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8 Salts

set 1
1 (a) Table 1.1 shows formula of several ions.
Jadual 1.1 menunjukkan formula bagi beberapa ion.

Ion name Silver ion Zinc ion Nitrate ion Chloride ion
Nama ion ion argentum ion zink ion nitrat ion klorida
Formula of
ion
Ag+ Zn2+ NO3- Cl-
Formula
ion

TABLE / JADUAL 1.1

Write the formula for zinc chloride and zinc nitrate.


Tuliskan formula kimia bagi zink klorida dan zink nitrat

Zinc chloride
zink klorida : ………………………………………………………............................

Zinc nitrate
zink nitrat : ……………………….………………………………...........................[ 2 marks]

(b) When silver nitrate solution is added to zinc chloride solution, a white precipitate silver chloride and zinc
chloride solution produced.
Apabila larutan argentum nitrat ditambahkan kepada larutan zink klorida, mendakan putih argentum klorida dan
larutan zink nitrat terhasil.

(i) Name the reactants.


Namakan bahan-bahan tindak balas.

……….............................................................................................................................[ 1 mark]
(ii) Name the products.
Namakan hasil-hasil tindak balas.

……………..................………………………………………………………………. [ 1 mark]
(iii) Write the chemical equation for the reaction take place.
Tuliskan persamaan bagi tindak balas yang berlaku.

...................……………………………………………………………………………. [ 1 mark]
(c) Silver chloride decomposed when it is strongly heated according to equation below:
Argentum nitrat terurai apabila dipanaskan dengan kuat mengikut persamaan di bawah :

2AgNO3 2Ag + 2NO2 + O2

(i) When 1 mol of silver nitrate is heated, calculate number of mole of silver and number of mole of oxygen gas
produced.
Jika 1 mol argentum nitrat dipanaskan, hitungkan bilangan mol argentum dan bilangan mol gas oksigen yang
terhasil.
[ 2 marks]
2

(ii) In an experiment, a student heated 85 g of silver nitrate.


Dalam satu eksperimen, seorang pelajar telah memanaskan 85 g argentum nitrat.

Calculate number of mole of silver nitrate and volume of nitrogen dioxide released at room condition.
Hitungkan bilangan mol argentum nitrat dan isipadu gas nitrogen dioksida yang terbebas pada keadaan bilik
[ Relative atomic mass / Jisim atom relatif : N, 14; O, 16; Ag, 108 ;
1 mol of gas occupies 24.0 dm3 at room condition.
1 mol gas menempati 24.0 dm3 pada keadaan bilik ]

set 4
4. Diagram 4 shows the flow chart of the change of barium hydroxide solution.
Rajah 4 menunjukkan carta alir perubahan yang berlaku kepada larutan barium hidroksida.
+ sulphuric acid
Barium hydroxide solution asid sulfurik Precipitate B
Larutan barium hidroksida Mendakan B

+ phenolphthalein
fenoftalein

Solution A
Larutan A

DIAGRAM 4
RAJAH 4

Based on the above flow chart, answer the questions below:


Berpandukan carta aliran diatas , jawab soalan di bawah .

(a) Element barium is placed in Group 2 of the Periodic Table. Write the formula for barium hydroxide.
Unsur barium berada dalam kumpulan 2 Jadual Berkala Unsur. Tuliskan formula bagi barium hidroksida.

….………………..………………………………………………………………………………[ 1 mark ]
(b) Write the formula of all ions present in the barium hydroxide solution.
Tuliskan formula semua ion-ion yang terdapat dalam larutan barium hidroksida.

….………………………………….………………………………………………………………[ 1 mark ]
(c) What is the colour of solution A?
Apakah warna larutan A ?

……………………………………………………….……………………………………………[ 1 mark ]
(d) (i) What will be observed when sulphuric acid is added into barium hydroxide solution?
Apakah yang akan diperhatikan bila asid sulfurik ditambah ke dalam larutan barium hidroksida.

