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com

ScienceDirect

Available online at www.sciencedirect.com

Availableonline

Available onlineatatwww.sciencedirect.com

www.sciencedirect.com

Energy Procedia 00 (2017) 000–000

ScienceDirect

ScienceDirect www.elsevier.com/locate/procedia

ScienceDirect

Energy Procedia 00 (2017) 000–000

Energy

EnergyProcedia

Procedia119 (2017) 000–000

00 (2017) 945–952

www.elsevier.com/locate/procedia

www.elsevier.com/locate/procedia

International Conference on Technologies and Materials for Renewable Energy, Environment and

Sustainability, TMREES17, 21-24 April 2017, Beirut Lebanon

Photovoltaic

International

The panels

Conference

15th characterization

on Technologies

International

Sustainability,

and Materials and

Symposium

TMREES17, 21-24 on District

April

experimental

for Renewable

2017,Heating

testing and

Energy, Environment

and Cooling

Beirut Lebanon

Mohammed Amine Faresa,b,c*, Lotfi Atika,b,c, Ghalem Bachira, Michel Aillerieb,c

Assessing the

Photovoltaic panelsfeasibility of using the

characterization andheat demand-outdoor

experimental

University of science and technology of Oran, USTO, LDDE, Oran, Algeria.

a

testing

temperature function

Mohammed Amine Fares for

Université

a,b,c*

,aLotfi

b

long-term

de Lorraine, LMOPS-EA

Atika,b,c4423, district heata, demand

57070 Metz, France

, Ghalem

CentraleSupelec, LMOPS, 57070 Metz, France

c Bachir forecast

Michel Aillerieb,c

, P. Ferrãoa, J. ofFournier b LDDE, Oran, Algeria. c

Oran, USTO,

., B. Lacarrière , O. Le Correc

a

A. Pina

Université de Lorraine, LMOPS-EA 4423, 57070 Metz, France

b

a

c

CentraleSupelec, LMOPS, 57070 Metz, France

IN+ Center for Innovation, Technology and Policy Research - Instituto Superior Técnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisbon, Portugal

Abstract b

Veolia Recherche & Innovation, 291 Avenue Dreyfous Daniel, 78520 Limay, France

c

Département Systèmes Énergétiques et Environnement - IMT Atlantique, 4 rue Alfred Kastler, 44300 Nantes, France

In the current work, we have analyzed the modeling in MATLAB Script similator and the electrical characterization

of photovoltaic (PV) panels currently commercialized. By taking account the electrical characteristics provided by

Abstract

the supplier. Using the MATLAB Script simulator we deduce the optimal electrical quantities of the PV panel

(current,

InAbstract voltage

the current andwe

work, power)

have according

analyzed the to the variableinclimatic

modeling MATLAB conditions (irradiation

Script similator and and

the temperature). In our case,

electrical characterization

we have chosen (PV)

of photovoltaic the panel ZT180S,

panels we commercialized.

currently have deduced from Bythe analysis

taking of the

account theresults of itscharacteristics

electrical electrical characterization

provided by

that

the its optimal

supplier.

District heating electrical

Using

networks quantities

the MATLAB

are commonly are 5% simulator

Script lowerinthan

addressed thewethose deduced

deduce

literature oneby

asthe ofthe

theelectrical

optimal characteristics

electrical

most quantities

effective supplied

solutionsoffor

the PV by the

panel

decreasing the

manufacturer.

(current,

greenhouse gasFinaly,

voltageemissionsthefrom

and power) model

the has

according been

building validated

tosector.

the Thesewith

variable experemental

climatic

systems conditions

require highdata of a commercial

(irradiation

investments arePV module,

and temperature).

which returned InZYTECH

throughourthe

case,

heat

180S.

we have

sales. chosen

Due to thethe panel ZT180S,

changed we have deduced

climate conditions fromrenovation

and building the analysis of theheat

policies, results of itsinelectrical

demand characterization

the future could decrease,

that its optimal

prolonging

Keywords: electrical

the investment

Photovoltaic quantities

return

module, are

period.

modelling of PV5% lower

panel, than thoseofdeduced

characterization by theZT180S.

PV panel, RMSE, electrical characteristics supplied by the

© 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

manufacturer.

The main scopeFinaly,

Peer-review the model

of this paper

under responsibility hasEuro-Mediterranean

is to assess

of the been validatedofwith

the feasibility usingexperemental

the heat demand data

Institute for Sustainable of a commercial

– outdoor temperaturePV

Development module,

function

(EUMISD). ZYTECH

for heat demand

forecast. The district of Alvalade, located in Lisbon (Portugal), was used as a case study. The district is consisted of 665

180S.

