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Energy Procedia 00 (2017) 000–000
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Energy Procedia 00 (2017) 000–000
Energy
EnergyProcedia
Procedia119 (2017) 000–000
00 (2017) 945–952
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www.elsevier.com/locate/procedia

International Conference on Technologies and Materials for Renewable Energy, Environment and
Sustainability, TMREES17, 21-24 April 2017, Beirut Lebanon

Photovoltaic
International
The panels
Conference
15th characterization
on Technologies
International
Sustainability,
and Materials and
Symposium
TMREES17, 21-24 on District
April
experimental
for Renewable
2017,Heating
testing and
Energy, Environment
and Cooling
Beirut Lebanon
Mohammed Amine Faresa,b,c*, Lotfi Atika,b,c, Ghalem Bachira, Michel Aillerieb,c
Assessing the
Photovoltaic panelsfeasibility of using the
characterization andheat demand-outdoor
experimental
University of science and technology of Oran, USTO, LDDE, Oran, Algeria.
a
testing
temperature function
Mohammed Amine Fares for
Université
a,b,c*
,aLotfi
b
long-term
de Lorraine, LMOPS-EA
Atika,b,c4423, district heata, demand
57070 Metz, France
, Ghalem
CentraleSupelec, LMOPS, 57070 Metz, France
c Bachir forecast
Michel Aillerieb,c

I. Andrića,b,c*, University ofascience and technology


, P. Ferrãoa, J. ofFournier b LDDE, Oran, Algeria. c
Oran, USTO,
., B. Lacarrière , O. Le Correc
a
A. Pina
Université de Lorraine, LMOPS-EA 4423, 57070 Metz, France
b

a
c
CentraleSupelec, LMOPS, 57070 Metz, France
IN+ Center for Innovation, Technology and Policy Research - Instituto Superior Técnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisbon, Portugal
Abstract b
Veolia Recherche & Innovation, 291 Avenue Dreyfous Daniel, 78520 Limay, France
c
Département Systèmes Énergétiques et Environnement - IMT Atlantique, 4 rue Alfred Kastler, 44300 Nantes, France
In the current work, we have analyzed the modeling in MATLAB Script similator and the electrical characterization
of photovoltaic (PV) panels currently commercialized. By taking account the electrical characteristics provided by
Abstract
the supplier. Using the MATLAB Script simulator we deduce the optimal electrical quantities of the PV panel
(current,
InAbstract voltage
the current andwe
work, power)
have according
analyzed the to the variableinclimatic
modeling MATLAB conditions (irradiation
Script similator and and
the temperature). In our case,
electrical characterization
we have chosen (PV)
of photovoltaic the panel ZT180S,
panels we commercialized.
currently have deduced from Bythe analysis
taking of the
account theresults of itscharacteristics
electrical electrical characterization
provided by
that
the its optimal
supplier.
District heating electrical
Using
networks quantities
the MATLAB
are commonly are 5% simulator
Script lowerinthan
addressed thewethose deduced
deduce
literature oneby
asthe ofthe
theelectrical
optimal characteristics
electrical
most quantities
effective supplied
solutionsoffor
the PV by the
panel
decreasing the
manufacturer.
(current,
greenhouse gasFinaly,
voltageemissionsthefrom
and power) model
the has
according been
building validated
tosector.
the Thesewith
variable experemental
climatic
systems conditions
require highdata of a commercial
(irradiation
investments arePV module,
and temperature).
which returned InZYTECH
throughourthe
case,
heat
180S.
we have
sales. chosen
Due to thethe panel ZT180S,
changed we have deduced
climate conditions fromrenovation
and building the analysis of theheat
policies, results of itsinelectrical
demand characterization
the future could decrease,
that its optimal
prolonging
Keywords: electrical
the investment
Photovoltaic quantities
return
module, are
period.
modelling of PV5% lower
panel, than thoseofdeduced
characterization by theZT180S.
PV panel, RMSE, electrical characteristics supplied by the
© 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
manufacturer.
The main scopeFinaly,
Peer-review the model
of this paper
under responsibility hasEuro-Mediterranean
is to assess
of the been validatedofwith
the feasibility usingexperemental
the heat demand data
Institute for Sustainable of a commercial
– outdoor temperaturePV
Development module,
function
(EUMISD). ZYTECH
for heat demand
forecast. The district of Alvalade, located in Lisbon (Portugal), was used as a case study. The district is consisted of 665
180S.
* Corresponding
buildings author.
that vary in Tel.;
both modelling
construction period
Keywords: Photovoltaic module, of PV panel,and typology. Three
characterization weather
of PV panel, scenarios
RMSE, ZT180S.(low, medium, high) and three district
E-mail address:
renovation mohammedaminef@gmail.com
scenarios were developed (shallow, intermediate, deep). To estimate the error, obtained heat demand values were
compared with results from a dynamic heat demand model, previously developed and validated by the authors.
* Corresponding
The results showedauthor.
thatTel.;
when only weather change is considered, the margin of error could be acceptable for some applications
E-mail address:
(the error mohammedaminef@gmail.com
in annual demand was lower than 20% for all weather scenarios considered). However, after introducing renovation
1.scenarios,
Introduction
the error value increased up to 59.5% (depending on the weather and renovation scenarios combination considered).
The value of slope coefficient increased on average within the range of 3.8% up to 8% per decade, that corresponds to the
Nowadays,
decrease in thethe energyoforiginate
number fromofphotovoltaic
heating hours sources
22-139h during are used
the heating for powerful
season (depending generators on or off-grid,
on the combination but also
of weather and
1.
are Introduction
renovation
used to scenarios considered).applications
power small-scale On the otherashand, functionembedded
for isolated intercept increased
systems,forfor7.8-12.7%
example,per decade (depending
autonomous on the
transmission
coupled scenarios).
systems. Considering Theallvalues
these suggested couldphotovoltaic
applications, be used to modify
energythe function
is an parameters
interesting sourceforofthe scenarios
energy as it considered, and
is renewable,
improve
Nowadays,the accuracy
the of
energy heat demand
originate estimations.
from photovoltaic sources are used for powerful generators
inexhaustible, pure and clean to be used in several applications meeting the cost constraints. Of course, the on or off-grid, but also
are used to power
photovoltaic small-scale
energy applications
is intermittent, as forby
governed isolated embedded
sunlight systems,
availability and for
the example, autonomous
performances of PV transmission
module are
© 2017 The
systems. Authors. Published
Considering all theseby Elsevier Ltd.photovoltaic energy is an interesting source of energy as it is renewable,
applications,
directly influenced by solar irradiance. Moreover, the efficiency of the panel is also directly related to the module
Peer-review under responsibility of the Scientific Committee of The 15th International Symposium on District Heating and
inexhaustible,
temperature andpure and clean
by several othertoparameters
be used such
in several applications
as the tilt meeting
and azimuth angles.the cost constraints. Of course, the
Cooling.
photovoltaic energy is intermittent, governed by sunlight availability and the performances of PV module are
directly influenced
Keywords: byForecast;
Heat demand; solar irradiance. Moreover, the efficiency of the panel is also directly related to the module
Climate change
temperature
1876-6102 andThe
© 2017 byAuthors.
severalPublished
other parameters such as the tilt and azimuth angles.
by Elsevier Ltd.
Peer-review under responsibility of the Euro-Mediterranean Institute for Sustainable Development (EUMISD).

