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24 views5 pagesMATH 115 lecture notes for 24 and 26 January 2018 at the University of Kansas

Jan 24, 2018

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MATH 115 lecture notes for 24 and 26 January 2018 at the University of Kansas

© All Rights Reserved

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MATH 115 lecture notes for 24 and 26 January 2018 at the University of Kansas

© All Rights Reserved

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of Bluetooth wireless headsets D(x) = −0.025x2 −0.5x+60 and the corresponding supply function

S(x) = 0.02x2 + 0.6x + 20, where the price functions D(x) and S(x) are expressed in dollars and

the quantity x is measured in units of one-thousand. Find the equilibrium quantity and price.

Solution. We note that D(x) = S(x) if and only if 9x2 + 220x − 8000 = 0. By factoring this

polynomial, we ﬁnd that (9x + 400)(x − 20) = 0. By the zero factor property, we conclude that

x = 20 or x = −400/9. Because x cannot be negative, we conclude that the equilibrium quantity

is given by e = 20, from which it follows that the equilibrium price is given by S(e) = 40. �

Given a word problem, we may use the following algorithm to construct a mathematical model.

1.) Begin by assigning a letter to each variable mentioned in the problem. Draw and label a

ﬁgure when appropriate.

2.) Find an expression for the quantity sought. Often, this is referred to as the “unknown;”

therefore, it is usually the quantity about which the problem gives the least information.

3.) Use the conditions given in the problem to write the quantity sought as a function f of one

variable. Be sure to note any restrictions to be placed on the domain of f, which are given

by the physical considerations of the problem.

Building a Fence. Consider enclosing a rectangular piece of land along the straight portion of

a river using 3000 feet of fencing. Give a function f that yields the area of the land enclosed if all

fencing is used. (Hint: Use our algorithm, and note that no fence is needed along the river.)

2.4 Limits

2.4.1 Why Do We Care About Calculus?

Calculus is perhaps the most ubiquitous subject area of mathematics in the technical world. Of

the many problems for which calculus supplies an answer are

• ﬁnding the rate of change of a travel agency’s revenue with respect to the agency’s expendi-

ture for advertising;

Our answers to these problems come in the form of derivatives and integrals.

15

2.4.2 Intuitive Deﬁnition of a Limit

We best illustrate the concept of a limit through an example.

Velocity of a Magnetic Levitation Train. Consider the position function s(t) = 4t2 of a

magnetic levitation train as observed from some starting location over the span of 30 seconds. We

note that s(t) is given in feet, and 0 ≤ t ≤ 30, hence the domain of s(t) is given by Ds = [0, 30].

We wish to ﬁnd the velocity of the magnetic levitation train two seconds after it has departed

from the origin, i.e., we wish to ﬁnd v(2). We note that the average velocity of the train can be

computed by taking the ratio of the distance covered to the time elapsed. For instance, the aver-

age velocity of the train between two and four seconds after it has departed is given by

s(4) − s(2) 4 · 42 − 4 · 22 48

vavg (t) = = = = 24

4−2 2 2

2

−4)

feet per second. Consider the average velocity function vavg (t) = 4(tt−2 on some interval [2, t].

By simplifying this rational expression in t, we ﬁnd that vavg (t) = 4t + 8. We can obtain an

approximation for the velocity of the train at t = 2 by taking t to be a decreasing sequence of

values approaching 2, e.g., t = 2.1, t = 2.01, t = 2.001, t = 2.0001, etc. We have that

s(2.1) = 16.4,

s(2.01) = 16.04,

s(2.001) = 16.004,

s(2.0001) = 16.0004,

and so on. Checking an increasing sequence of values of t approaching 2, we obtain a similar re-

sult. We can at this point venture a guess that v(2) = 16, i.e., the velocity of the train at t = 2 is

16 feet per second, but how do we verify that this is true? We need the concept of a limit.

Deﬁnition. We say that the function f has the limit L as x approaches a if the value of f (x)

can be made as close to L as desired by taking x �= a to be suﬃciently close to a. We write

lim f (x) = L

x→a

We have enough evidence to conclude in our previous example that v(2) = lim vavg (t) = 16.

t→2

Compute the following limits of functions using the deﬁnition of the limit, if possible. Explain

why it is not possible to compute the given limit, if that is the case.

x→2

x→1

|x|

(c.) lim h(x), where h(x) = x

and Dh = R − {0}

x→0

16

We have the following useful limit properties.

Properties of Limits. Consider functions f and g such that lim f (x) = L and lim g(x) = M .

x→a x→a

x→a

x→a x→a

x→a x→a

x→a x→a x→a

x→a x→a x→a

x→a

(f.) lim = = , provided that M �= 0

x→a g(x) lim g(x) M

x→a

Compute the following limits of functions using the deﬁnition of the limit and limit properties.