* Corresponding

buildings author.

that vary in Tel.;

both modelling

construction period

Keywords: Photovoltaic module, of PV panel,and typology. Three

characterization weather

of PV panel, scenarios

RMSE, ZT180S.(low, medium, high) and three district

E-mail address:

renovation mohammedaminef@gmail.com

scenarios were developed (shallow, intermediate, deep). To estimate the error, obtained heat demand values were

compared with results from a dynamic heat demand model, previously developed and validated by the authors.

* Corresponding

The results showedauthor.

thatTel.;

when only weather change is considered, the margin of error could be acceptable for some applications

E-mail address:

(the error mohammedaminef@gmail.com

in annual demand was lower than 20% for all weather scenarios considered). However, after introducing renovation

1.scenarios,

Introduction

the error value increased up to 59.5% (depending on the weather and renovation scenarios combination considered).

The value of slope coefficient increased on average within the range of 3.8% up to 8% per decade, that corresponds to the

Nowadays,

decrease in thethe energyoforiginate

number fromofphotovoltaic

heating hours sources

22-139h during are used

the heating for powerful

season (depending generators on or off-grid,

on the combination but also

of weather and

1.

are Introduction

renovation

used to scenarios considered).applications

power small-scale On the otherashand, functionembedded

for isolated intercept increased

systems,forfor7.8-12.7%

example,per decade (depending

autonomous on the

transmission

coupled scenarios).

systems. Considering Theallvalues

these suggested couldphotovoltaic

applications, be used to modify

energythe function

is an parameters

interesting sourceforofthe scenarios

energy as it considered, and

is renewable,

improve

Nowadays,the accuracy

the of

energy heat demand

originate estimations.

from photovoltaic sources are used for powerful generators

inexhaustible, pure and clean to be used in several applications meeting the cost constraints. Of course, the on or off-grid, but also

are used to power

photovoltaic small-scale

energy applications

is intermittent, as forby

governed isolated embedded

sunlight systems,

availability and for

the example, autonomous

performances of PV transmission

module are

© 2017 The

systems. Authors. Published

Considering all theseby Elsevier Ltd.photovoltaic energy is an interesting source of energy as it is renewable,

applications,

directly influenced by solar irradiance. Moreover, the efficiency of the panel is also directly related to the module

Peer-review under responsibility of the Scientific Committee of The 15th International Symposium on District Heating and

inexhaustible,

temperature andpure and clean

by several othertoparameters

be used such

in several applications

as the tilt meeting

and azimuth angles.the cost constraints. Of course, the

Cooling.

photovoltaic energy is intermittent, governed by sunlight availability and the performances of PV module are

directly influenced

Keywords: byForecast;

Heat demand; solar irradiance. Moreover, the efficiency of the panel is also directly related to the module

Climate change

temperature

1876-6102 andThe

© 2017 byAuthors.

severalPublished

other parameters such as the tilt and azimuth angles.

by Elsevier Ltd.

Peer-review under responsibility of the Euro-Mediterranean Institute for Sustainable Development (EUMISD).

1876-6102 under

Peer-review © 2017responsibility

The Authors.ofPublished by Elsevier Ltd.Institute for Sustainable Development (EUMISD).

the Euro-Mediterranean

Peer-review under responsibility of the Scientific Committee of The 15th International Symposium on District Heating and Cooling.

1876-6102 © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Peer-review under responsibility of the Euro-Mediterranean Institute for Sustainable Development (EUMISD).

10.1016/j.egypro.2017.07.127

946 Mohammed Amine Fares et al. / Energy Procedia 119 (2017) 945–952

2 M. A. Fares, L. Atik, G. Bachir, M. Aillerie / Energy Procedia 00 (2017) 000–000

As a result of this understanding, the PV module behavior under different conditions stills of great concern of

photovoltaic research field [1-3]. The overall system should present a good exploitation of photovoltaic cells. To do

this, a modeling and a characterization of the cells are necessary, in order to optimize the operation of photovoltaic

systems [4]. This one can considerably reduce the cost of the PV plant and increase the efficiency of the whole PV

generators [5].

The electrical current produced from a photovoltaic panel depends on the incident solar irradiation, and the

temperature of cells [6]. The manufacturers have typically tend to provide only limited operational data, Such as

open circuit voltage (VOC), short circuit current (ISC), current and maximum power voltage (IOPT, VOPT)...