….………………………………………………………………………………………………[ 1 mark ]
(ii) Name the precipitate B.
Namakan mendakan B .

…………………………………………………………………………………………………..[ 1 mark ]
(iii) Name the type of reaction in (d) (i).
Namakan jenis tindak balas di (d) (i)

…..………………………………………………………………………………………………[ 1 mark ]
(iv) Write the chemical equation in (d) (i)
3
Tuliskan persamaan tindak balas yang berlaku di d (i)

…………………………………………………………………………………………………..[ 1 mark ]
(e) What is the mass of barium hydroxide in 250 cm3 of barium hydroxide 0.2 mol dm-3.
Berapakah jisim barium hidroksida yang terkandung dalam 250 cm3 larutan barium hidroksida 0.2 mol dm-3.
Use information of relative atomic mass; Ba,137 ; O,16 ; H ,1
Gunakan maklumat jisim atom relatif ; Ba,137 ; O,16 ; H ,1

[ 2 mark ]

(f) Name the suitable apparatus that can be used to prepare 250 cm 3 of barium hydroxide solution
0.2 mol dm-3.
Namakan radas yang boleh digunakan untuk menyediakan 250 cm3 larutan barium
hidroksida 0.2 mol dm-3.

………………………………………………………………………………………………….………..[ 1 mark ]

set 4

4 (a) What is meant by soluble salt?


Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan garam terlarutkan? [ 1 mark ]
(b) The reaction between lead and nitric acid produces lead(II) nitrate.
State two other reactions to prepare lead(II) nitrate.
Tindak balas plumbum dengan asid nitrik menghasilkan plumbum(II) nitrat.
Nyatakan dua tindak balas lain untuk menyediakan plumbum(II) nitrat.

By using one of the reaction you have stated, describe how you could prepare the dry lead(II) nitrate crystals.
Dengan menggunakan satu daripada tindak balas yang anda nyatakan itu,
huraikan bagaimana anda dapat menyediakan hablur plumbum(II) nitrat yang kering. [ 13 marks ]

(c) Lead (II) nitrate contains lead (II) ion and nitrate ion. Describe the tests that can be carried out to confirm the
presence of these ions.
Larutan plumbum(II) nitrat mengandungi ion plumbum(II) dan ion nitrat. Huraikan ujian-ujian yang dijalankan
untuk mengesahkan kehadiran ion-ion tersebut. [ 6 markah ]

set 5

Substance : copper (II) sulphate


Bahan : kuprum (II) sulfat
4
State : Solid
Keadaan : Pepejal
Formula : CuSO4
Type of salt : Soluble salt
Jenis garam : Garam terlarutkan
Electrical conductivity : Conduct electricity in molten state and
aqueous solution
Kekonduksian elektrik : Mengalirkan elektrik dalam keadaan
lebur dan larutan berair
DIAGRAM / RAJAH 4
4
(a) What is meant by soluble salt?
Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan garam terlarutkan ?

………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………[ 1 mark]
(b) What is the colour of copper (II) sulphate solution?
Apakah warna larutan kuprum(II) sulfat?

………………………………………………………………………………………………….[ 1 mar
(c) Explain why copper (II) sulphate can conduct electricity in molten state and aqueous solution?
Terangkan mengapa kuprum (II) sulfat boleh mengalirkan elektrik dalam keadaan lebur dan
larutan akues?

………………………………………………………………………………………………..

………………………………………………………………………………………………..[ 1 mark]

(d) (i) Write the formula of cations exist in the copper (II) sulphate solution.
Tuliskan formula kation yang hadir dalam larutan kuprum(II) sulfat.

……………………………………………………………………………………………..[ 1 mark]
(ii) Describe a test to confirm the presence of copper (II) ion.
Huraikan satu ujian untuk mengesahkan kehadiran ion kuprum(II).

……………………………………………………………………………………………..

……………………………………………………………………………………………..

…………………………………………………………………………………………….. [ 3 marks]
(e) Lead(II) nitrate solution is added to copper(II) sulphate solution above. A white precipitate is formed.
Larutan plumbum(II) nitrat di tambah ke dalam larutan kuprum(II) sulfat di atas. Mendakan putih terhasil.