(a.) lim 5x3/2

x→4

x→1

√

(c.) lim 2x3 x2 + 7

x→3

2x2 + 1

(d.) lim

x→2 x + 1

Recall that the limit of a rational function can be written as the ratio of the limit of the numer-

ator to the limit of the denominator only if the limit of the denominator is non-zero; however, if

the limit of the numerator tends to L �= 0 and the limit of the denominator tends to 0, then the

1

limit of the rational function does not exist, e.g., lim 2 does not exist. On the other hand, there

x→0 x

are instances in which both the numerator and the denominator of a rational function both tend

to 0 and yield a meaningful limit. We refer to this as the indeterminate form 0/0. Curiously,

we note that the indeterminate form 0/0 can take the value of any real number! (WHOA.) Using

the following algorithm, we are able to deal with the indeterminate form 0/0.

1.) Replace the given function with an appropriate function that takes the same values as the

original function everywhere except at x = a. We note that this can by achieved by rational-

izing the numerator, rationalizing the denominator, cancelling like terms in fractions, etc.

2.) Evaluate the limit of this function as x approaches a.

Compute the limits of the following rational functions of indeterminate form 0/0.

t3 − 8

(a.) lim

t→2 t − 2

√

4−h−2

(b.) lim

h→0 h

17

2.4.5 Limits at Inﬁnity

Until now, we have considered the limits of functions at ﬁnite values. Often, it is useful to con-

sider the limit of a function f (t) as t grows arbitrarily large, i.e., as t approaches ±∞.

Mortality Rate of Fruit Flies. Consider a population of fruit ﬂies whose mortality rate is

4t2

modeled by the function g(t) = 2+t 2 , where t is time in minutes and g(t) is the ratio of births

to deaths. Evaluating g(t) for t = 1, t = 2, t = 5, t = 10, t = 100, and t = 1000, we see that

4

g(1) = ≈ 1.3,

3

8

g(2) = ≈ 2.7,

3

100

g(5) = ≈ 3.7,

27

200

g(10) = ≈ 3.9,

51

20000

g(100) = ≈ 4, and

5001

2000000

g(1000) = ≈ 4.

500001

We conclude that as t grows arbitrarily large, g(t) grows closer and closer to 4.

Deﬁnition. We say that the function f has the limit L as x approaches inﬁnity if the value of

f (x) can be made as close to L as desired by taking x to be suﬃciently large. We write

lim f (x) = L.

x→∞

Likewise, we say that the function f has the limit M as x approaches negative inﬁnity if the

value of f (x) can be made as close to M as desired by taking x to be negative and suﬃciently

large in absolute value. Likewise, we write

lim f (x) = M.

x→−∞

and g(x) = bm xm + · · · + b1 x + b0 , and deﬁne the rational function r(x) = fg(x)

(x)

for x s.t. g(x) �= 0.

x→±∞

an

2.) Given that n = m, we have that lim r(x) = .

x→±∞ bm

3.) Given that n > m, we have that lim r(x) = ±∞, depending on whether n is odd or even.

x→±∞

1

Furthermore, for all real numbers r > 0, we have that lim = 0.

x→±∞ xr

18

Compute the following limits of functions using the deﬁnition of the limit, if possible. Explain

why it is not possible to compute the given limit, if that is the case.

|x|

(a.) lim

x→∞ x

|x|

(b.) lim

x→−∞ x

1

(c.) lim

x→∞ x2

1

(d.) lim

x→−∞ x2

x2 − x + 3

(e.) lim

x→∞ 2x3 + 1

3x2 − 5x + 4

(f.) lim

x→∞ 2x2 + 7x − 1

12x3 − 4x2 − 2

(g.) lim

x→∞ 1000x2 + 1

12x3 − 4x2 − 2

(h.) lim

x→−∞ 1000x2 + 1

2.5.1 One-Sided Limits

Consider the piecewise-deﬁned function

�

x+1 x≥0

f (x) = .

x−1 x<0

Using the deﬁnition of the limit as x approaches 0, we ﬁnd that lim f (x) does not exist; however,

x→0

if we restrict our attention to only the piece of the function deﬁned on [0, ∞), we note that the

limit as x approaches 0 exists and equals 1. Likewise, if we restrict our attention to only the piece

of the function deﬁned on (−∞, 0), then the limit as x approaches 0 exists and equals −1.

Deﬁnition. We say the function f has the right-hand limit L as x approaches a if the value of

f (x) can be made as close to L as desired by taking x > a suﬃciently close to a. We write

lim f (x) = L.

x→a+

Likewise, we say the function f has the left-hand limit M as x approaches a if the value of f (x)

can be made as close to M as desired by taking x < a suﬃciently close to a. We write

lim f (x) = M.

x→a−

19

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