These data are available only in the standard conditions such as the temperature and the irradiation respectively

(25°C, 1000 W/m²) [7].

To develop applications for basis of photovoltaic cells, it is necessary to understand and control the electrical

characteristics of this element. Several electrical models have been proposed in the literature to represent the

photovoltaic cell [8].

Previous researches have managed to conceive methods to increase PV panel performance [9]. With the modeling

of this one, we can control or change the electrical characteristics of any panel for the purpose of optimizing it.

These ones make the PV panels adaptable to against the climatic variations [10].

In this paper, we have defined a simple model with a single diode applicable to photovoltaic cells. Our objective is

to apply this simple model, which pointing out the possible adaptation with the electrical characteristics current

voltage (I-V) of the manufacturer i.e to obtain a (I-V) characteristic close as to the real case (panel).

This model must be modeled in such a way that all parameters are calculated.

Nomenclature

IOPT Optimal current.

VOPT Optimal voltage.

ISC Short circuit current

VOC Open circuit voltage

The used panel is Zytech (ZT180S), it is consisted of 72 cells. These ones are of monocrystalline silicon

technology. The following table shows the various parameters of the panel:

Optimal power [W] POPT 180

Open circuit voltage [V] VOC 44,71

Optimal voltage [V] VOPT 36,79

Short circuit current [A] ISC 5,53

Optimal current [A] IOPT 4,89

Mohammed Amine Fares et al. / Energy Procedia 119 (2017) 945–952 947

M. A. Fares, L. Atik, G. Bachir, M. Aillerie / Energy Procedia 00 (2017) 000–000 3

The photovoltaic panel is constituted by a set of PV cells mounted in series and parallel generating a nominal

maximum electrical power depending of the photo-energy conversion efficiency of the semiconductor constituting

the cells. A PV cell itself is thus considered as a generator of a photo current IPH depending on external parameters

as the working temperature or orientation of the panel. PV cells are currently represented by the one-diode model, as

shown in Fig. 1 in which are also represented the various parameters of the model [11].

When supposing the parallel shunt resistor is not infinite, the shunt current ISH can be calculated by the following

formula

�� ������

��� � � (2)

��� ���

������

�� � ���� ���� � � � �� (3)

����

������ ������

� � ��� � ���� ���� � � � �� � (4)

���� ���

knowing that :

ISAT: current on diode (A);

IPH: The photo-generated current;

RS: The series resistor;

RSH: The shunt resistor;

UT: The thermal potential;

A: Ideality factor;

This phase consists to determine the descriptive parameters of the model [12] according to the equation (4). To be

948 Mohammed Amine Fares et al. / Energy Procedia 119 (2017) 945–952

4 M. A. Fares, L. Atik, G. Bachir, M. Aillerie / Energy Procedia 00 (2017) 000–000

able to establish and generate the (I-V) curves of the photovoltaic model, dispose of certain data is necessary. To

evaluate the five parameters of the equation (4) of the single diode model, five independent information are

necessary. For this, the manufacturer of the photovoltaic panels provides the specific electrical quantities for

photovoltaic panels taken under well-defined conditions. Generally, these ones are a standard conditions i.e

(E=1000W/m² and T = 25°C ). These electrical data consist essentially of : VOC, ICC, IOPT, VOPT, POPT.

In order to use equation (4), we need to know the following main parameters: RS, RSH, IPH, ISAT and A. In this work,

we have used the A. Wagner method. its principle of calcul is presented as follow [13-14]:

To determinate RS and RSH, it must have two curves taken at different working conditions. we note that the first

short circuit current ISC1 is relative to the curve (A), and the second ISC2 is the one for curve (B).

�� � �� ����� � ��� (6)

�� � �� ����� � ��� (7)

�� ���

�� � (8)

���� �����

We suppose that the form factor indicated below on equation (9) is related to the relative quantities for curve (A).

�� � (9)

���� .����

�� �f �� � 0.�

f� � � (10)

else 2.2. 10�� . e�� ��

I��� → I��� � f� . I��� (11)

V��� → V��� � V��� (12)

I� ��� � → I� ���� � f� . I� ���� (13)

V� ���� → V� ��� � � V� ���� (14)

�I � 0��. I��� (15)

Mohammed Amine Fares et al. / Energy Procedia 119 (2017) 945–952 949

M. A. Fares, L. Atik, G. Bachir, M. Aillerie / Energy Procedia 00 (2017) 000–000 5

V� � V� �I��� � �I� (17)

Finally, the shunt resistor RSH can be determined by the following equation:

��

R �� � (18)

���� ���

knowing that:

Finally, we found for RS and RSH: RS = 0,7772 Ω and RSH = 476,9 Ω. Following the calculation of these two values,

it is possible to determine the ideality factor and the saturation current equal to A=137.0686 and Io=1.9481e-6 A,

respectively.

