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THE OPEN UNIVERSITY OF SRI LANKA - DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

BAECHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY (CIVIL) - LEVEL 5


CEX 5231 – MECHANICS OF FLUIDS – YEAR 2015/16
ASSIGNMENT # 5 – DATE OF COMPLETION – 02ND MAY, 2016
1) A rectangular open channel of constant width and slope has two long sections -AB and BC- of
different Manning’s coefficient as shown in Figure 1. The channel width is 3 m and the channel slope
is 0.0005.A sluice gate is placed in section AB as shown in the figure. The opening of the sluice gate is
0.2 m while the water depth on the upstream side of the slice gate is 2 m.

The Manning’s coefficient of section AB is 0.01. The Manning’s coefficient of section BC is not known. But
it is observed that the flow far downstream of B is uniform and sub-critical for this discharge.

a) Calculate the discharge in the channel.


b) Does the section AB have a mild slope or a steep slope for this discharge? Explain your answer.
c) Does the section BC have a mild slope or a steep slope for this discharge? Explain your answer.

d) Identify the profile elements (from S1, S2, S3, M1, M2, M3, etc) from the section upstream of the
sluice gate to the uniform flow downstream of B. Explain your answer. Note that you should
identify the profile element for all possible cases.

e) Explain how you would calculate the variation of the flow depth from the sluice gate to the
uniform flow downstream of B. Assume that the Manning’s coefficient of the section BC is
given. Your answer should include all the cases identified in section d).

2) A long, uniform open channel of rectangular cross-section has a width of 3m, a slope of 0.01 and a
Manning’s coefficient of 0.01. The channel carries a discharge of 6 m3/s. A sluice gate is located on the
channel at A as shown in Figure 2a. The opening of the sluice gate is 0.3 m.

a) Calculate the depth just upstream of the sluice gate.


b) Does the channel have a mild slope or a steep slope for this discharge? Explain your answer.
c) Sketch the variation of the water level upstream and downstream of the sluice gate and identify
the flow profiles (from S1, S2, S3, M1, M2, M3, etc). Explain your answer.

A second sluice gate is now placed in the channel at point B, as shown in Figure 2b. The depth upstream
of this second sluice gate is found to be 3m.

d) Show that there is a hydraulic jump somewhere between the two gates.
e) Sketch the variation of the water level between the sluice gates and identify the flow profiles
( from S1, S2, S3, M1, M2, M3, etc.)
f) Explain how you would determine the location of the jump and calculate the variation in
flow depth between the two gates in the case.
g) The gate at B is now lowered from the position in sections d) to f). What will happen to the
hydraulic jump? Explain your answer.
h) The gate at B is now raised from the position in section d) to f). What will happen to the
hydraulic jump? Explain your answer.

CEX 5231 – Mechanics of Fluids – 2015/16 – Assignment # 5 1/3


3) A long uniform open channel of rectangular cross-section has a width of 3m, a slope of 0.001 and a
Manning’s coefficient of 0.015. The channel carries a discharge of 6m3/s. Two sluice gates are
located on the channel at A and C as shown Figure 3. The opening of the sluice gate at A is 0.3 m
while the opening of the gate is 0.6 m. A hydraulic jump is observed at B, between A and C and
the depth just upstream of the jump found to be 0.52 m.

a) Estimate the distance AB. Explain your answer.


b) Classify the surface profiles between A and C (from M1, M2, M3, S1, S2, S3, C1, C2, C3, etc)
Explain your answer.
c) Explain what would happen if the gate lowered to 0.3 m.

Note: Use a single step for any calculations along profiles.

100 m

0.3m 0.6m

A C
FIGURE - 3

4) The Manning’s coefficient for a uniform gravel bed is estimated by the equation n =0.039 d1/6
Where d is the grain size in meters. The Shields parameter is defined by the equation

a)Identify and define the variables in the above definition of the shields’ parameter.

b)Explain the physical significance of the Shields’ parameter.

A long uniform open channel of rectangular cross-section has a width of 2m and slope of 0.0005.
The bottom of the channel is lined with a loose gravel of uniform diameter 6 mm. When the discharge in
the channel is increased gradually, it is found that the gravel begins to move when the discharge reaches a
value of 3 m3/s. The density of water is 1000 kg/m3 and the density of gravel is 2650 kg/m3.

c) Calculate the critical value of the Shields parameter for the initiation of motion. State all your
assumptions and explain your answer.
d) Discuss whether the value obtained in section c) is in agreement with the shields curve.
e) Calculate the minimum diameter of gravel that should be used to maintain a stable bed if the
channels is to carry a discharge of 5 m3/s. State all your assumptions and explain your answer.

CEX 5231 – Mechanics of Fluids – 2015/16 – Assignment # 5 2/3


0.3m

0.2m . FIGURE – 2a
A n = 0.01 B n =? C

3m
FIGURE – 1
0.3m
A B
FIGURE – 2b
2/3

5) A bridge is to be built across a long straight reach of large river. Under design condition the discharge
of the river is 2000 m3/s, the width of the river is 150 m and average flow depth is 6 m. An undistorted
model of the river and bridge, using Froude number similarity at a scale of 1:15 is to be built to study
the forces on the bridge piers and the scour protection downstream of the piers. The model is to use
water (density 1000 kg/m3 and dynamic viscosity 0.001 Pa s). The average bed slope is 0.0002.

a) The model is used to determine the drag forces on a bridge pier. Calculate the ratio between the
forces in the model and the prototype.

The river bed is composed of coarse sand with an average grain size of 1.5 mm. The density of the
sand is 2650 kg/m3.
b) Calculate the bed load transport in the river under design condition using three of the equations
given in the course materials.
c) Discuss any differences in the results of the three calculations in section e)
d) At what discharge will the bed sediment just begin to move? State all your assumptions.
e) Discuss whether it is possible to model accurately the bed load transport in the river using this
physical model.

In practice it is observed that erosion just downstream of the piers during high flows results in
formation of deep holes in the bed (these are known as scour holes)
f) Explain how you would use this model to obtain the optimum shape of the piers to reduce the
scour.

It is planned to prevent the formation of the scour holes by placing armour stones around and
downstream of piers. The required size of armour stones is to be found using this physical model. The
density of the armour stones is 3000 kg/m3.
g) Calculate the ratio between the actual size of the armour stones and the size that should be used in the
model. State all your assumptions.

CEX 5231 – Mechanics of Fluids – 2015/16 – Assignment # 5 3/3