1876-6102 © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.


1876-6102 under
Peer-review © 2017responsibility
The Authors.ofPublished by Elsevier Ltd.Institute for Sustainable Development (EUMISD).
the Euro-Mediterranean
Peer-review under responsibility of the Scientific Committee of The 15th International Symposium on District Heating and Cooling.
1876-6102 © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Peer-review under responsibility of the Euro-Mediterranean Institute for Sustainable Development (EUMISD).
10.1016/j.egypro.2017.07.127
946 Mohammed Amine Fares et al. / Energy Procedia 119 (2017) 945–952
2 M. A. Fares, L. Atik, G. Bachir, M. Aillerie / Energy Procedia 00 (2017) 000–000

As a result of this understanding, the PV module behavior under different conditions stills of great concern of
photovoltaic research field [1-3]. The overall system should present a good exploitation of photovoltaic cells. To do
this, a modeling and a characterization of the cells are necessary, in order to optimize the operation of photovoltaic
systems [4]. This one can considerably reduce the cost of the PV plant and increase the efficiency of the whole PV
generators [5].
The electrical current produced from a photovoltaic panel depends on the incident solar irradiation, and the
temperature of cells [6]. The manufacturers have typically tend to provide only limited operational data, Such as
open circuit voltage (VOC), short circuit current (ISC), current and maximum power voltage (IOPT, VOPT)...
These data are available only in the standard conditions such as the temperature and the irradiation respectively
(25°C, 1000 W/m²) [7].
To develop applications for basis of photovoltaic cells, it is necessary to understand and control the electrical
characteristics of this element. Several electrical models have been proposed in the literature to represent the
photovoltaic cell [8].
Previous researches have managed to conceive methods to increase PV panel performance [9]. With the modeling
of this one, we can control or change the electrical characteristics of any panel for the purpose of optimizing it.
These ones make the PV panels adaptable to against the climatic variations [10].
In this paper, we have defined a simple model with a single diode applicable to photovoltaic cells. Our objective is
to apply this simple model, which pointing out the possible adaptation with the electrical characteristics current
voltage (I-V) of the manufacturer i.e to obtain a (I-V) characteristic close as to the real case (panel).
This model must be modeled in such a way that all parameters are calculated.