To obtain the curves of the PV panel electrical characteristics, we have evaluated the proposed model from a

program developed under (MATLAB Script) according to the equation (4). After calculate the unknown parameters

that are not given by the manufacturer such as (RS, RSH, A, ISAT). Therefore as presented in Ref.[15], we can easily

represent the I/V curves identical according to the equivalent model of the Zaytech 180S panel.

In the first case, we consider a change in the irradiation conditions as for example, that induced by a linear

variation on the short-circuit current ISC as a function of the irradiation ES. The temperature is maintained constant at

25°C. This variation is shown on Fig.3a and Fig.3b shows the reaction of the PV panel due to this effect.

(a) (b)

Fig. 3. (a) Variation of the short circuit current as function of the irradiation, (b) The influence of the irradiation on the I-V characteristic

We observe that the obtained (I-V) characteristics curves are proportional to the illumination variations, i.e. low

irradiation ES lead to a decrease in the short circuit current ISC as indicated above on Fig. 3a. This evolution is made

of a linear model as observed on the same figure.

950 Mohammed Amine Fares et al. / Energy Procedia 119 (2017) 945–952

6 M. A. Fares, L. Atik, G. Bachir, M. Aillerie / Energy Procedia 00 (2017) 000–000

In this case, we proposed the simulation under temperature changes with a constant illumination at 1000 W/m².

Figure 3.b shows the (I-V) characteristics current-voltage obtained at the same condition. Figure 4.a shows the linear

behavior of the open circuit voltage VOC as function of the temperature T.

The open circuit voltage VOC is inversely proportional to the temperature. A rise in temperature produces a

decrease in the voltage as shown on Fig. 3a. We note that the temperature has a negligible influence on the Short

circuit current value ISC. Otherwise, the open-circuit voltage VOC decrease strongly enough when temperature

increases.

At this part, we propose that the obtained results will be examined by a comparison with the results given by

the manufacturer. The test is done on the same figure i.e, the (I/V) curve one. The C1 curve is the obtained

simulation result according to the equation (4). As well as, the C2 curve is the manufacturer one. The comparison

was performed under same standard conditions that below.

We note that the curves are very identical. The incertitude is inconsiderable. To evaluate this gap, we introduce the

average mean square error RMSE.

The calculation of the average mean square error, RMSE is obtained using the following formula:

��������

���� � �∑ (20)

�

�������� �� ���� � ������ �ith Yp, the measured value and Yr, the obtained simulation value.

The same work was done for other irradiation values with the fixed temperature 25°C. The figures below illustrate

the obtained various results.

Mohammed Amine Fares et al. / Energy Procedia 119 (2017) 945–952 951

M. A. Fares, L. Atik, G. Bachir, M. Aillerie / Energy Procedia 00 (2017) 000–000 7

Under these irradiation conditions test on the PV system, we note that the (I-V) curves are proportional with the

irradiation change. we also note that the obtained (I-V) curve by modelling C1 is almost identical with the

manufacturer curve, although, there is a very small gap but it is negligible. The RMSE formula was a solution to

calculate this incertitude with a precision.

Further to the simulation result under MATLAB Script according to the equation (4), the calcul of RMSE for

various values of the irradiation has given the acceptable values.

4. Conclusion

The modelling and characterization of the photovoltaic module is an essential step in the choice of a photovoltaic

technology and in the sizing of the generator. For this reason, we have analysed and presented the main

characteristics of PV panel obtained under MATLAB Script simulator, in order to describe the true behaviour of the

PV panel under variable and pertinent climatic conditions. By the obtained characteristics, we can conclude that the

variation levels of the irradiation and/or temperature induce relatively large variations in electrical characteristics

that we have quantified. To confirm the validity of the model developed in the current study, we have tested it with

various input parameters as various values of irradiation allowing us to obtain a set of pertinent and pratical curves.

