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# LAB NO.

1
OBJECTIVES OF THE LAB
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Matlab will be used extensively in all the succeeding labs. The goal of this first lab is to gain
familiarity with Matlab and build some basic skills in the Matlab language. Some specific topics
covered in this lab are:
• Introduction to Matlab
• Matlab Environment
• Matlab Help
• Variable arithmetic
• Built in Mathematical Functions
• Input and display
• Timing functions
• Introduction to M-files

----------------------------------------------------------------------
1.1 WHAT IS MATLAB?

## MATLAB is a commercial "MATrix LABoratory" package, by MathWorks, which operates as

an interactive programming environment with graphical output. The MATLAB programming
language is exceptionally straightforward since almost every data object is assumed to be an
array. Hence, for some areas of engineering MATLAB is displacing popular programming
languages, due to its interactive interface, reliable algorithmic foundation, fully extensible
environment, and computational speed.

## 1.2 ENTERING AND RUNNING MATLAB

Double click on the MATLAB icon to launch and a command window will appear with the
prompt:
>>
You are now in MATLAB. From this point on, individual MATLAB commands may be given at
the program prompt. They will be processed when you hit the <ENTER> key. The following
figure shows the screenshot of matlab.
1.3 LEAVING MATLAB

## A MATLAB session may be terminated by simply typing

>> quit
or by typing
>> exit
at the MATLAB prompt.

## 1.4 MATLAB HELP

Online help is available from the MATLAB prompt, both generally (listing all available
commands).
>> help
[a long list of help topics follows]
and for specific commands:
>> help command_name

If you want to search for all the commands related to some particular functionality, use
keyword lookfor followed by a keyword that explains the functionality.
>>lookfor convolution

1.5 VARIABLES

MATLAB has built-in variables like pi, eps, and ans. You can learn their values from the
MATLAB interpreter.
>> eps
eps =
2.2204e-16
>> pi
ans =
3.1416

## The equality sign is used to assign values to variables:

>> x = 3
x=
3
>> y = x^2
y=
9
Variables in MATLAB are case sensitive. Hence, the variables "x" and "y" are distinct from "X"
and "Y" (at this point, the latter are in fact, undefined).
Output can be suppressed by appending a semicolon to the command lines.
>> x = 3;
>> y = x^2;
>> y = 9

## 1.5.2 Active Variables

At any time you want to know the active variables you can use who:
>> who
ans x y

## To remove a variable, try this:

>> clear x
To remove all the variables from workspace, use clear
>> clear
1.5.4 Saving and Restoring Variables

To save the value of the variable "x" to a plain text file named "x.value" use
>> save x.value x -ascii
To save all variables in a file named mysession.mat, in reloadable format, use
>> save mysession
To restore the session, use

## 1.6 VARIABLE ARITHMETIC

MATLAB uses some fairly standard notation. More than one command may be entered on a
single line, if they are separated by commas.
>> 2+3;
>> 3*4, 4^2;
Powers are performed before division and multiplication which are done before subtraction and
>> 2+3*4^2;
generates
ans = 50.
That is:
2+3*4^2
==> 2 + 3*4^2 <== exponent has the highest precedence
==> 2 + 3*16 <== then multiplication operator
==> 2 + 48 <== then addition operator
==> 50
1.6.1 Double Precision Arithmetic
All arithmetic is done to double precisions, which for 32 bit machines is about 16
decimal digits of accuracy. Normally the results will be displayed in a shorter form.
>> a = sqrt(2)
a=
1.4142
>> format long, b=sqrt(2)
b=
1.41421356237310
>> format short
1.6.2 Command-Line Editing

The arrow keys allow "command-line editing," which cuts down on the amount of typing
required, and allows easy error correction. Press the "up" arrow, and add "/2." What will this
produce?
>> 2+3*4^2/2
Parentheses may be used to group terms, or to make them more readable. For example:
>> (2 + 3*4^2)/2
Generates ans=25

## 1.6.3 Built-In Mathematical Functions

MATLAB has a platter of built-in functions for mathematical and scientific computations. Here
is a summary of relevant functions.
Function Meaning Example
======================================================
sin sine sin(pi) = 0.0
cos cosine cos(pi) = 1.0
tan tangent tan(pi/4) = 1.0
asin arcsine asin(pi/2)= 1.0
acos arccosine acos(pi/2)= 0.0
atan arctangent atan(pi/4)= 1.0
exp exponential exp(1.0) = 2.7183
log natural logarithm log(2.7183) = 1.0
log10 logarithm base 10 log10(100.0) = 2.0
======================================================
The arguments to trigonometric functions are given in radians.
Example: Let's verify that
sin(x)^2 + cos(x)^2 = 1.0
for arbitrary x. The MATLAB code is:
>> x = pi/3;
>> sin(x)^2 + cos(x)^2 - 1.0
ans =
0
1.7 TIMING COMMANDS

Timing functions may be required to determine the time taken by a command to execute or an
operation to complete. Several commands are available to accomplish it:
1.7.1 Clock

CLOCK returns current date and time as date vector. CLOCK returns a six element date vector
containing the current time and date in decimal form:
CLOCK = [year month day hour minute seconds]
The first five elements are integers. The second’s element is accurate to several digits beyond the
decimal point. FIX(CLOCK) rounds to integer display format.

1.7.2 Etime

## ETIME Elapsed time.

ETIME(T1,T0) returns the time in seconds that has elapsed between vectors T1 and T0. The two
vectors must be six elements long, in the format returned by CLOCK:
T = [Year Month Day Hour Minute Second]
Time differences over many orders of magnitude are computed accurately. The result can be
thousands of seconds if T1 and T0 differ in their first five components or small fractions of
seconds if the first five components are equal.
t0 = clock;
operation
etime(clock,t0)

## TIC Start a stopwatch timer.

The sequence of commands
TIC, operation, TOC
Prints the number of seconds required for the operation.

## 1.8 INPUT & DISPLAY

1.8.1 INPUT
INPUT prompts for user input.
R = INPUT('How many apples')

Gives the user the prompt in the text string and then waits for the input from the keyboard.The
input can be any MATLAB expression, which is evaluated, using the variables in the current
workspace, and the result returned in R. If the user presses the return key without entering
anything, INPUT returns an empty matrix.

## Example: Entering a single variable

>> x=input('Enter a variable: ')
Enter variable: 4
x=
=4
>> x=input('Enter a vector: ')

## Example: Entering a vector

A vector is entered by specifying [] and elements are inserted inside these brackets,
separated by space.
Enter a vector: [3 4 1]
x=
341

## Example: A \n entered after the string results in starting a new line.

>> x=input('Enter a value\n')
Enter a value
5
x=

5
1.8.2 DISP

DISP Display array, without printing the array name. In all other way it’s the same as
leaving the semicolon off an expression except that empty arrays don’t display

DISP(‘string’) is another variation of the same function that is used to display a string on the
command prompt.

Example:
>> disp('I am using MATLAB 7.0')
I am using MATLAB 7.0

1.9 M-Files
Typing errors are time-consuming to fix if you are working in the command window because
you need to retype all or part of the program. Even if you do not make any mistakes, all of your
work may be lost if you inadvertently quit MATLAB. To preserve large sets of commands,
you can store them in a special type of file called an M-file. MATLAB supports two types of M-
files: script and function M-files. To hold a large collection of commands, we use a script M-
file. The function M-file is discussed in coming lab. The script file has a '.m' extension and is
referred to as an M-file (for example, myfile.m myfuncion.m, etc.). The commands in the script
file can then be executed by typing the file name without its extension in the command window.
Commands in a script utilize and modify the contents of the current workspace. It is possible to
embed comments in a script file.
To make a script M-file, you need to open a file using the built-in MATLAB editor. There are
two ways to accomplish it:
1. From file menu, click NEW
2. Type edit on command line

## A new window appears like one shown in the figure below.

When you are finished with typing in this new window, click File->Save to save this file. The
extension of this file be .m. In order to execute this program,
1. Write the name of file on command window (excluding the .m) or
2. Click Debug->Run

Create an m-file and write a program for calculating area of a circle. Try out several other
programs of similar computation.
Create an m-file to get 10 numbers from user and generate the square of those numbers.
LAB NO. 2

## OBJECTIVE OF THE LAB

----------------------------------------------------------------------
In this lab, we will cover the following topics:
• Built in Matrix Functions
• Indexing Matrices
• Sub Matrices
• Matrix element level operations
• Round Floating Point numbers to Integers
• plotting the exponential function
----------------------------------------------------------------------
1.1 MATRICES

MATLAB works with essentially only one kind of object, a rectangular numerical matrix
possibly, with complex entries. Every MATLAB variable refers to a matrix [a number is a 1 by 1
matrix]. In some situations, 1-by-1 matrices are interpreted as scalars, and matrices with only one
row or one column are interpreted as vectors.
A matrix is a rectangular array of numbers. For example:
[3692
1485
2875
1 4 2 3]

## Example: consider the following three equations:

3 * x1 - 1 * x2 + 0 * x3 = 1
-1 * x1 + 4 * x2 - 2 * x3 = 5
0 * x1 - 2 * x2 + 10 * x3 = 26
This family of equations can be written in the form A.X = B, where
[ 3 -1 0 ] [ x1 ] [1]
A = [-1 4 -2 ], X = [ x2 ], and B = [ 5 ]
[0 -2 10 ] [ x3 ] [ 26 ]

Depending on the specific values of coefficients in matrices A and B, there may be: (a) no
solutions to A.X = B, (b) a unique solution to A.X = B, or (c) an infinite number of solutions to
A.X = B.
In this particular case, however, the solution matrix
[1]
X= [2]
[3]
makes the right-hand side of the matrix equations (i.e., A.X) equal the left-hand side of the
matrix equations (i.e., matrix B).