Nomenclature

POPT Optimal power.


IOPT Optimal current.
VOPT Optimal voltage.
ISC Short circuit current
VOC Open circuit voltage

2. Basic parameters and model of the specific photovoltaic panel

2.1 Identification of the panel ZT180S

The used panel is Zytech (ZT180S), it is consisted of 72 cells. These ones are of monocrystalline silicon
technology. The following table shows the various parameters of the panel:

Table 1. Characteristics of the panel ZT180S mono.

Panel parameters Nomenclature Values


Optimal power [W] POPT 180
Open circuit voltage [V] VOC 44,71
Optimal voltage [V] VOPT 36,79
Short circuit current [A] ISC 5,53
Optimal current [A] IOPT 4,89
Mohammed Amine Fares et al. / Energy Procedia 119 (2017) 945–952 947
M. A. Fares, L. Atik, G. Bachir, M. Aillerie / Energy Procedia 00 (2017) 000–000 3

2.1 Modeling of the PV Panel

The photovoltaic panel is constituted by a set of PV cells mounted in series and parallel generating a nominal
maximum electrical power depending of the photo-energy conversion efficiency of the semiconductor constituting
the cells. A PV cell itself is thus considered as a generator of a photo current IPH depending on external parameters
as the working temperature or orientation of the panel. PV cells are currently represented by the one-diode model, as
shown in Fig. 1 in which are also represented the various parameters of the model [11].

Fig. 1. Equivalent electrical circuit of a photovoltaic cell.

The equation of the currents describing this model is as follows

� � ��� � �� � ��� (1)

When supposing the parallel shunt resistor is not infinite, the shunt current ISH can be calculated by the following
formula

�� ������
��� � � (2)
��� ���

Moreover, the Shockley diode equation is

������
�� � ���� ���� � � � �� (3)
����

and the expression of the current supplied by the cell I is defined by

������ ������
� � ��� � ���� ���� � � � �� � (4)
���� ���

knowing that :
ISAT: current on diode (A);
IPH: The photo-generated current;
RS: The series resistor;
RSH: The shunt resistor;
UT: The thermal potential;
A: Ideality factor;

3. Characterization of the photovoltaic panel

This phase consists to determine the descriptive parameters of the model [12] according to the equation (4). To be
948 Mohammed Amine Fares et al. / Energy Procedia 119 (2017) 945–952
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able to establish and generate the (I-V) curves of the photovoltaic model, dispose of certain data is necessary. To
evaluate the five parameters of the equation (4) of the single diode model, five independent information are
necessary. For this, the manufacturer of the photovoltaic panels provides the specific electrical quantities for
photovoltaic panels taken under well-defined conditions. Generally, these ones are a standard conditions i.e
(E=1000W/m² and T = 25°C ). These electrical data consist essentially of : VOC, ICC, IOPT, VOPT, POPT.
In order to use equation (4), we need to know the following main parameters: RS, RSH, IPH, ISAT and A. In this work,
we have used the A. Wagner method. its principle of calcul is presented as follow [13-14]:

Fig. 2. Principle of Alex. Wagner method.

To determinate RS and RSH, it must have two curves taken at different working conditions. we note that the first
short circuit current ISC1 is relative to the curve (A), and the second ISC2 is the one for curve (B).

�� � 0��. ���� (5)


�� � �� ����� � ��� (6)
�� � �� ����� � ��� (7)
�� ���
�� � (8)
���� �����

We suppose that the form factor indicated below on equation (9) is related to the relative quantities for curve (A).

�� ���� .�� ����


�� � (9)
���� .����

�� �f �� � 0.�
f� � � (10)
else 2.2. 10�� . e�� ��
I��� → I��� � f� . I��� (11)
V��� → V��� � V��� (12)
I� ��� � → I� ���� � f� . I� ���� (13)
V� ���� → V� ��� � � V� ���� (14)
�I � 0��. I��� (15)
Mohammed Amine Fares et al. / Energy Procedia 119 (2017) 945–952 949
M. A. Fares, L. Atik, G. Bachir, M. Aillerie / Energy Procedia 00 (2017) 000–000 5

V� � V� �I��� � �I� (16)


V� � V� �I��� � �I� (17)

Finally, the shunt resistor RSH can be determined by the following equation:
��
R �� � (18)
���� ���

knowing that:

I� � ����� I��� (19)

Finally, we found for RS and RSH: RS = 0,7772 Ω and RSH = 476,9 Ω. Following the calculation of these two values,
it is possible to determine the ideality factor and the saturation current equal to A=137.0686 and Io=1.9481e-6 A,
respectively.