We have pointed that it is always interesting to compare experimental characteristics with those provided by the

952 Mohammed Amine Fares et al. / Energy Procedia 119 (2017) 945–952

8 M. A. Fares, L. Atik, G. Bachir, M. Aillerie / Energy Procedia 00 (2017) 000–000

manufacturer of the panel under the same figure but in true conditions. Finally, in the current study, both results are

almost quite identical. The RMSE formula was a solution to have a precise value of the incertitude. The results show

that the model implemented under specific software development is relatively close to the ZYTECH PV panel

characteristics.

References

[1] I.H. Mahammed, Y. Bakelli, S. Hamid Oudjana, A. Hadj Arab, S. Berrah. “Optimal Model Selection For PV Module Modeling”. 24th

International Conference on Microelectronics (ICM), IEEE, 2012, pp. 978-1-4673-5292-5.

[2] A. Zegaoui, P. Petit, M. Aillerie, J.P. Sawicki, A.W. Belarbi, M.D. Krachai, and J.P. Charles “Photovoltaic Cell/Panel/Array

Characterizations and Modeling Considering Both Reverse and Direct Modes” Energy Procedia, 6, 2011, 695-703.

[3] M. Chegaar, A. Hamzaoui, A. Namoda, P. Petit, M. Aillerie, A. Herguth “Effect of Illumination Intensity on Solar Cells Parameters”

TERRAGREEN13- Clean Energy Solutions for Sustainable Environment, Beyrouth-Liban, 14-18 février 2013. Energy Procedia, Volume 36,

2013, Pages 722-729,

[4] V. Boscaino, G. Cipriani , V. Di Dio, R. Miceli, G. Capponi, “Experimental test of the performances of a Photovoltaic Modules Model”, in

Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition (ECCE), IEEE 2015, pp. 978-1-4799-8704-7.

[5] A. Zegaoui, A.O. Belarbi, M. Della. Krachai, P. Petit, M. Aillerie, J-P. Sawicki, J-P. Charles “Optimization of photovoltaic generators

power. An Original study case” International Conference on Power Electronics and Electrical Drives (ICPEED), 2010, Oran, Algeria.

[6] A. Tofael, T. Gonçalves, M. Tlemcani, "Single Diode Model Parameters Analysis of Photovoltaic cell", International Conference on

Renewble Energy Research and Applications, IEEE, 2016, pp. 978-1-5090-3388-1

[7] L. Atik, P. Petit, J. P. Sawicki, Z. T. Ternifi, G. Bachir, M. Della, and M. Aillerie, “Maximum power point tracking algorithm based on

sliding mode and fuzzy logic for photovoltaic sources under variable environmental conditions,” AIP Conference Proceedings 1814, 020063

(2017).

[8] A. N. First, M. S. Belhaouas, A. Cheikh, C. Larbes, “Suitable Matlab-Simulink simulator for PV system Based on a Two- Diode Model

under shading conditions” Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Systems and Control, Algiers, Algeria, IEEE, 2013, pp.

978-1-4799-0275-0.

[9] T. Z. Ternifi, L. Atik, G. Bachir, A. W. Belarbi, P. Petit, and M. Aillerie, “Quality improvement of the AC electrical energy produced by a

modular inverter dedicated to photovoltaic applications” AIP Conference Proceedings 1758, 030048 (2016).

[10] P. Petit, A. Zgaoui, J.-P. Sawicki, M. Aillerie, J.-P. Charles, “New architecture for high efficiency DC-DC converter dedicated to

photovoltaic conversion” Energy Procedia 6 (2011), pp, 688–694.

[11] L. Atik, P. Petit, J. P. Sawicki, Z. T. Ternifi, G. Bachir, and M. Aillerie, “Comparison of four MPPT techniques for PV systems,” AIP

Conference Proceedings 1758, 030047 (2016).

[12] A. Zegaoui, M. Aillerie, P. Petit, J.-P. Charles, “Universal Transistor-based hardware SIMulator for real time simulation”, Solar Energy 134

(2016), pp:193–201.

[13] A. Wagner, “Peask-Power and internal series resistance measurement under natural ambient conditions,” Proceeding Euro Sun 2000,

Copenhagen,June 2000.

[14] Gerald. Kunz, Andreas Wagner, “Internal series resistance determinated of only one iv-curve under illumination,” 19th European

Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Paris, France, June 2004.

[15] J.-P. Charles, M. Aillerie, P. Petit, F. Hannane, H. El Mossaoui, “Warning of accidental shadowing of a PV generator in operation analyzed

with the DoE method,” Solar Energy 122 (2015), pp. 455–463.

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