## 1.1.1 Defining Matrices In Matlab

MATLAB is designed to make definition of matrices and matrix manipulation as simple as
possible.
Matrices can be introduced into MATLAB in several different ways:
For example, either of the statements
>> A = [1 2 3; 4 5 6; 7 8 9];
and
>> A = [ 1 2 3
456
789]
creates the obvious 3-by-3 matrix and assigns it to a variable A.
Note that:
• The elements within a row of a matrix may be separated by commas as well as a
blank.
• The elements of a matrix being entered are enclosed by brackets;
• A matrix is entered in "row-major order" [i.e. all of the first row, then all of the
second row, etc];
• Rows are separated by a semicolon [or a newline], and the elements of the row may
be separated by either a comma or a space. [Caution: Watch out for extra spaces!]

The matrix element located in the i-th row and j-th column of a is referred to in the usual way:
>> A(1,2), A(2,3)
ans =
2
ans =
6
It's very easy to modify matrices:
>> A(2,3) = 10;

## Large matrices can be assembled from smaller matrix blocks.

For example, with matrix A in hand, we can enter the following commands:
>> C = [A; 10 11 12]; <== generates a (4x3) matrix
>> [A; A; A]; <== generates a (9x3) matrix
>> [A, A, A]; <== generates a (3x9) matrix
As with variables, use of a semicolon with matrices suppresses output. This feature can be
especially useful when large matrices are being generated.

## 1.1.3 Built-in matrix functions

MATLAB has many types of matrices which are built into the system e.g.
Function Description
===============================================
diag returns diagonal M.E. as vector
eye identity matrix
hilb Hilbert matrix
magic magic square
ones matrix of ones
rand randomly generated matrix
triu upper triangular part of a matrix
tril lower triangular part of a matrix
zeros matrix of zeros
===============================================
Here are some examples:
i. Matrices of Random Entries: A 3 by 3 matrix with random entries is produced by
typing
>> rand(3)
ans =
0.0470 0.9347 0.8310
0.6789 0.3835 0.0346
0.6793 0.5194 0.0535
General m-by-n matrices of random entries are generated with
>> rand(m,n);

## ii. Magic squares:

A magic square is a square matrix which has equal sums along all its rows and
columns. For example:
>> magic(4)
ans =
16 2 3 13
5 11 10 8
9 7 6 12
4 14 15 1
The elements of each row and column sum to 34.

## iii. Matrices of Ones: The functions

eye (m,n) produces an m-by-n matrix of ones.
eye (n) produces an n-by-n matrix of ones.

## iv. Matrices of Zeros: The commands

zeros (m,n) produces an m-by-n matrix of zeros.
zeros (n) produces an n-by-n one;
If A is a matrix, then zeros (A) produces a matrix of zeros of the same size as A.

v. Diagonal Matrices: If x is a vector, diag(x) is the diagonal matrix with x down the
diagonal.
If A is a square matrix, then diag(A) is a vector consisting of the diagonal of A. What is
diag(diag(A))? Try it.

## The following matrix operations are available in MATLAB:

Operator Description Operator Description
============================================================
- subtraction \ left division
* multiplication / right division
^ power
============================================================

These matrix operations apply of course to scalars (1-by-1matrices) as well . if the sizes of the
matrices are incompatible for the matrix operation, an error message will result ,except in the
case of the scalar-matrix operations(for addition , subtraction and division as well as
multiplication)in which case each entry of the matrix is operated on by the scalar.
1.2.1 Matrix Transpose

## The transpose of a matrix is the result of interchanging rows and columns.

MATLAB denotes the [conjugate] transpose by following the matrix with the single-quote
[apostrophe]. For example:
>> A'
ans =
147
258
369
>> B = [1+i 2 + 2*i 3 - 3*i];
>> B = B'
B=
1.0000 - 1.0000i
2.0000 - 2.0000i
3.0000 + 3.0000i

Let matrix "A" have m rows and n columns, and matrix "B" have p rows and q columns. The
matrix sum "A + B" is defined only when m equals p and n equals q, the result is a n-by-m
matrix having the element-by-element sum of components in A and B.
For example:
>> A = [ 2 3; 4 5.0; 6 7];
>> B = [ 1 -2; 3 6.5; 10 -45];
>> A+B
Ans=
3.0000 1.0000
7.0000 11.5000
16.0000 -38.0000

## 1.2.3 Matrix Multiplication

Matrix multiplication requires that the sizes match. If they don't, an error message is generated.
>> A*B, B*A; <== results into error as inner matrix dimensions doesn’t agrees
>> B'*A;
>> A*A', A'*A;
>> B'*B, B*B';
Scalars multiply matrices as expected, and matrices may be added in the usual way (both are
done "element by element”):
>> 2*A, A/4;
>> A + [b,b,b]; <== results into error as inner matrix dimensions doesn’t agrees
Example:
We can use matrix multiplication to check the "magic" property of magic squares.
>> A = magic(5);
>> b = ones(5,1);
>> A*b; <== (5x1) matrix containing row sums.
>> v = ones(1,5);
>> v*A; <== (1x5) matrix containing column sums.

## 1.2.4 Matrix Functions "any" and "all”

There is a function to determine if a matrix has at least one nonzero entry, any, as well as a
function to determine if all the entries are nonzero, all.
>> A = zeros(1,4)
>> any(A)
>> D = ones(1,4)
>> any(D)
>> all(A)

## Some MATLAB functions can return more than one value.

In the case of max the interpreter returns the maximum value and also the column index where
the maximum value occurs. Similarly, min function returns the minimum value along with the
column index where the minimum value occurs.
>> B = magic(4);
>> [m, i] = max(B)
>> [m, i] = min(B)

## Size of a matrix can be calculate by using function ‘size ‘.

>> x = [1 2 3 ;1 2 3];
>> s = size(x)
s=
2 3

## 1.2.7 Length of Array

Length of an array can be found using function ‘length’.
>> n = [-3:1:3];
>> l = length(n)
l=
7

## 1.2.8 Finding an element in a matrix

This function can be used to find index of any particular value. Say given array is
>> x= [0 2 4 6 8];
To find the indices of all values that are greater than 4, following is used
>> y = find(x>4)
y=
4 5
Write a program to generate a new matrix from the matrix given below such that each column in
the new matrix except the first one is the result of subtraction of that column from the previous
one i.e. 2nd new column is the result of subtraction of 2nd column and 1st column and so on.
Copy the first column as it is in the new matrix.
[3 6 9 2

1 4 8 5

2 8 7 5

1 4 2 3]

Generate two 10000 sampled random discrete time signals (1 dimensional) using rand() function
i.e. rand(1,10000). Write a program to add the two signals together using simple vector addition.
Determine the time required for addition using tic, toc pair or etime function.

1.3 SUB-MATRICES

## A note about Colon Notation

A central part of the MATLAB language syntax is the "colon operator," which produces a list.
For example:
>> -3:3
ans =
-3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3
The default increment is by 1, but that can be changed. For example:
>> x = -3 : .3 : 3
x=
Columns 1 through 7
-3.0000 -2.7000 -2.4000 -2.1000 -1.8000 -1.5000 -1.2000
Columns 8 through 14
-0.9000 -0.6000 -0.3000 0 0.3000 0.6000 0.9000
Columns 15 through 21
1.2000 1.5000 1.8000 2.1000 2.4000 2.7000 3.0000
This can be read: "x is the name of the list, which begins at -3, and whose entries increase by .3,
until 3 is surpassed." You may think of x as a list, a vector, or a matrix, whichever you like. In
our third example, the following statements generate a table of sines.
>> x = [0.0:0.1:2.0]';
>> y = sin(x);
>> [x y]
Try it. Note that since sin operates entry-wise, it produces a vector y from the vector x.
The colon notation can also be combined with the earlier method of constructing matrices.
>> a = [1:6 ; 2:7 ; 4:9]

Colon notation can be used to generate vectors. A very common use of the colon notation is to
extract rows, or columns, as a sort of "wild-card" operator which produces a default list. For
example,

A(1:4,3) is the column vector consisting of the first four entries of the third column of A .
A(:,3) is the third column of A. A colon by itself denotes an entire row or column.
A(1:4,:) is the first four rows of A.

## Arbitrary integral vectors can be used as subscripts. The statement

A(:,[2 4]) contains as columns, columns 2 and 4 of matrix A.
This subscripting scheme can be used on both sides of an assignment statement:
A(:,[2 4 5]) = B(:,1:3) replaces columns 2,4,5 of matrix A with the first three columns of matrix
B. Note that the "entire" altered matrix A is printed and assigned. Try it.

Create two matrices i.e. A consisting of 1 through 6 & 12 through 7, while B consisting of 6
through 1 & 7 through 12. Perform the following operations: A+B,
A-B, A.*B, A./B, A.^2, 1./A, A/2, A+1. Take matrices of ur choice and perform the above
mentioned operations on them.
MATLAB has functions to round floating point numbers to integers. These are round, fix, ceil,
and floor. Test how these functions work. Determine the output of the following:
>> f = [-.5 .1 .5]
>> round(f)
>> fix(f)
>> ceil(f)
>> floor(f)
>> sum(f)
>> prod(f)

## 1.4 Plotting the exponential function:

t=0:0.1:1;
x=exp(-10.*t);
subplot(231);
plot(t,x);
xlabel('time')
ylabel('amplitude')
title('DSP 1 ')
grid on

subplot(232);
plot(t,x,'ro');
xlabel('time')
ylabel('amplitude')
title(' DSP 2')
grid on

subplot(233);
stem(t,x,'g');
xlabel('time')
ylabel('amplitude')
title(' DSP 3')
grid on

subplot(234);
stem(t,x,'f');
xlabel('time')
ylabel('amplitude')
title(' DSP 4')
grid on

subplot(235);
stem(t,x,'o')
xlabel('time')
ylabel('amplitude')
title(' DSP 5 ')
grid on

subplot(236);
stem(t,x,'f')
e=0:pi/5:5*pi;
plot3(sin(t),cos(t),t)
xlabel('time')
ylabel('amplitude')
title(' DSP 6')
grid on
Generate a plot e^0.1y.sin(wy)
With an increment of 0.1 .keep the range of axis (0,20) label the graph.

w=15;
y=0:0.1:15;
signal=exp(-0.7.*y).*(sin(w*y));
plot(y,signal);
axis([0 20 -1 1])
grid on
xlabel('time')
ylabel('amplitude')
LAB NO. 3
OBJECTIVE OF THE LAB

----------------------------------------------------------------------
In this lab, we will get an understanding of the following topics:
• Making Functions
• Control Structures
• Relational Constructs
• Logical Constructs
• Branching Constructs
• Looping constructs
•Discrete signal representation
•Matlab graphics

----------------------------------------------------------------------
1.1 MAKING FUNCTIONS

## A function can be created by the following syntax:

function [output1, output2, ...] = cmd_name(input1,input2,...)
A function is a reusable portion of code that can be called from program to accomplish some
specified functionality. A function takes some input arguments and returns some output. To
create a function that adds two numbers and stores the result in a third variable, type the
following code in an m-file:
x=3;
y=5;
z=x+y
Save the file by the name of add (in work folder, which is chosen by default), go back to the
command window and write
z=
8
You see that the sum z is displayed in the command window.
Now go back to the editor/debugger and modify the program as follows
z=x+y
Save the above program with a new name addv, go back to the command window and type the
following
z=
8
z=
10
We have actually created a function of our own and called it in the main program and gave
values to the variables (x,y).