(i) Name the white precipitate.


Namakan mendakan putih tersebut.

………………………………………………………………………………………………[ 1 mark ]
(ii) Write the ionic equation for the reaction.
Tuliskan persamaan ion bagi tindak balas yang berlaku.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………[ 1 mark ]
(f) Predict what will be observed if zinc plate is placed in copper(II) sulphate solution and let it for 3 hours.
Ramalkan apa yang diperhatikan jika kepingan zink dimasukkan ke dalam larutan kuprum(II) sulfat dan
dibiarkan selama 3 jam.

………………………………………………………………………………………………...[ 1 mark]

set 6
5
3 Diagram 3 shows the set up of apparatus to investigate the effect of heat to a metal carbonate P. The powder of metal
P carbonate is green in colour. When 12.4 g of metal P carbonate is heated strongly, a gas Q which turns the lime
water chalky. Residue, a black powder R is produced.
Rajah 3 menunjukkan susunan radas bagi mengkaji kesan haba ke atas suatu karbonat logam P. Serbuk karbonat
logam P berwarna hijau. Apabila 12.4 g karbonat logam P dipanaskan dengan kuat, suatu gas Q yang
mengeruhkan air kapur. Baki serbuk R yang berwarna hitam dihasilkan.

Metal P carbonate
Karbonat logam P

Heat
Haba
Lime water
Air kapur

Diagram / Rajah 3

(a) Name the metal P carbonate.


Namakan karbonat logam P.

………………………………………………………………………………………………….[1 mark]
(b) Write the formula of gas Q.
Tuliskan formula bagi gas Q.

………………………………………………………………………………………………….[1 mark]
(c) Name the powder R
Namakan serbuk R.

………………………………………………………………………………………………….[1 mark]
(d) Write the chemical equation for the decomposition of the metal P carbonate.
Tuliskan persamaan kimia bagi penguraian karbonat logam P.

………………………………………………………………………………………………….[1 mark]
(e) State the observations predicted when :
Nyatakan pemerhatian yang dijangkakan apabila :

(i) powder of residue R is dissolved in dilute sulphuric acid.


baki serbuk R dilarutkan ke dalam asid sulfurik cair.

…………………………………………………………………………………………...[1 mark]
(ii) ammonia solution is added to the solution in (e) (i) until excess
larutan ammonia ditambah kepada larutan di (e) (i) sehingga berlebihan.

…………………………………………………………………………………………...

…………………………………………………………………………………………...[2 marks]
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(f) Calculate the volume of gas Q produced at standard temperature and pressure, STP.
[Given : Relative atomic mass ; C = 12 ; O = 16 ; P = 64 ;
1 mol of gas occupied 22.4 dm3 at STP]
Hitungkan isipadu gas Q yang dihasilkan pada suhu dan tekanan piawai, STP.
[Diberi : jisim atom relatif ; C = 12 ; O = 16 ; P = 64 ;
1 mol gas menempati 22.4 dm3 pada STP.]

[ 3 marks]
set 8
3 Figure 3 shows the flow chart for the reaction of zinc nitrate solution
Rajah 3 menunjukkan carta alir bagi tindak balas yang dijalankan ke atas larutan zink nitrat.

Reaction/
Zinc nitrate solution Zinc hydroxide
Tindak balas
Larutan zink nitrat Zink hidroksida
+ Ilarutan
ammonia
Reaction / + Bahan
Tindak balas J
II

Reaction /
Zinc carbonate Tindak balas Substance/Bahan K
zink karbonat III Heat / + gas L
dipanaska
n
RAJAH 3

(a) Name all cations present in zinc nitrate solution


Namakan semua kation yang terdapat dalam larutan zink nitrat.

…………………………………………………………………………………………[ 1 markah]
7
(b) State the observation when zinc nitrate is mixed with ammonia solution in reaction I
Apakah yang dapat diperhatikan apabila larutan zink nitrat dicampur dengan larutan ammonia dalam
Tindak balas I ?

