americans rise from

poverty to fame and

1. Name the lesson

2. Who is the author?

3. Who is the “she”?

4. Who is the Lincoln?

5. What did the author


iii. But it is not always easy

to destroy books. They

may not have as many

lives as cat but they

certainly die hard, and it

is sometimes difficult to

find a scaffold for them?

1. What is the title of

the lesson?

2. Who is the author?

3. What does “they”

refer to?

4. How does the author

get rid of books?

5. Does the author feel

sorry for throwing


iv. The world today runs to

science as a lobster runs

to claws or a pelican to a


1. What is the name of

the lesson?

2. Who is the author?

3. Explain the meaning

of “lobster runs into

claws” and “pelican

to a beak”.

4. What is the analogy


5. Explain the


v. Whatever happened to

Paul on that journey of

his to Damascus, it was

a very personal


1. What is title of the


2. Who is the author?

3. Who is Paul?

4. Where is Damascus?
5. What happened to


vi. Negotiations therefore

had to be reopened the

pair Achilles had to be

called and at ten

minutes to three the

match began upon

twelve a side basics.

1. What is the name of

the lesson?

2. Who is the author?

3. Who as Achilles?

4. Who was to play the

5. Why did some

players desert their


SECTION – B (20 marks)


2. Answer FOUR of the following

questions in about 100 words


a. What were the events at


b. Why did the old man reject


c. What was the plan of Bill and


d. What was Mona Marianna?

e. Narrate Gerard's experience

with the yak.

f. How does the novelists

describe Tess?

g. How does Alex Harass Tess

after her father's death?

SECTION – C (30 marks)


(4 x 1/ 2 = 2)

3. a. i. Fill in the blanks with

suitable articles:

After much


__________ author

came up with

___________ idea. He
decided to sack

__________ books and

throw them into

__________ river.

ii. Supply the correct tense

forms of the verbs given

in parentheses:

(6 x 1=6)

1. My father ________

(go) to China in


2. The learners

________(be) in

the library


3. Usha


to do clerical work.
4. Ram ________(be)

busy since morning.

5. The old man


me a week ago.

6. If you


him, you will be


iii. Use the following pairs

of words in sentences of

your own bringing out

their meaning: (2×1=2)

1. Prize – Praise.

2. Confident –

iv. Give the synonyms of

the underline words:

(2 x 1=2)

1. He endured the ill


2. His strange

behaviour was

observed be me.

v. Give the antonyms of

the underline words:

(2 x 1=2)

1. He was confident of


2. His criticism was

vi. Supply the correct

prefixes for the following

words: (2 x 1=2)

1. agree

2. caution

vii. Supply the correct

suffixes for the following

words: (2 x 1=2)

1. move

2. care

(f) He has more need of

them than I. My mother

would have wished it so had

she bear here.

i. Who is the author?

ii. Name the title of the

iii. Who is the speaker?

iv. Who has more need?

v. What does the word

“them” refer to?

(7 pages)
October 2008

(For those who joined in July 2003

and after)

Maximum: 100
Time: Three Hours


Poetry (50 marks)

1. Answer ONE of the following

questions in about 250 words:


a. How does cloridge express

his depressed thoughts in

“Dejection: An Ode”?

b. How does Whitman praise

both the serene life of

country side and the active

life of the city?

c. Write an essay on Anden's

“The Shield of Achliles”

2. Answer any TWO of the following

questions in about 100 words:

(2 x 5 = 10)

a. How does Owen describe the

real nature of hell?

b. How does Hopkins lament

people's indifference to the

branty of nature?

c. Write a short note on the

theme of Dickinson's “I

would not paint a picture?

d. Analyse the theme of “Ode

to Psyche”.
3. Choose any FOUR of the

following passages and answer

the questions given below each:

(4 x 5 = 20)

a. Yes, I will be thy priest and

build a fare

In some untrodden region of

my mind.

i. Who is the author?

ii. Name the poem.

iii. Who is referred to as


iv. For whom does the poet

want to be a priest?

v. What does he want to do

b. Give me solitude, give me,

Nature, give me again

O nature, your primal


i. Name the author.

ii. What is the title of the


iii. Whom does “me” refer


iv. What do you mean by

“primal sanities”?

v. What does the speaker


c. I would not talk, like comets

i. Who is the author?

ii. What is the title of the

iii. Who is referred to as


iv. What is a comet?

v. Does the poet have the

desire to be a singer?

d. He is all pine and I am apple


i. Name the author.

ii. What is the tile of the


iii. Whom does “he” refer


iv. What doe the speaker


v. What does the other

person say?
e. I went hunting wild
After wildest beauty in the


Which lies not calm in eyes

or braided hair.

i. Who is the poet?

ii. Name the poem.

iii. Identify the speaker.

iv. What was the speaker

doing when he was


v. Does he regret his folly?

f. As three place figures were

led forth and bound

To three posts driven upright

in the ground.
i. Name the post
ii. What is the title of the


iii. What does the phrase

“three posts” mean?

iv. What does the poet want

to say?

v. Does the poet criticize



DRAMA – (50 marks)

4. Answer ONE of the following

questions in about 250 words:


a. Sketch the character of the

b. How is The Bear a comedy of


c. Write an essay on the theme

of The Valiant.

5. Answer any TWO of the following

questions in about 100 words


(2x5 = 10)

a. What is the role of Dr.

Stonetz in the play The

Death Trap?

b. What does Dyke the


c. How does the playwright

build the atmosphere of

suspense in The Monkv's

d. How is the burglar

outsmarted by spender and


6. Choose any FOUR of the

following passages and answer

the questions given below each:

(4x5= 20)

a. You actually got me to signal

to your friend for you

i. Who is the author?

ii. Name the title of the-


iii. Who is the speaker?

iv. To whom is its spoken?

v. Who is the friend?

b. He put a spell on it and made

it so that three people could

each have three wishes.

i. Who is the author?

ii. What is the title of the


iii. What does “it” refer to?

iv. Who has got “it”?

v. Who has given “it”?

c. He intends to die as a man of

mystery to us

i. Who is the author?

ii. What is the title of the


iii. Who intents to dies as a

man of mystery?

iv. Where he is?

v. Does he confess his past


d. That is true, because you will

never serve another prince,

observe, I drink fair.

i. Name the author.

ii. What is the title of the


iii. Who is the speaker?

iv. Where is he?

v. What is the irony of the


e. You're a bour! An ill-

mannered bear! A brute! A


i. Who is the author?

ii. Name the title of the


iii. Who is the speaker?

iv. Who is the addressee?

v. What does the

addressee want the

other person do?

(viii) Supply the correct

prepositions in the blanks:


Outside it was cold __________

snow covered everywhere. He

took the young man _________

the little walk up the road.

(b)Write a letter to your

friend giving him an account

of the foreign country you

have visited recently (5)

(c) Read the given passage

and answer the questions

given below:

(5x1 =5)

Nehru enjoyed reading and

writing books are much as

he enjoyed fighting political

and social evils. In him, the

scientist and the humanist

were held in perfect balance.

He always aimed at

nourishing the total man. As

a scientist, he refused to

believe in benevolent power.

He affirmed his faith in life

and the beauty of nature. He

always adored children.

a. What did Nehru enjoy?

b. What were held in

perfect balance in


c. What was his aim?

d. What did he affirm?

e. Whom did he adore?