## Once again go back to the debugger/editor and modify the program.

%-------------------------------------------------
% This function takes two values as input,
% finds its sum, & displays the result.
% inputs: x & y
% output: z
% Result: z=9
%--------------------------------------------------
z=x+y

Save the program with the same name adv, go back to command window, type the following
-------------------------------------------------
This function takes two values as input,
finds its sum, & displays the result.
inputs: x & y
output: z
Result: z=9
--------------------------------------------------
SCRIPT VS FUNCTION
• A script is simply a collection of Matlab commands in an m-file. Upon typing the name of
the file (without the extension), those commands are executed as if they had been entered
at the keyboard.
Functions are used to create user-defined matlab commands.
• A script can have any name.
A function file is stored with the name specified after keyword function.
• The commands in the script can refer to the variables already defined in Matlab, which are
said to be in the global workspace.
When a function is invoked, Matlab creates a local workspace. The commands in the
function cannot refer to variables from the global (interactive) workspace
Unless they are passed as inputs.

Construct a function in M-file by the name of greater(x,y), which will take two inputs from the
user, finds the value that is greater among the two and then displays it.
Similarly create the functions of “average” and “factorial”

## Control-of-flow in MATLAB programs is achieved with logical/relational constructs, branching

constructs, and a variety of looping constructs.

## The relational operators in MATLAB are

Operator Description
===================================
< less than
> greater than
<= less than or equal
>= greater than or equal
== equal
~= not equal
===================================
Note that ='' is used in an assignment statement while =='' is used in a relation.
Relations may be connected or quantified by the logical operators
Operator Description
===================================
& and
| or
~ not
===================================
When applied to scalars, a relation is actually the scalar 1 or 0 depending on whether the
relation is true or false (indeed, throughout this section you should think of 1 as true and 0
as false). For example
>> 3 < 5
ans =
1
>> a=3==5
a=
0
When logical operands are applied to matrices of the same size, a relation is a matrix of 0's and
1's giving the value of the relation between corresponding entries. For example:
>> A = [ 1 2; 3 4 ];
>> B = [ 6 7; 8 9 ];
>> A == B
ans =
0 0
0 0
>> A < B
ans =
1 1
1 1
To see how the other logical operators work, you should also try
>> ~A
>> A&B
>> A & ~B
>> A | B
>> A | ~A
1.2.2 Branching constructs

## MATLAB provides a number of language constructs for branching a program's control of

flow.
i. if-end Construct : The most basic construct is
if <condition>
<program>
end

Here the condition is a logical expression that will evaluate to either true or false
(i.e., with values 1 or 0). When the logical expression evaluates to 0, the program
control moves on to the next program construction. You should keep in mind that
MATLAB regards A==B and A<=B as functions with values 0 or 1.
Example:
>> a = 1;
>> b = 2;
>> if a < b
c = 3;
end;
>> c
c=
3

## ii. If-else-end Construct: Frequently, this construction is elaborated with

if <condition1>
<program1>
else
<program2>
end
In this case if condition is 0, then program2 is executed.

## iii. If-elseif-end Construct: Another variation is

if <condition1>
<program1>
elseif <condition2>
<program2>
end

Find for integer 0 < a ≤ 10, the values of C, defined as follows:
C= 5ab, 0<a<=5
C= ab, 5<a<=10
where b = 15.

## i. For Loops : A for loop is a construction of the form

for i= 1 : n
<program>
end
The program will repeat <program> once for each index value i = 1, 2, .... n. Here are
some examples of MATLAB's for loop capabilities:

## Example: The basic for loop

>> for i = 1 : 5,
c = 2*i
end
c=
2
…………..the lines of output are removed…..
c=
10
computes and prints "c = 2*i" for i = 1, 2, ... 5.

## Example: For looping constructs may be nested.

Here is an example of creating matrices contents inside a nested for loop:
>> for i=1:10
for j=1:10
A(i,j) = i/j;
end
end
There are actually two loops here, with one nested inside the other; they define
A(1,1), A(1,2), A(1,3) ... A(1,10), A(2,1), ... A(10,10)
in that order.

Example: MATLAB will allow you to put any vector in place of the vector 1:n in this
construction. Thus the construction
>> for i = [2,4,5,6,10]
<program>
end
is perfectly legitimate.
In this case program will execute 5 times and the values for the variable i during
execution are successively, 2,4,5,6,10.

Add the following two matrices using for loop.
[5 12 3 [2 1 9
9 6 5 10 5 6
2 2 1] 3 4 2]
ii. While Loops

## A while loop is a construction of the form

while <condition>
<program>
end
where condition is a MATLAB function, as with the branching construction. The
program will execute successively as long as the value of condition is not 0. While loops
carry an implicit danger in that there is no guarantee in general that you will exit a while
loop. Here is a sample program using a while loop.
function l=twolog(n)
% l=twolog(n). l is the floor of the base 2
% logarithm of n.
l=0;
m=2;
while m<=n
l=l+1;
m=2*m;
end

## In MATLAB, finite-duration sequence (or discrete time signal) is represented by row

vector of appropriate values. Such representation does not have any information
about sample position n. Therefore, for correct representation, two vectors are required,
one for x and other for n. Consider the following finite duration sequence & its
implementation:
x(n) = { 1 -1 0 2 1 4 6 }

>> n = [-3:1:3]
n=
-3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3

>> x = [1 -1 0 2 1 4 6]
x=
1 -1 0 2 1 4 6

## Given the signals:

X1[n] = [2 5 8 4 3]
X2[n] = [4 3 2]
Write a Matlab program that adds these two signals. Use vector addition
and multiplication. Apply if-else construct, where condition in if-part
checks the relative lengths of two vectors & performs the desired
operations, otherwise in else-part it asks user about two choices 1: exit
from the program, 2: add redundant samples (equal to the difference of
vector lengths) in the small vector, thereby creating new vector x2_mod.
Use x2_mod to perform vector addition and multiplication. To implement
this, use switch construct.

1.4 GRAPHICS

Two- and three-dimensional MATLAB graphs can be given titles, have their axes
labeled, and have text placed within the graph. The basic functions are:

Function Description
============================================================================
plot(x,y) plots y vs x
plot(x,y1,x,y2,x,y3) plots y1, y2 and y3 vs x on the same graph
stem(x) plots x and draws a vertical line at each
datapoint to the horizontal axis
xlabel('x axis label') labels x axis
ylabel('y axis label') labels y axis
title ('title of plot') puts a title on the plot
gtext('text') activates the use of the mouse to position a
crosshair on the graph, at which point the
'text' will be placed when any key is pressed.
zoom allows zoom IN/OUT using the mouse cursor
grid draws a grid on the graph area
print filename.ps saves the plot as a black and white postscript
file
Shg brings the current figure window forward.
CLF clears current figure.

## 1.4.1 Two-dimensional plots

The plot command creates linear x-y plots; if x and y are vectors of the same
length, the command plot(x,y) opens a graphics window and draws an x-y plot of
the elements of x versus the elements of y.
Example: Let's draw the graph of the sine function over the interval -4 to 4 with
the following commands:
>> x = -4:.01:4;
y = sin(x);
plot(x,y)
>> grid;
>> xlabel('x');
>> ylabel('sin(x)');
>> title('Graph of SINE function')

## Following figure shows the result.

MULTIPLE PLOTS ON SAME FIGURE WINDOW
Two ways to make multiple plots on a single graph are:

## i. Single plot command

x = 0:.01:2*pi;
y1=sin(x);
y2=sin(2*x);
y3=sin(4*x);
plot(x,y1,x,y2,x,y3)
xlabel('Time (sec)');
ylabel('Amplitude (A)');

## ii. Multiple plot commands

Another way is with hold. The command hold freezes the current graphics screen
so that subsequent plots are superimposed on it. Entering hold again releases the
hold.''
x = 0:.01:2*pi;
y1=sin(x);
y2=sin(2*x);
y3=sin(4*x);
plot(x,y1);
hold on;
plot(x,y2);
plot(x,y3);
xlabel('Time (sec)');
ylabel('Amplitude (A)');

## OVERRIDING THE DEFAULT PLOT SETTINGS

One can override the default linetypes and pointtypes. For example, the
command sequence
x = 0:.01:2*pi;
y1=sin(x);
y2=sin(2*x);
y3=sin(4*x);
plot(x,y1,'--',x,y2,':',x,y3,'+');
grid;
title ('Dashed line and dotted line graph');
xlabel('Time (sec)');
ylabel('Amplitude (A)');
axis tight;
The line-type and mark-type are
=============================================================
Linetypes : solid (-), dashed (--), dotted (:), dashdot (-.)
Marktypes : point (.), plus (+), star (*), circle (o),
x-mark (x)
=============================================================
Plot the two curves y1 = 2x + 3 and y2 = 4x + 3 on the same graph using
different plot styles.