…………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………… [ 2 markah]
(c) (i) Suggest one substance / Cadangkan satu bahan J.

……………………………………………………………………………………......[ 1 markah]
(ii) Write ionic equation for reaction / Tuliskan persamaan ion bagi Tindak balas II.

………………………………………………………………………………………..[ 1 markah]
(iii) State the method used to separate precipitate of zinc carbonate from mixture solution inn
reaction II
Nyatakan kaedah yang digunakan untuk mengasingkan mendakan zink karbonat daripada larutan
campuran dalam Tindak balas II.

……………………………………………………………………………………......[ 1 markah]
(d) (i) Name substance / Namakan bahan K.

………………………………………………………………………………………..[ 1 markah]
(i) State the colour of substance K while hot and cold
Nyatakan warna bahan K semasa panas dan semasa sejuk.

………………………………………………………………………………………..[ 1 markah]
(iii) Describe one chemical test to determine and identify gas L
Huraikan satu ujian untuk mengesahkah kehadiran gas L.

……………………………………………………………………………………..

………………………………………………………………………………………..[ 2 markah]
set 9
9 (a) What is the meaning of salts?
Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan garam? [ 1 marks]
(b) Copper(II) sulphate is an example of a soluble salt. Describe the experiment you do in the laboratory to prepare dry
copper(II) sulphate. Also in your describtion, include the chemical equation involved.
Kuprum(II) sulfat ialah contoh garam terlarutkan. Huraikan satu eksperimen untuk menyediakan kuprum(II) sulfat
kering. Dalam penerangan anda masukkan persamaan tindak balas yang terlibat. [ 8 marks]
8
(c) Figure 9 shows an imcomplete flow chart of cation and anion tests for salts Z?
Rajah 9 menunjukkan carta alir yang tidak lengkap ujian untuk anion dan kation bagi garam Z?

Salt Z
Garam Z

Cation test
Ujian Anion test
Kation Ujian anion

Mg2+ NO3-

FIGURE / RAJAH 9

(ii) Describe the test that you use in the laboratory to confirm that salt Z contains magnesium ions, Mg 2+ ions and
nitrate ions, NO3- ions. Include in your observations.
Terang ujian yang anda gunakan untuk mengesahkan adanya ion magnesium , Mg2+ ion
and ion nitrat , NO3- ion. Masukkan pemerhatian dalam penerangan anda. [10 marks]

set 10
4 Table 4 shows four types of salts.
Jadual 4 menunjukkan empat jenis garam.

Sodium carbonate / Natrium karbonat


Zinc nitrate / Zink nitrat
Lead(II) chloride / Plumbum(II) klorida
Copper(II) sulphate / Kuprum(II) sulfat

TABLE / JADUAL 4

With reference to the salts given above, answer the following question :
Dengan merujuk kepada garam-garam di atas, jawab soalan berikut :

(a) Write the chemical formula of sodium carbonate.


Tuliskan formula kimia bagi natrium karbonat.

.........................................................................................................................................[1 mark]
(b) Name the salt which is insoluble in water.
Namakan garam yang tidak larut dalam air.

......................................................................................................................................... [1 mark]
(c) (i) What is observed when zinc nitrate salt is heated.
Apakah yang diperhatikan apabila zink nitrat dipanaskan.

............................................................................................................................[1 mark]
9
(ii) Write the chemical equation to represent the reaction.
Tuliskan persamaan kimia untuk menunjukkan tindak balas itu.

............................................................................................................................[2 marks]

(a) State the type of reaction in the preparation of lead(II) chloride salt.
Nyatakan jenis tindak balas dalam penyediaan garam plumbum(II) klorida.

.........................................................................................................................................[1 mark]

(d) Describe how to verify copper(II) ion and sulphate ion in copper(II) sulphate solution.
Terangkan bagaimana untuk menentusahkan ion kuprum(II) dan ion sulfat di dalam
larutan kuprum(II) sulfat.

