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Demographic variables Count (%)

SES at participant birth (n = 399)


Low 91 (22.8%)
Middle 141 (35.3%)
High 167 (41.9%)
Household income in 2007 (n = 395)
<$40 000 57 (14.4%)
$40 000-$59 999 67 (17.0%)
$60 000-$79 999 81 (20.5%)
≥$80 000 190 (48.1%)
Sex (n = 413)
Male 194 (47.0%)
Female 219 (53.0%)
Behavioural variables Mean (SD)
Proportion of questionnaire responses with dental attendance 0.8 (0.3)
in the previous 6 months (n = 411)
Daily brushing frequency averaged over 13- to 15-year-old 1.6 (0.5)
questionnaires (n = 411)
Daily brushing frequency averaged over 15.5- to 17-year-old 1.7 (0.6)
questionnaires (n = 384)
Proportion of daily beverage intake consisting of sugar- 0.3 (0.2)
sweetened beverages averaged over 13- to 15-year-old
questionnaires (n = 411)
Proportion of daily beverage intake consisting 0.3 (0.2)
of sugar-sweetened beverages averaged
over 15.5- to 17-year-old questionnaires (n = 384)
Eating events per day at age 13 (n = 406) 4.9 (1.3)
Outcome variables Mean (SD)
Permanent DFS count age 9 (n = 413) 0.5 (1.2)
Adjusted DFS increment age 9-13 (n = 413) 0.7 (1.7)
Adjusted DFS increment age 13-17 (n=413) 2.1 (3.3)
Standardized Estimate (SE) P-value
estimate
Latent variable loading
Oral health habits
Dental visit attendance 0.299 0.076 (0.019) <.001
Daily brushing frequency 13-15 0.821 0.393 (0.091) <.001
Daily brushing frequency 15.5-17 0.641 0.328 (0.086) <.001
% Sugar-sweetened beverage
% SSB ages 13-15 0.828 0.125 (0.011) <.001
% SSB ages 15.5-17 0.805 0.138 (0.012) <.001
Adjusted DFS increment
Permanent DFS count age 9 0.328 0.347 (0.057) <.001
Adjusted DFS increment age 9-13 0.541 0.820 (0.098) <.001
Adjusted DFS increment age 13-17 0.628 1.896 (0.217) <.001
Direct effects
Household income in 2007 by
Categorical SES at birth 0.579 0.906 (0.080) <.001
Oral health habits by
Household income in 2007 0.341 0.303 (0.099) .002
Categorical SES at birth 0.020 0.028 (0.112) .804
Sex 0.191 0.417 (0.154) .007
% Sugar-sweetened beverage by
Categorical SES at birth -0.056 -0.078 (0.101) .438
Household income in 2007 -0.292 -0.262 (0.069) <.001
Eating events per day at age 13 by 0.204 0.173 (0.044) <.001
Sex -0.154 -0.339 (0.117) .004
Eating events per day at age 13 by
Sex -0.040 -0.105 (0.132) .428
Adjusted DFS increment by
Sex 0.208 0.451 (0.176) .010
Eating events per day at age 13 0.114 0.095 (0.056) .091
% Sugar-sweetened beverage 0.127 0.126 (0.058) .030
Oral health habits -0.308 -0.307 (0.126) .015
Household income in 2007 -0.015 -0.013 (0.098) .891
Categorical SES at birth 0.034 0.047 (0.115) .682
Covariance path
Between daily brushing frequency 0.487 0.062 (0.060) .301
for ages 13-15 and age 15.5-17
Variable Direct effect Indirect effect Total effect
SES at birth 0.03 (0.682) -0.11 (0.046) -0.07 (0.321)
Household income in 2007 -0.02 (0.891) -0.14 (0.037) -0.16 (0.057)
Oral health habits -0.31 (0.015) - -0.31 (0.015)
%SSB intake 0.13 (0.030) - 0.13 (0.030)
Sex 0.21 (0.010) -0.03 (0.049) 0.18 (0.023)
Eating events/day 0.11 (0.091) 0.03 (0.051) 0.14 (0.034)

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