clc
clear all
close all

## x = input('Enter the first discrete time signal\n');

len_x = length(x);
y = input('Enter the second discrete time signal\n');
len_y = length(y);
while(len_y~=len_x)
disp('Error: Length of signals must match. Enter the 2nd
signal again')
y=input('');
len_y=length(y);
end
z = x+y;
subplot(3,1,1);
stem(x,'filled');
title('Signal 1');
xlabel('Sample number');
ylabel('Signal Amplitude');
subplot(3,1,2);
stem(y,'filled');
title('Signal 2');
xlabel('Sample number');
ylabel('Signal Amplitude');
subplot(3,1,3);
stem(z,'filled');
title('Resultant Signal');
xlabel('Sample number');
ylabel('Signal Amplitude');

output:
Enter the first discrete time signal
[3 5 1 0 2]
Enter the second discrete time signal
[1 1 3 2 1]

Make two separate functions for signal addition and multiplication. The functions
should take the signals as input arguments and return the resultant signal. In the
main program, get the signals from user, call the functions for signal addition
and multiplication, and plot the original signals as well as the resultant signals.
LAB NO.4
OBJECTIVES OF THE LAB
----------------------------------------------------------------------
In this lab, we will cover the following topics:
 Gain familiarity with Complex Numbers
 Built in functions related to complex numbers
 phasors
 Plotting real & imaginary parts of a function
 Plot complex exponential signal

----------------------------------------------------------------------
1. COMPLEX NUMBERS

A complex number z is an ordered pair (x, y) of real numbers. Complex numbers can be
represented in rectangular form as z = x + iy, which is the vector in two-dimensional
plane. The horizontal coordinate x is called the real part of z and can be represented as
x = Re {z}, while the vertical coordinate y is called the imaginary part of z and
represented as y = Imag {z}. That is:
z = (x, y)
= x + iy
= Re {x} + i Imag {x}
Another way to represent a complex number is in polar form. In polar form, the vector is
defined by its length (r) or magnitude (|z|) and its direction (θ). A rectangular form can
be converted into polar form using formulas:
|z| = r = (x^2 + y^2)½
θ = arctan (y/x)
z = r e^j θ
where e^j θ = cos θ + i sin θ,and known as the Euler’s formula.

## 1.2 BUILT-IN MATRIX FUNCTIONS

Function Description
===============================================
real returns the real part x of z
imag returns the imaginary part y of z
abs returns the length r of z
angle returns the direction _ of z
conj returns the complex conjugate ž of z
zprint plot all the info about complex no.s
zcat plot vectors in z-plane end-to-end
ucplot plot a circle with specified center
===============================================
Here are some examples:

Example
To define the complex number, for instance, z = (3, 4) in matlab write in matlab editor
>> z = 3 + 4i
z=
3.0000 + 4.0000i

Example
To find the real and imaginary parts of the complex number, write
>> x = real(z)
x=
3
>> y = imag(z)
y=
4

Example
To find the length and direction of z, write
>> r = abs(z)
r=
5
>> θ = angle(z)
θ=
0.9273

Example

>> zx = conj(z)
zx =
3.0000 – 4.0000i

Example

To find all the information about a complex number, use the zprint function, i.e.
>> zprint(z)
Z = X + jY Magnitude Phase Ph/pi Ph(deg)
3 4 5 0.927 0.295 53.13

Example

## To plot the vector in z-plane, use the zcat function, i.e.

>> zcat(z)
Another way to plot is to use the zvect function, which gives the same result as above,
i.e.
>> z1 = 2 + 3i;
>> h = zvect(z1);

Example
To plot the circular representation of complex number, ucplot function can be used. It
takes the radius of circle as first argument, complex number as second argument and
any plotting option as third argument. For instance, to draw z1 = 2 + 3i as a dottedgreen
circle with radius r = 2 in matlab, write in matlab
>> huc = ucplot( 2, z1 , ':g');

Define z1 = -1+j0.3 and z2 = 0.8+j0.7. Enter these in Matlab and plot them with
zvect, and print them with zprint.
Compute the conjugate z¤ and the inverse 1/z for both z1 and z2 and plot the
results. Display the results numerically with zprint.

Compute z1 +z2 and plot. Use zcat to show the sum as vectors head-to-tail. Use
zprint to display the results numerically.

Compute z1z2 and z1/z2 and plot. Use the zvect plot function to show how the
angles of z1 and z2 determine the angles of the product and quotient. Use zprint
to display the results numerically.

## The complex exponential signal is defined as

x’(t) = A e^j(w0t + ø)
which is a complex-valued function of t, where the magnitude of x’(t) is
|x’(t)| = A magnitude or length of x’(t)
arg x’(t) = (w0t + ø) angle or direction of x’(t)
Using Euler’s formula, it can be expressed in rectangular or Cartesian form, i.e.
x’(t) = A e^j(w0t + ø) = A cos (w0t + ø) + j A sin (w0t + ø)
where
A = amplitude,
ø=phase shift

Example
clc
clear all
close all
n = 0:1/10:10;
k = 5;
a = pi/2;
x = k * exp(a*n*i);

## % plot the real part

subplot(2,1,1)
stem(n, real(x), 'filled')
title('Real part of complex exp')
xlabel('sample #')
ylabel('signal amplitude')
grid

## % plot the imaginary part

subplot(2,1,2)
stem(n, imag(x), 'filled')
title('Imaginary part of complex exp')
xlabel('sample #')
ylabel('signal amplitude')
grid
Determine the complex conjugate of the above exponential signal and plot the
real and imaginary portions.
Generate the complex valued signal
y(n) = exp^ (-0.1 + j0.3)n, -10<=n<=10
Plot its magnitude, phase, the real part, and the imaginary part in separate
subplots.

Multiply the two discrete signals x1=5exp^(i*n*pi/4) and x2= a^n (use point-by-point
multiplication of the two signals). Plot the real as well as the exponential parts for
0<a<1 and a>1.
a) Generate the signal x(t) = Aej(wt+𝜋) for A = 3,𝜋= -0.4, and w=2𝜋(1250). Take
a range for t that will cover 2 or 3 periods.
b) Plot the real part versus t and the imaginary part versus t. Use subplot(2,1,i) to
put both plots in the same window.
DSP LAB # 5
LAB NO. 5
OBJECTIVES OF THE LAB
‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐
In this lab, we will cover the following topics:
 Beat Notes
 Amplitude Modulation
 Applications of Fourier Series
 Synthesis of Square wave
 Synthesis of Triangular wave
 Frequency spectrum of a signal
 Frequency Modulated Signal
 Chirp Signal
 Modeling Chirp Signal in Simulink
 Spectrogram

‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐
5.1 BEAT NOTES

When two sinusoidal signals with different frequencies are multiplied, a beat note is produced.
To fulfill
the spectrum representation, the resultant signal is expressed as an additive linear combination of
complex exponential signals. For instance, consider a beat signal as the product of two sinusoids
x(t) = sin(10πt) cos(πt)
= ½ cos(11πt – π/2) + ½ cos(9πt – π/2)
Or in other words, beat note can be produced by adding two sinusoids with nearly identical
frequencies,
i.e.
x(t) = cos(2πf1t) + cos(2πf2t) 1)
where f1 = fc – fd � first frequency
f2 = fc + fd � second frequency
fc = ½ (f1 + f2) � center frequency
fd = ½ (f1 ‐ f2) � deviation or difference frequency
And, thus
x(t) = sin(2πfdt) cos(2πfct) 2)
= ½ cos(2π(fc – fd)t) + ½ cos(2π(fc + fd)t)
= ½ cos(2πf1t) + ½ cos(2πf2t) 3)

Example
To implement the beat note for fc = 200, & fd = 20,
consider the following matlab code:

## t = 0:0.00001:0.1; % total duration of signal

fd = 20; % deviation or difference frequency
Ad = 2; % amplitude of deviation frequency signal
s1 = Ad * cos(2*pi*fd*t); % deviation frequency signal
fc = 200; % center frequency
Ac = 5; % amplitude of center frequency signal
s2 = Ac * cos(2*pi*fc*t); % center frequency signal
X = s1.*s2; % beat signal

## % plot deviation frequency signal

figure(1);
plot(t,s1,'linewidth',1.5);
grid;
ylabel('Amplitude');
xlabel('Time');
title('Difference Frequency Signal');

## % plot center frequency signal

figure(2);
plot(t,s2,'linewidth',1.5);
grid;
ylabel('Amplitude');
xlabel('Time');
title('Center Frequency Signal');

## % plot the beat signal

figure(3);
plot(t,X,'linewidth',1.5);
grid;
ylabel('Amplitude');
xlabel('Time');
title('Beat Signal');

## Figure: Difference Frequency Signal

Figure: Center Frequency Signal

## Figure: Beat Signal

Modify the above code in such a way that the resultant beat signal & its envelope both are
shown.
Write the matlab code that produces a beat signal along with its envelope for frequencies f1 =
191 hertz and f2 = 209 hertz.

## Amplitude modulation is the process of multiplying a low‐frequency signal by a high‐frequency

sinusoid. It is a technique used to broadcast AM radio. The AM signal is the product of the form

## x(t) = v(t) cos(2πfct) 4)

where the frequency of the cosine (fc hertz) is much higher than any frequencies contained in the
spectrum of v(t), which represent the data signal to be transmitted. The cosine wave is called the
carrier signal, and its frequency is called the carrier frequency.

## t = 0:0.00001:0.1; % total duration of signal

fd =20; % deviation or difference frequency
Ad = 2; % amplitude of deviation frequency signal
s1 = Ad * cos(2*pi*fd*t); % deviation frequency signal
fc = 200; % center frequency
Ac = 5; % amplitude of center frequency signal
s2 = Ac * cos(2*pi*fc*t); % center frequency signal
B = s1.*s2; % beat signal
AM = B + s2; % AM signal

## % plot modulating signal

figure(1);
plot(t,s1,'linewidth',1.5);
grid;
ylabel('Amplitude');
xlabel('Time');
title('Modulating Signal');

## % plot carrier signal

figure(2);
plot(t,s2,'linewidth',1.5);
grid;
ylabel('Amplitude');
xlabel('Time');
title('Carrier Signal');
% plot the AM signal
figure(3);
plot(t,AM,'linewidth',1.5);
grid;
ylabel('Amplitude');
xlabel('Time');
title('Amplitude Modulated Signal');

## Figure: Carrier Signal

Figure: Amplitude Signal

Modify the above code in such a way that the resultant AM signal & its envelope both is shown.