4. Electricals characterization of the photovoltaic panel under variable climatic conditions

To obtain the curves of the PV panel electrical characteristics, we have evaluated the proposed model from a
program developed under (MATLAB Script) according to the equation (4). After calculate the unknown parameters
that are not given by the manufacturer such as (RS, RSH, A, ISAT). Therefore as presented in Ref.[15], we can easily
represent the I/V curves identical according to the equivalent model of the Zaytech 180S panel.

4.1 Case of variable irradiation at fixed temperature

In the first case, we consider a change in the irradiation conditions as for example, that induced by a linear
variation on the short-circuit current ISC as a function of the irradiation ES. The temperature is maintained constant at
25°C. This variation is shown on Fig.3a and Fig.3b shows the reaction of the PV panel due to this effect.

(a) (b)

Fig. 3. (a) Variation of the short circuit current as function of the irradiation, (b) The influence of the irradiation on the I-V characteristic

We observe that the obtained (I-V) characteristics curves are proportional to the illumination variations, i.e. low
irradiation ES lead to a decrease in the short circuit current ISC as indicated above on Fig. 3a. This evolution is made
of a linear model as observed on the same figure.
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4.2 Case of variable temperature at fixed irradiation

In this case, we proposed the simulation under temperature changes with a constant illumination at 1000 W/m².
Figure 3.b shows the (I-V) characteristics current-voltage obtained at the same condition. Figure 4.a shows the linear
behavior of the open circuit voltage VOC as function of the temperature T.

The open circuit voltage VOC is inversely proportional to the temperature. A rise in temperature produces a
decrease in the voltage as shown on Fig. 3a. We note that the temperature has a negligible influence on the Short
circuit current value ISC. Otherwise, the open-circuit voltage VOC decrease strongly enough when temperature
increases.

5. Comparison of the obtained results with the manufacturer ones

At this part, we propose that the obtained results will be examined by a comparison with the results given by
the manufacturer. The test is done on the same figure i.e, the (I/V) curve one. The C1 curve is the obtained
simulation result according to the equation (4). As well as, the C2 curve is the manufacturer one. The comparison
was performed under same standard conditions that below.

Fig. 4. Comparison between the two curves at 20% of the irradiation

We note that the curves are very identical. The incertitude is inconsiderable. To evaluate this gap, we introduce the
average mean square error RMSE.

The calculation of the average mean square error, RMSE is obtained using the following formula:

��������
���� � �∑ (20)

�������� �� ���� � ������ �ith Yp, the measured value and Yr, the obtained simulation value.

The same work was done for other irradiation values with the fixed temperature 25°C. The figures below illustrate
the obtained various results.
Mohammed Amine Fares et al. / Energy Procedia 119 (2017) 945–952 951
M. A. Fares, L. Atik, G. Bachir, M. Aillerie / Energy Procedia 00 (2017) 000–000 7

Fig. 5. Comparison between the two curves at 60% of the irradiation

The obtained RMSE in this case is: ܴ‫ ܧܵܯ‬ൌ ͲǡͲ͵ͳͳ

Fig. 6. Comparison between the two curves at 100% of the irradiation

The obtained RMSE in this case is: ܴ‫ ܧܵܯ‬ൌ ͲǡͲ͸Ͷ͵

Under these irradiation conditions test on the PV system, we note that the (I-V) curves are proportional with the
irradiation change. we also note that the obtained (I-V) curve by modelling C1 is almost identical with the
manufacturer curve, although, there is a very small gap but it is negligible. The RMSE formula was a solution to
calculate this incertitude with a precision.
Further to the simulation result under MATLAB Script according to the equation (4), the calcul of RMSE for
various values of the irradiation has given the acceptable values.

4. Conclusion

The modelling and characterization of the photovoltaic module is an essential step in the choice of a photovoltaic
technology and in the sizing of the generator. For this reason, we have analysed and presented the main
characteristics of PV panel obtained under MATLAB Script simulator, in order to describe the true behaviour of the
PV panel under variable and pertinent climatic conditions. By the obtained characteristics, we can conclude that the
variation levels of the irradiation and/or temperature induce relatively large variations in electrical characteristics
that we have quantified. To confirm the validity of the model developed in the current study, we have tested it with
various input parameters as various values of irradiation allowing us to obtain a set of pertinent and pratical curves.
We have pointed that it is always interesting to compare experimental characteristics with those provided by the
952 Mohammed Amine Fares et al. / Energy Procedia 119 (2017) 945–952
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manufacturer of the panel under the same figure but in true conditions. Finally, in the current study, both results are
almost quite identical. The RMSE formula was a solution to have a precise value of the incertitude. The results show
that the model implemented under specific software development is relatively close to the ZYTECH PV panel
characteristics.

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