Copper(II) ion : ...............................................................................................................


Ion kuprum(II)
...............................................................................................................

Sulphate ion : ...............................................................................................................


Ion sulfat
...............................................................................................................[4 marks]

set 11

10 Salt is prepared by following methods:


Garam dapat disediakan dengan kaedah berikut:

Method A : reaction between metal oxide and acid


Method B : double decomposition involving two solutions of salts

Kaedah A : tindakbalas antara oksida logam dengan asid


Kaedah B : tindakbalas penguraian ganda dua melibatkan dua larutan garam

a) What is the meant by salt ?


Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan garam ? [1 marks]
b) You are required to prepare lead(II) sulphate and copper(II) sulphate.
Anda dikehendaki menyediakan garam plumbum(II) sulfat dan kuprum(II) sulfat.

(i) Based on the method above, select suitable method to prepare each salt.
Berdasarkan kaedah di atas, pilih kaedah sesuai untuk menyediakan setiap garam.[2 marks]
(ii) State the chemical substance needed to prepare each salts.
Nyatakan bahan kimia yang diperlukan untuk menyediakan setiap garam.[2 marks]
(iii) Write a chemical equation to prepare each salt.
Tuliskan persamaan kimia untuk menyediakan setiap garam [2 marks]

(iv) Describe an experiment to prepare each salt.


Huraikan satu eksperimen untuk menyediakan setiap garam. [12 marks]
10
set 12
7 (a) Table 7 shows the incomplete observation for two experiments to
construct balanced chemical equation.
Jadual 7 menunjukkan pemerhatian yang tidak lengkap bagi dua eksperimen
untuk membina persamaan kimia yang seimbang.

Experiment Procedure Observation


Eksperimen Prosedur Pemerhatian
A Copper(II)carbonate is heated and the Green solid turns black.
gas produced is passed through lime The lime water turns milky.
water. Pepejal hijau menjadi hitam.
Kuprum(II)karbonat dipanaskan dan Air kapur menjadi keruh.
gas yang terhasil dialirkan melalui air
kapur.
B Potassium iodide solution is added to
lead(II) nitrate solution.
Larutan kalium iodida ditambah kepada
larutan plumbum(II)nitrat.

TABLE / JADUAL 7

(i) Based on the observation, name the products in experiment A and write the chemical equation for the reaction.
Berdasarkan pemerhatian , namakan hasil tindak balas dalam eksperimen A dan tuliskan persamaan kimia bagi tindak
balas itu. [ 3 marks ]

(ii) State one observation in experiment B and name the product.


Write the chemical equation for the reaction.
Nyatakan satu pemerhatian dalam eksperimen B dan namakan
hasil tindak balas itu. Tuliskan persamaan kimia bagi tindak balas
itu. [ 4 marks ]

(a) The reaction between acid , HX and ionic compound , QY 2 can be represented by chemical equation below.
Tindak balas antara asid , HX dan sebatian ion , QY2 boleh diwakili oleh persamaan kimia di bawah.

2HX(aq) +QY2(aq)→ QX2(s) + 2HY(aq).

State three statement to describe the chemical equation above.


Suggest an acid of HX and an ionic compound of QY2.
Nyatakan tiga pernyataan untuk menghuraikan persamaan kimia di atas.
Cadangkan asid HX dan sebatian ion QY2. [ 5 marks]

(b) The information below is regarding substance X


Maklumat di bawah berkaitan dengan bahan X

 Carbon 85.70%
Karbon

 Hydrogen 14.30%
Hidrogen

 Relative molecular mass = 56


Jisim molekul relatif

(i) Determine the empirical formula of substance X.


[Given that the relative atomic mass of C = 12 , H = 1]
Tentukan formula empirik bagi sebatian X
[Diberi jisim atom relatif C = 12 , H = 1]

(ii) Determine the molecular formula of substance X.