Write the matlab code that produces an AM signal along with its envelope for frequencies f1 =
191 hertz and f2 = 209 hertz.

## 5.3 FOURIER SERIES

Fourier series theory states that a periodic wave can be represented as a summation of sinusoidal
waves with different frequencies, amplitudes and phase values.

## 5.3.1 Synthesis of Square wave

The square wave for one cycle can be represented mathematically as:
x(t) = 1 { 0 <= t < T/2}
‐1 { T/2 <= t < T}
The Complex Amplitude is given by:
Xk = (4/j*pi*k) for k=±1, ±3, ±5…..
0 for k=0,±2, ±4, ±6…..

## (i) Effect of Adding Fundamental, third, fifth, and seventh Harmonics

Example
clear
clc
t=0:0.0001:8;
ff=0.5;
y = (4/pi)*sin(2*pi*ff*t);
% COMPLEX AMPLITUDE = (4/(j*pi*k))
for k = 3:2:7
fh=k*ff;
x = (4/(k*pi))*sin(2*pi*fh*t);
y=y+x;
end
plot(t,y,'linewidth',1.5);
title('A square wave with harmonics 1st, 3rd, 5th, and 7th');
xlabel('Time');
ylabel('Amplitude')

## (ii) Effect of Adding 1st to 17th harmonics

Example
clear
clc
t=0:0.0001:8;
ff=0.5;
y = (4/pi)*sin(2*pi*ff*t);
% COMPLEX AMPLITUDE = (4/(j*pi*k))
for k = 3:2:17
fh=k*ff;
x = (4/(k*pi))*sin(2*pi*fh*t);
y=y+x;
end
plot(t,y,'linewidth',1.5);
title('A square wave with harmonics 1st‐17th);
xlabel('Time');
ylabel('Amplitude');

## (iii) Effect of Adding 1st to 27th harmonics

Example
t=0:0.0001:8;
ff=0.5;
y = (4/pi)*sin(2*pi*ff*t);
% COMPLEX AMPLITUDE = (4/(j*pi*k))
for k = 3:2:55
fh=k*ff;
x = (4/(k*pi))*sin(2*pi*fh*t);
y=y+x;
end
plot(t,y,'linewidth',1.5);
title('A square wave with harmonics 1st to 27th');
xlabel('Time');
ylabel('Amplitude');
5.4 SYNTHESIS OF A TRIANGULAR WAVE

## The Complex Amplitude is given by:

Xk = (‐8/*pi^2*k^2 ) for k is an odd integer
=0 for k for k is an even integer
For f = 1/T = 25Hz

## Synthesize a triangular wave with fundamental frequency fo=25 Hz and fk=kfo

And see the effect of adding harmonics.

## We can refer to the spectrum as the frequency domain representation of a signal.

N
x(t)= Xo + ∑ {Xk/2 e^(j2πfk t) + Xk*/2 e^(-j2πfk t)
k=1
The frequency components which are present in a signal can be represented by a vertical line at
the appropriate frequency by using the command “FFT”

EXAMPLE:

To plot spectrum diagram which gives the frequency content of a signal x(t)
x(t) = 14 cos(200*pi*t -pi/3)
Fs = 1000;
t = 0:1/Fs:1-(1/Fs);
x = 14*cos(200*pi*t-pi/3);
xdft = (1/length(x))*fft(x);
freq = -500:(Fs/length(x)):500-(Fs/length(x));
plot(freq,abs(fftshift(xdft)));

(i) Plot the spectrum of the given AM signal and beat signal.

## (a) X(t) =5+ 2cos(2π50t)cos(2π500t);

(b)x(t)= 2cos(2π10t)cos(2π1000t);

(ii) plot the spectrum of square signal whose Fourier series coefficients are

## Xk = { 4/j(pi)k k= odd numbers

= 0 k= even numbers
With fo= 25 hz

(iii) Similarly plot the spectrum of triangular signal having fundamental frequency, fo =25 hz
5.6 FREQUENCY MODULATED SIGNALS:

## CHIRP OR LINEARLY SWEPT FREQUENCY

A chirp signal is a sinusoid whose frequency changes linearly from some low value to a high
one. To define the formula for such a signal, following steps can be taken. Since we know that a
complex exponential signal is defined as
x’(t) = A ej (w0t + ø)
And its real part is
x(t) = Re { A ej (w0t + ø) }
= A cos (w0t + ø)
Then the phase of this signal is the exponent (w0t + ø) that changes linearly with time. The time
derivative of phase is w0, which equals the constant frequency.
Thus, the general notation is:
x(t) = Re { A ej Ψ(t) }
= A cos (Ψ(t))
Where Ψ(t) represents the phase as a function of time
Ψ(t) = 2πμt2 + 2πf0t + ø
The derivative of Ψ(t) yields an instantaneous frequency that changes linearly versus time.
fi (t) = 2μt + f0
The slope of fi(t) is equal to 2Ψ and its intercept is equal to f0. If the signal starts at t = 0, then f0
is also the starting frequency. The frequency variation produced by the time‐varying phase is
called frequency modulation, and this class of signals is called FM signals. Finally, since the
linear variation of the frequency can produce an audible sound similar to a siren or a chirp, the
linear‐FM signals are also called chirps."

## Example: The following Matlab code synthesizes a chirp:

fsamp = 8000; % sampling frequency
dt = 1/fsamp; % increment value
dur = 1.8; % total duration
tt = 0 : dt : dur; % time vector
psi = 100 + 2*pi*(200*tt + 500*tt.*tt); % instantaneous phase: ø = 100, f0 = 200, μ = 500
A = 7.7; % Amplitude
xx = real( A * exp (j*psi) ); % chirp signal
sound( xx, fsamp ); % play the signal at given sampling frequency

(a) Determine the range of frequencies (in hertz) that will be synthesized by above mentioned
Matlab script. What are the minimum and maximum frequencies that will be heard? Listen to the
signal to verify that it has the expected frequency content.

(b) Use the code provided in part (a) to help you write a Matlab function that will synthesize a
“chirp" signal according to the following comments:

## Function xx = mychirp ( f1, f2, dur, fsamp )

% MYCHIRP generate a linear‐FM chirp signal
% usage: xx = mychirp( f1, f2, dur, fsamp )
% f1 = starting frequency
% f2 = ending frequency
% dur = total time duration
% fsamp = sampling frequency (OPTIONAL: default is 8000)

(c) Generate a chirp sound to match the frequency range of the chirp in part (a). Listen to
the chirp using the sound function. Also, compute the spectrogram of your chirp using the
Matlab function: spectrogram

Synthesize a frequency sweep from f1=3hz to f2=30 hz over the time interval t=0 to T=1.8 sec
Plot the signal and also show the frequency –time relation using function spectrogram.

## 5.7 MODELING OF CHIRP SIGNAL IN SIMULINK:

We can model chirp signal by using blocks of dsptool box in simulink or we can also
generate the chirp signal using the built in block of chirp signal generator.

OUTPUT:
MODELING USING DSPTOOL BOX IN SIMULINK

5.8 SPECTROGRAM:
It is often useful to think of signals in terms of their spectra. A signal's spectrum is a
representation of the frequencies present in the signal. For a constant frequency sinusoid the
spectrum consists of two spikes, one at 2Ψf0, the other at ¡2Ψf0. For more complicated signals
the spectra may be very interesting and, in the case of FM, the spectrum is considered to be
time‐varying. One way to represent the time‐varying spectrum of a signal is the spectrogram
(see Chapter 3 in the text). A spectrogram is found by estimating the frequency content in short
sections of the signal. The magnitude of the spectrum over individual sections is plotted as
intensity or color on a two‐dimensional plot versus frequency and time.

## There are a few important things to know about spectrograms:

1. In Matlab, the function spectrogram computes the spectrogram. Type help spectrogram
2. Spectrograms are numerically calculated and only provide an estimate of the time varying
frequency content of a signal.

## Beat notes provide an interesting way to investigate the time‐frequency characteristics of

spectrograms.
Although some of the mathematical details are beyond the reach of this course, it is not
difficult to understand the following issue: there is a fundamental trade‐o® between knowing
which frequencies are present in a signal (or its spectrum) and knowing how those frequencies
vary with time. A spectrogram estimates the frequency content over short sections of the signal.
Long sections give excellent frequency resolution, but fail to track frequency changes well.

A beat note signal may be viewed as a single frequency signal whose amplitude varies with
time, or as two signals with different constant frequencies.

Create and plot a beat signal with
(i) f¢ = 32 Hz
(ii) Tdur = 0:26 sec
(iii) fs = 8000 Hz,
(iv) f0 = 2000 Hz
Find the spectrogram using the commands:
spectrogram(x); colormap(1‐gray(256)).
LAB NO. 6 :

## OBJECTIVES OF THE LAB

----------------------------------------------------------------------
This lab is mainly concerned with

##  Sampling a Continuous Time Signal

 Aliasing effect
 Folding effect
6.1 SAMPLING A CONTINUOUS-TIME SIGNAL
A continuous time signal can be sampled using a command:
stem(x,y);
Following example shows the sampled version of the continuous –time cosine signal

Example:
t = 0:0.0005:1;
f = 13;
xa = cos(2*pi*f*t);
subplot(2,1,1)
plot(t,xa);
grid
xlabel('Time, msec');
ylabel('Amplitude');
title('Continuous-time signal x(t)');
axis([0 1 -1.2 1.2])
subplot(2,1,2);

## Fs=10; % sampling frequency

T = 0.1; % sampling period
n = 0:T:1;
% or we can write
%n = 0: T: 1-T
xs = cos(2*pi*f*n);
k = 0:length(n)-1;
stem(k,xs);
grid
xlabel('Time index n');
ylabel('Amplitude');
title('Discrete-time signal x[n]');
axis([0 (length(n)-1) -1.2 1.2])
Repeat the program by changing the frequency of the sinusoidal signal to 3 Hz and 7 Hz,
respectively. Is there any difference between the corresponding equivalent discrete-time signals.
If not, why not?

## 6.2 ALIASING EFFECT

A high frequency gives the sample of lower frequency so that the two can’t be distinguished.
If f1 > fs, then its alias are at
fa = f1+k*fs; where k is an integer.
Aliasing exclusively deals with frequencies outside sampling frequency.

Example

t=0:0.001:1;
f1=2*cos(2*pi*1*t);
f2=2*cos(2*pi*11*t);
n=0:0.1:1;
y1=2*cos(2*pi*1*n);
y2=2*cos(2*pi*11*n);
subplot(2,2,1)
plot(t,f1);
xlabel('Time');
ylabel('Amplitude');
title('Continous time wave of frequency 1 Hz');
grid;
subplot(2,2,2)
plot(t,f2);
xlabel('Time');
ylabel('Amplitude');
title('Continous time wave of frequency 11 Hz');
grid;
subplot(2,2,3)
stem(y1);
xlabel('sample number');
ylabel('Amplitude');
title('Sampling 1 Hz signal at 10 Hz');
grid;
subplot(2,2,4)
stem(y2);
xlabel('sample number');
ylabel('Amplitude');
title('Sampling 11 Hz signal at 10 Hz');
grid;
6.3 FOLDING

In signal processing, Folding refers to an effect that causes change in the frequency and phase of
signal when reconstructed after sampling.
Folding uses the property cos (q) = cos (-q).
This causes the frequencies from 0.5 fs to fs become a mirror image of frequencies of 0 to 0.5fs.
fapparent = fs – fo, where fs>fo>0.5fs

Example
t=0:0.001:1;
f1=2*cos(2*pi*4*t);
f2=2*cos(2*pi*6*t);
n=0:0.1:1;
y1=2*cos(2*pi*4*n);
y2=2*cos(2*pi*6*n);
subplot(2,2,1)
plot(t,f1);
xlabel('Time');
ylabel('Amplitude');
title('Continous time wave of frequency 4 Hz');
grid;
subplot(2,2,2)
plot(t,f2);
xlabel('Time');
ylabel('Amplitude');
title('Continous time wave of frequency 6 Hz');
grid;
subplot(2,2,3)
stem(y1);
xlabel ('sample number');
ylabel('Amplitude');
title('Sampling 4 Hz signal at 10 Hz');
grid;
subplot(2,2,4)
stem(y2);
xlabel('sample number');
ylabel('Amplitude');
title('Sampling 6 Hz signal at 10 Hz');
grid;

## Consider a cosine signal having frequency ‘F’.

a) The user should be asked to enter sampling frequency ‘Fs’ such that “Fs<F” & plot the
signal to observe the aliasing effect.
b) Then again user should be asked to enter sampling frequency Fs such that “F<Fs<2*F” &
plot the signal to view the folding phenomena
c) Then again enter sampling frequency equal to the frequency of the sinusoid & plot the
sinusoid
Observe these plots & write comments!
LAB NO.7:
OBJECTIVES OF THE LAB
‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐
This lab aims at the understanding of:
• Generating unit impulse and unit step sequences
• Basic signal operations
• Discrete - time systems
• Implementation of Running Average Filter (Causal and Non‐Causal)
• Delay Filter
‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐
7.1 GENERATING UNIT IMPULSE AND UNIT STEP SEQUENCES
Use matlab commands zeros and ones.
Example: Unit Impulse Sequence
n=‐10:10;
% unit impulse
x1=[zeros(1,10) 1 zeros(1,10)];
stem(n,x1,'filled');
xlabel('sample #');
ylabel('signal amplitude');
title('Unit impulse');
axis([‐10 10 ‐1 2]);

## Example: Unit Step Sequence

n= ‐10:10;
%unit step
x1=[zeros(1,10) ones(1,11)];
stem(n,x1,'filled');
xlabel('sample #');
ylabel('signal amplitude');
title('Unit step');
axis([‐10 10 ‐1 2]);
Plot the signum sequence. It can be defined as:
Sign(n)= 1, for n>0
-1, for n<0
0, for n=0

## 7.2 BASIC SIGNAL OPERATIONS:

1) Signal Shifting
clc
clear all
close all
n=0:0.002:4;
x=sin(2*pi*1*n);
subplot(2,1,1);
plot(n,x,'linewidth',2);
title('Original Signal');
xlabel('Time');
ylabel('Signal Amplitude');
axis([‐3 3 ‐1 1]);
grid;
subplot(2,1,2);
plot(n‐1,x,'linewidth',2);
xlabel('Time');
ylabel('Signal Amplitude');
axis([‐3 3 ‐1 1]);
grid
Delay the above signal by 1 sec. Plot both the delayed & original signal on the same figure

2) Amplitude Scaling
clear
n=1:7;
x=[1 2 2 3 2 2 1];
subplot(2,1,1);
stem(n,x, 'filled');
title('Original signal');
xlabel('Time index');
ylabel('Signal Amplitude');
axis([1 7 0 4]);
grid;
S=2;
subplot(2,1,2);
stem(n,S*x, 'filled');
title('Amplitude Scaled signal');
xlabel('Time index');
ylabel('Signal Amplitude');
axis([1 7 0 8]);
grid;
Scale the continuous-time sinusoid by a factor of 2.

## 3) Decimation & Interpolation:

%decimation(downsampling)
clear
n=‐2:1/1000:2;
x1=sin(2*pi*2*n);
x2=decimate(x1,2);
subplot(2,1,1);
plot(x1);
title('Original signal');
xlabel('Sample Number');
ylabel('Signal Amplitude');
axis([0 4000 ‐1 1]);
grid;
subplot(2,1,2);
plot(x2);
title('Decimated signal');
xlabel('Sample Number');
ylabel('Signal Amplitude');
axis([0 2000 ‐1 1]);
grid;
Use interp& decimate command in the above program to interpolate (up-sample) the signal by a
factor of 2.
Use “stem “ and campare the two plots with the original signal

4) Amplitude Clipping
clear
x=[3 4 4 2 1 ‐4 4 ‐2];
len=length(x);
y=x;
hi=3;
lo=‐3;
for i=1:len
if(y(i)>hi)
y(i)=hi;
elseif(y(i)<lo)
y(i)=lo;
end
end
subplot(2,1,1);
stem(x,'filled');
title('original signal');
xlabel('Sample number');
ylabel('Signal Amplitude');
subplot(2,1,2);
stem(y,'filled');
title('Clipped Signal');
xlabel('Sample number');
ylabel('Signal Amplitude');

5) Signal Replication
clear
x=[1 2 3 2 1];
y=[x x x x];
subplot(2,1,1);
stem(x,'filled');
title('Original Signal');
xlabel('Sample Number');
ylabel('Signal Amplitude');
axis([1 20 0 3]);
grid;
subplot(2,1,2);
stem(y,'filled');
title('Replicated Signal');
xlabel('Sample Number');
ylabel('Signal Amplitude');
axis([1 20 0 3]);
grid;
7.3 DISCRETE TIME SYSTEMS:
There are different ways to characterize discrete‐time systems including difference equation,
impulse response, transfer function, and frequency response. We are considering here only
difference equation.

Difference Equation
A discrete‐time system is characterized by the following general form difference equation
y(n) + a1y1(n-1) + a2y2(n-2) + … + aNyN(n-N) = b0x0(n) + b1x1(n-1) + …+ bMxM(n-M)
Where
� x(n) and y(n) are input and output, respectively.
� Finite integers M and N represent the maximum delays in the input and output respectively.
� The constants ai and bi are called the filter coefficients.
Difference equation can be implemented in Matlab as follow:
y = filter (b,a,x)
Which takes the input signal in vector x and filter coefficient a and b. The Vector B constitutes
the feed forward filter coefficients and vector A constitutes the feed‐backward filter
coefficients. In case of FIR filters, the feed‐backward filter coefficient consists of a single 1.

Example
y (n) + 2y(n‐1) + 3y(n‐2) = x(n) + 3x(n‐1) + x(n‐2)
A = coefficients of y(n) = [1 2 3]
B = coefficients of x(n) = [1 3 1]
X = input sequence = [1 2 3 4 5 6 ]

Program
A = [1 2 3];
B = [1 3 1];
X = [1 2 3 4 5 6];
Y =filter (B, A, X)

Output :
Y=
1 3 1 4 9 ‐5

Given the following difference equation and input signal, calculate the output.
� 5y(n) = ‐4x(n) + x(n‐1) + 6x(n‐3)
� X = input sequence = [1 3 5 7 9]

## 7.3.1 FILTERING SIGNALS

Matlab provides the command Filter for developing One‐dimensional digital filter.
Y = filter(B,A,X)
filters the data in vector X with the filter described by vectors A and B to create the filtered data
Y. The filter is a "Direct Form II Transposed" implementation of the standard difference
equation:
a(1)*y(n) = b(1)*x(n) + b(2)*x(n‐1) + ... + b(nb+1)*x(n‐nb)‐ a(2)*y(n‐1) ‐ ... ‐ a(na+1)*y(n‐na)

## For FIR filters, keep a=1;

Example
clc
clear
b = [1 2 3 4 5 4 3 2 1];
a = 1;
x = cos(0.2*pi*[0:20]);
y = filter(b,a, x);
figure;
subplot(2,1,1);
stem (x);
title('Discrete Filter Input x[n]');
xlabel('index, n');
ylabel('Value, x[n]');
axis([0 21 ‐1 1]);
grid;
subplot(2,1,2);
stem(y, 'r');
title('Discrete Filter Output y[n]');
xlabel('index, n');
ylabel('Value, y[n]');
axis([0 21 ‐20 20]);
grid;
7.3.2 IMPULSE RESPONSE:

## Y[n]-0.268y [n-2] =0.634x[n] +0.634x [n-2]

0.9

0.8
Matlab code
0.7
a=[1 0 -0.268];
b=[0.634 0 0.634]; 0.6
x=[1 zeros(1,31)];
y=filter(b,a,x); 0.5
y=stem(y);
grid; 0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
Impulse Response of: Y[n]-0.268y [n-2] =0.634x[n] +0.634x [n-2]With
IMPZ function Impulse Response
0.9

0.8
Matlab code
0.7
a=[1 0 -0.268];
0.6
b=[0.634 0 0.634]
x=[1 zeros(1,31)];

Amplitude
y=filter(b,a,x);%impulse 0.5
response
y=stem(y); 0.4
grid
0.3
hold on;
impz(b,a);
0.2

0.1

0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
n (samples)

Determine the Impulse response of
Y(n)=0.5x(n)+0.27x(n-1)+0.77(n-2)

## 7.4 Moving Average Filter

clear
n=‐3:7;
% input signal
x=[0 0 0 2 4 6 4 2 0 0 0];
% filter coefficients
b=[1/3 1/3 1/3]; %feedforward filter coefficeints
a=1; %feedback filter coefficients
% output signal
y=filter(b,a,x);
figure;
subplot(2,1,1);
stem(n,x, 'filled');
xlabel('sample number');
ylabel('signal amplitude');
title('origianl signal');
grid;
subplot(2,1,2);
stem(n,y, 'filled');
xlabel('sample number');
ylabel('signal amplitude');
title('Result of 3‐point averager: y[n]=(x[n]+x[n‐1]+x[n‐2])/3');
grid;

Modify above program to implement:
1. A 3‐point non‐causal averager
2. A centralized average

A non‐recursive discrete‐time system has filter coefficients {1, ‐2, 3, 2}. An input signal (shown
in Fig) is applied to the system. Determine the discrete‐time output of the filtering. Write code
to plot the original signal as well as the output on two subplots of the same figure.
7.4.1 ILLUSTRATION OF FIR FILTERING:

Where

## (1.02).^n is the slowly varying exponent

0.5*cos(2*pi*n/8 + pi/4) is the sinusoidal component considered as noise here

Example
n=0:40;
% input signal
x=(1.02).^n + 0.5*cos(2*pi*n/8 + pi/4);
% filter coefficients
b1=[1/3 1/3 1/3];
a1=1;
% plot of original signal
Figure;
subplot(2,1,1);
stem(n,x, 'filled');
title('input signal');
xlabel('sample number');
ylabel('signal amplitude');
grid;
% output of 3‐ point filtering
y1=filter(b1,a1,x);
subplot(2,1,2);
stem(n,y1, 'filled');
title('output of 3‐point filtering');
xlabel('sample number');
ylabel('signal amplitude');
grid;
Develop a causal FIR filter that averages five samples of the input signal
x[n]= 2δ[n] + 5δ[n‐1] + 8δ[n‐2] + 4δ[n‐3] + 3δ[n‐4]

Consider a moving average filter in which input is taken from the user
n=0:99
x1=cos(2*pi*0.03*n);
x2=cos(2*pi*0.51*n);
x=x1+x2;
Plot the low frequency signal (x1) and high frequency signal (x2) and then plot (x) .then pass the
signal (x) through filter (y) whose coefficients are entered by the user. Then plot the filtered
signal (y).
Comment! by observing the plots.

## 7.5 DELAY FILTER

A delay system is a simple FIR filter. A delay by 2 is given by filter coefficients {0, 0, 1}. Its
implementation on input signal i.e. x[n] = {2 4 6 4 2} is shown in figure below:
A delay filter delays an input signal. The amount of delay depends on filter coefficients. Design a
delay filter that delays an input signal by 6 units.

## x[n]= δ[n] - 4δ[n-1] +3δ[n-2] + 2δ[n-3] - 6δ[n-4] + 2δ[n-6]

Write code to plot the input signal as well as the output signal
LAB NO. 8 :

## OBJECTIVES OF THE LAB

‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐
This lab aims at the understanding of:
• Making Signals Causal and Non‐Causal
• Convolution
• signal smoothing using moving average filter
• Properties of Convolution
‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐
8.1 MAKING SIGNALS CAUSAL AND NON-CAUSAL

Causal Signal: A signal is said to be causal if it is zero for time<0. A signal can be made causal
by multiplying it with unit step.
Example
clc
clear all
close all
t = ‐2:1/1000:2;
x1 = sin(2*pi*2*t);
subplot(3,1,1);
plot(t,x1,'LineWidth',2);
xlabel('time');
ylabel('signal amplitude');
title('sin(2*\pi*f*t)');
u = (t>=0);
x2 = x1.*u;
subplot(3,1,2);
plot(t,u, 'r','LineWidth',2);
xlabel('time');
ylabel('Signal Amplitude');
title('Unit Step');
subplot(3,1,3);
plot(t,x2, 'k','LineWidth',2);
xlabel('time');
ylabel('signal amplitude');
title('causal version of sin(2*\pi*f*t)');
figure;
plot(t,x1,t,u,'‐.',t,x2,'LineWidth',2);
text(0,1.2,'u(t)','FontSize',16);
text(‐1.2,‐1.1,'x(t)','FontSize',16);
text(0.8,‐1.1,'x(t)*u(t)','FontSize',16);
axis([‐2 2 ‐1.5 1.5]);
A signal is said to be anti‐causal if it exists for values of n<0. Make the signal given in above
example anti‐causal . also display the lolly-pop plot of each signal.
8.2 CONVOLUTION:
Use the Matlab command Conv(h,x) to find convolution where
H = impulse response
X = input signal

Example
clc
clear all
close all
h = [1 2 3 4 5 4 3 2 1];
x = sin(0.2*pi*[0:20]);
y = conv(h, x);
figure(1);
stem (x);
title('Discrete Filter Input x[n]');
xlabel('index, n');
ylabel('Value, x[n]');
figure (2);
stem(y, 'r');
title('Discrete Filter Output y[n]');
xlabel('index, n');
ylabel('Value, y[n]');
Even though there are only 21 points in the x array, the conv function produces 8 more points
because it uses the convolution summation and assumes that x[n] = 0 when n>20.

Example

Matlab code
%Convolution
% n= 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
% x (n) =-4 2 -1 3 -2 -6 -5 4 5
% h(x) =-4 1 3 7 4 -2 -8 -2 -1
h=input('Enter value of h ');
x=input('Enter value oh x ');
c=conv(h,x);
M=length(c)-1;
n=0:1:M;
stem(n,c);
title('Convolution output');
grid
Command window

## Enter value of h [-4 1 3 7 4 -2 -8 -2 -1]

Enter value oh x [-4 2 -1 3 -2 -6 -5 4 5]

## 8.2.1 CONVOLUTION USING FILTER:

Matlab code

%Convolution
% n= 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
% x(n)= -4 2 -1 3 -2 -6 -5 4 5
% h(x)= -4 1 3 7 4 -2 -8 -2 -1
h=input('Enter value of h');
x=input('Enter value of x');
a=1;
b=h;
c=filter(b,a,x);
M=length(c)-1;
n=0:1:M;
stem(n,c);
title('Convolution output');
grid

Command window

## Enter value of h [-4 1 3 7 4 -2 -8 -2 -1]

Enter value of x [-4 2 -1 3 -2 -6 -5 4 5]

## Consider the sinusoid

%generation of sine wave
n=0:100;
f=0.05;
a=4;
x=a*sin(2*pi*f*n);
figure;
stem(n,x);
xlabel('sine wave');
axis([0 100 -4 4]);
grid;
Add the following noise signal to the sinusoid
y1=wgn(1,101,2)
then plot the impulse response of moving average filter
then through convolution remove the noise from the filter.

Convolve the signal x[n]=[1 2 3 4 5 6] with an impulse delayed by two samples. Plot the original
signal and the result of convolution.

## 8.2.3 PROPERTIES OF CONVOLUTION

ASSOCIATIVE PROPERTY:
Associative property can be shown by the following equation

## (x1[n] * x2[n]) * x3[n] = x1[n] * (x2[n] * x3[n])

Convolution is associative. Given the three signal x1[n], x2[n], and x3[n] as:
x1[n]= [ 3 1 1]
x2[n]= [ 4 2 1]
x3[n]=[ 3 2 1 2 3]
Show that (x1[n] * x2[n]) * x3[n] = x1[n] * (x2[n] * x3[n])
COMMUTATIVE PROPERTY:
Commutative property can be shown by the following equation
x[n] * h[n] = h[n] * x[n]

Convolution is commutative. Given x[n] and h[n] as:
X[n]=[1 3 2 1]
H[n]=[1 1 2]
Show that x[n] * h[n] = h[n] * x[n]

Given the impulse response of a system as:
h[n] = 2δ[n] + δ[n‐1] + 2δ[n‐2] + 4δ[n‐3] + 3δ[n‐4]
If the input x[n] = δ[n] + 4δ[n‐1] +3δ[n‐2] + 2δ[n‐3] is applied to the system, determine the
output of the system.

Two systems are connected in cascade.

h1[n]=[1 3 2 1]
h2[n]=[1 1 2]
If the input x[n] = δ[n] + 4δ[n‐1] +3δ[n‐2] + 2δ[n‐3] is applied, determine the output.
LAB NO. 9 :

## OBJECTIVES OF THE LAB

‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐
This lab aims at the understanding of:
• Frequency response of FIR filters
• Implementation of low pass, high pass and bandpass filters and their frequency response
• Use of Matlab command FIR1 to design filter coefficients
‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐
9.1 FREQUENCY RESPONSE

## 9.1.1 Using Freqz

Given the coefficients of a filter, frequency response can be determined for a particular range
of frequencies by using “Freqz”. The syntax is:
H = freqz(b, a, w)
Where b and a are the filter coefficients and w is the range of frequencies for which the
frequency response is desired to be determined. To plot the magnitude and phase of frequency
response, use abs and angle respectively.