Tentukan formula molekul bagi bahan X.
11

(iii) Based on the answers in (a)(i) and (a)(ii) , compare and contrast the empirical formula and the molecular formula.
Berdasarkan jawapan dalam (a)(i) dan (a)(ii), banding dan bezakan formula empirik dan formula molekul. [ 8 marks]
set 12
9 (a) Diagram 9 shows the reactions involved in the preparation of soluble salts.

Sodium salts /
Garam natrium
Potassium salts / Asid + alkali  salt + water
Garam kalium
Asid + alkali  garam + air
Ammonium salt /
Garam ammonium

Soluble salts /
Garam larut Reaction / Tindak balas X

Other salts / Reaction / Tindak balas Y


Garam lain

Reaction / Tindak balas Z

DIAGRAM/ RAJAH 9

(i) Sodium, potassium and ammonium salts can be prepared using reaction between acid and alkali. State the reaction X, Y
and Z.
Garam natrium, kalium dan ammonium dapat disediakan melalui tindak balas antara asid dan alkali. Nyatakan tindak
balas X, Y dan Z.
[3 marks]
(ii) By choosing one of the reactions in (a) (i), suggest example of reactants used and products formed.
Write the chemical equation for the reaction based on your suggestion.
Dengan memilih satu daripada tindak balas dalam (a) (i), cadangkan contoh bahan- bahan tindak balas yang digunakan
dan hasil-hasil tindak balas yang terbentuk.
Tuliskan persamaan kimia bagi tindak balas berdasarkan cadangan anda itu. [3 marks]

(b)
Magnesium sulphate is a soluble salt.
Magnesium sulfat adalah garam terlarutkan.

Answer the following questions based on the above statement.


Jawab soalan- soalan berikut berdasarkan pernyataan di atas.

(i) Describe a laboratory experiment to prepare a dry magnesium sulphate. In your description, include the chemical equation
involved.
Huraikan satu eksperimen makmal untuk menyediakan garam magnesium sulfat yang kering. Dalam huraian anda sertakan
persamaan kimia bagi tindak balas yang terlibat.
[10 marks]
(ii) Describe a simple chemical test of how you could differentiate between magnesium sulphate and magnesium nitrate.
Huraikan satu ujian kimia ringkas bagaimana anda membezakan antara larutan magnesium sulfat dan magnesium nitrat.
[4 marks]
12
set 9 p3
2 A student carried out an experiment to investigate the effect of heat on lead(II) nitrate For
and zinc carbonate salt. The released gas is passed through into the lime water.
Examiner’s
Figure 2 below shows the set-up of apparatus for heating lead(II) nitratee and zinc Use
nitrate.

Lead(II) carbonate Zinc carbonate

(white solid)
(white solid)

Lime water
Earlier experiment

Heat Heat

Residue (brown solid) Residue (yellow solid)

Final experiment
Heat Heat

a) Complete the following table by stating the observations and related inferences
for heating of lead(II) carbonate salt. For
Examiner’s
Observations Inferences Use

i) ……………………………………... i) ………………………………………...

……………………………………... ………………………………………..

ii) …………………………………….. ii) ……………………………………….

…………………………………….. ……………………………………….. 2(a)

[3 marks]
13

b) State the hypothesis for the experiment. 2(b)


………………………………………………………………………………… [3 marks]

c) Write the chemical equation for the effect of heat on lead(II) carbonate. 2(c)
……………………………………………………………………………………….…
[3 marks]
d) The residue of heating lead(II) carbonate salt is dissolved in the dilute nitric acid.
After that, the solution is added with the excess sodium hydroxide solution.
State the observation.

…………………………………………………………………………………………… 2(d)
……………………………………………………………………………………………
[3 marks]

e) 2.67 g of lead(II) carbonate decomposed completely when it is heated.


Calculate the number of moles of gas released.
[ Relative molecular mass of lead(II) carbonate, 267]

2(e)

[3 marks]
2(f)
f) Name the products when zinc carbonate is heated.

……………………………………………………………………………………………
[3 marks] Total

For
Examiner’s
Use