## Example: A simple Low pass filter

clc
Clear all
close all
b = [1 2 1];
a = 1;
w = ‐3*pi: 1/100:3*pi;
H = freqz(b, a, w);

subplot(3,1,1);
plot(w, abs(H), 'LineWidth', 2);
title('Magnitude of Frequency Response of filter with coefficients bk={1, 2, 1}');
xlabel('\omega');
ylabel('H(\omega)');
grid;

subplot(3,1,2);
plot(w, abs(H), 'r ', 'LineWidth', 2);
title('Zoomed view of the above graph from ‐\pi to \pi');
xlabel('\omega');
ylabel('H(\omega)');
axis([‐pi pi min(H) max(H)+0.5]);
grid;

subplot(3,1,3);
plot(w, angle(H), 'k ', 'LineWidth', 2);
title('Phase of Frequency Response of filter with coefficients b_k={1, 2, 1}');
xlabel('\omega');
ylabel('H(\omega)');
grid;
Plot the magnitude and phase of the frequency response of an FIR filter with coefficients bk =
{1 ‐2 4 ‐2 1}. Determine the type of filter.

Note:
Freqz command can also be used as:
[H W] = freqz(b, a, n);
Where H contains the frequency response, W contains the frequencies between 0‐π where the
response is calculated, and n is the number of points at which to determine the frequency
response. If n is missing, this value defaults to 512.

## Example: A simple Low pass filter

clc
clear all
close all
b = [1 2 3 2 1];
a = 1;
[H W] = freqz(b, a);
subplot(2,1,1);
plot(W, abs(H), 'linewidth', 1.5);
title('Magnitude of Frequency Response of filter with coefficients b_k={1, 2, 3, 2, 1}');
xlabel('\omega ');
ylabel('H(\omega) ');
axis tight;
grid;
subplot(2,1,2);
plot(W, angle(H),'g', 'linewidth', 1.5);
title('Phase of Frequency Response of filter with coefficients bk={1, 2, 3, 2, 1}');
xlabel('\omega ');
ylabel('H(\omega)');
axis tight;
grid;

9.2 FIR1
Fir1 is used to design filter coefficients. The syntax of this command is:
b = fir1(N, Wc)
Where b contains the filter coefficients returned by this command, N is the order of filter, and
Wc is the cutoff frequency normalized between 0 ‐‐ 1 where 1 refers to π. The number of
coefficients created is one more than the order of filter. By default, a low pass filter is created. A
high pass filter can be created using the argument ‘high’ at the end in the above command. A
bandpass filter can be created using [Wa Wb] instead of Wc where frequencies between Wa and
Wb are allowed to pass. If such a vector is specified instead of Wc, a bandpass filter is created
by default.
A band stop filter can be created by using the argument ‘stop’ in the aforementioned command.
B=fir1(N, Wc) //creates coefficients for low pass filter
B=fir1(N, Wc, ‘high’) //creates coefficients for high pass filter
B=fir1(N, [Wa Wb]) //creates coefficients for bandpass filter
B=fir1(N, [Wa Wb], ‘stop’) //creates coefficients for band stop filter
After the coefficients are obtained, freqz command can be used to determine the frequency
response.
Note: For High pass and band stop filters, N must be even. Else Matlab will increase the order
itself by 1.

## % High Pass filter

clc, clear all, close all
w = ‐pi:1/100:pi;
b = fir1(4, 1/3, 'high')
H = freqz(b, 1, w);
subplot(2,1,1);
plot(w/pi, abs(H) , 'linewidth', 2);
title('High pass filter with cut‐off frequency of w_c=\pi/3');
xlabel('Normalized \omega = x\pi');
ylabel('H(\omega)');
axis tight;
grid;
b = fir1(1000, 1/3, 'high');
H = freqz(b, 1, w);
subplot(2,1,2);
plot(w/pi, abs(H), 'g', 'linewidth', 2);
title('High pass filter with cut‐off frequency of w_c=\pi/3');
xlabel('Normalized \omega = x\pi');
ylabel('H(\omega)');
grid;
Design a low‐pass filter with 7 coefficients and cutoff frequency of π/2.

Design a band‐pass filter which allows only the frequencies between π/6 and 2π/3 to pass and
blocks the rest of frequencies. Design it for order 10 and 1000.

Design a band‐stop filter which stops the frequencies between π/3 and π/2 and allows the rest
of frequencies to pass. Design it for order 10 and 1000.
LAB NO. 10 :

## OBJECTIVES OF THE LAB

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This lab aims at the understanding of:
• Z‐Plane and Unit Circle
• Pole Zero Plots
• Implementation and Frequency Response of Running Sum Filter and its Pole Zero Plot
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10.1 THE THREE DOMAINS
There are three domains in which a signal can be analyzed:

n‐Domain:
It deals with sequences, impulse response and difference equation.

Ŵ‐Domain:
Frequency domain deals with spectrum and frequency response.

Z‐Domain:
• This domain deals with the Z‐operator, poles and zeros.
• There are the issues of stability and it will eventually lead us to IIR filters.
• Frequency transform is also considered as a special case of z‐transform.

## The Z Plane and Unit Circle:

• The z operator is complex exponential of the form z = rejw
• As ‘r’ becomes 1 the z‐transform reduces to Fourier transform.
• This forms a circle of radius 1 and it is called unit circle.

Poles:
These are the values of z on which the value of transform is undefined.
Zeros:
These are the value of z on which the value of transform is zero.

Example:
Consider the system function:
H(z) = 1‐ 2z‐1 + 2 z‐2 ‐ z‐3

Matlab Command:

zplane(b,a)
where ,b and a are row vectors containing transfer function polynomial coefficients
b = Coefficients of Numerator
a = Coefficients of Denominator

Matlab Command:

zplane(Z,P)  Plots the zeros Z and poles P (in column vectors) with the unit circle for
reference
Where,
Z = Zeros of System Function
P = Poles of System Function
Example: Pole Zero Plot of a System Function with Coefficients Given By B

b = [1 ‐2 2 ‐1];
a = [1];
figure;
zplane(b,a);
title('Pole‐zero plot of H(z) = 1 ‐ 2z(‐1) + 2z(‐2) ‐z(‐3)');

## % FREQUENCY RESPONSE OF THE SYSTEM

w = ‐pi:pi/500:pi;
h = freqz(b,a,w);
figure;
plot(w,abs(h),'linewidth',2.5);
title('Magnitude of frequency response');
ylabel('Amplitude')
Make a Pole‐zero plot of 11‐Point Running sum filter. Also plot the magnitude of frequency
response. Also determine the type of filter.

## 10.2 STABILITY OF A SYSTEM

A system is said to be stable if all the poles lie inside the unit circle. This can be determined by
pole‐zero plot of a filter.

Example

## b = [5 3 1 2 1 3 5] %coefficients of numerator of z transform

a = [1]; % coefficients of denominator of z transform
figure(1);
zplane(b,a);
title('Pole‐zero plot of an FIR filter');
Since the poles lie inside the unit circle, the system is stable.

Check if the system with following filter coefficients is stable.
bk = {1, 3, 5, 3, 2, 2}.
LAB NO.11:

## OBJECTIVES OF THE LAB

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The objective of this lab is
 To read a digital image
 The functions like: imread(), imwrite(), imshow(), imfinfo(), mat2gray() and im2bw()
will be discussed
 Arithmetic operations will also be discussed
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Digital Image: digital image is basically a two dimensional function f(x,y) where (x,y) are the
spatial co-ordinates.

image. The name and path can be specified bye the filename where the fmt is the format of the
file which we want to read. This command supports the following file types.
Filename.tiff
Filename.jpeg or Filename.jpg
Filename.gif
Filename.bmp
Filename.png
Filename.xwd

>>[m,n]=size(filename): it displays the size of the image for example if we write the
command
Example : [m,n]=size(f)

m=

1024

n=

3840

>>imshow: imshow diplays the picture which one read by the imread command and displays the
command example is below.
imshow(f)
>>imwrite: imwrite is the built in command which helps us to write the image the desired
format. The image which we read in by the command ‘imread’ and then we can write that image
according to our requirement.
Example imwrite(f,’aug.bmp’) so it will convert the image from jpg format to bmp format.

>>imfinfo : gives us all the information about the picture example is in the following.
imfinfo('aug.jpg')

ans =

Filename: 'aug.jpg'
FileModDate: '02-Aug-2007 10:01:38'
FileSize: 130995
Format: 'jpg'
FormatVersion: ''
Width: 1280
Height: 1024
BitDepth: 24
ColorType: 'truecolor'
FormatSignature: ''
NumberOfSamples: 3
CodingMethod: 'Huffman'
CodingProcess: 'Sequential'
Comment: {}

>>mat2gray : converts the matrix which one reads from the command ‘imread’ to intensity
image.
h = mat2gray(f);
figure, imshow(h)

## >>im2bw : coverts the input image to binary values.

Example : g=im2bw(‘f);
Imshow(‘g’)
>> mat2gray : returns the intensity when a matrix is provided to it. The intensity range is from
0.0 to 1.0 of which first one is totally black and the 2nd one is totally white and while the rest
values are in between them.
g=mat2gray(f);
imshow(g)

>>rgb2gray: Convert RGB image or color map to grayscale. RGB2GRAY converts RGB
images to grayscale by eliminating the saturation information while retaining the luminance.

## >>IMHIST Display histogram of image data.

IMHIST(I) displays a histogram for the intensity image I whose number of
bins are specified by the image type. If I is a grayscale image, IMHIST
uses 256 bins as a default value. If I is a binary image, IMHIST uses
only 2 bins.

## ARITHEMATIC OPERATION ON IMAGES:

Imadd(): this function is used to add two images but hat have the same attributes i.e. size
>>imshow(k);
imsubtract(): this function is used to subtract two images from one another.
>>k=imsubtract(a,a/2);
>>imshow(k);

## immultiply(): this function is used to multiply two images,

Imdivide(): this function is used to divide an image by other image or by some particular value
Imabsdiff : this function is used to find the absolute difference between images
Imcomplement (): this function is used to find the complement of an image