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Lyndsie Valdez

Darnell Domingo
Period 5
11/9/16
Egg Drop Laboratory Report
Problem/ Question
How will the mass and drop time affect the impact/ force impulse? What materials and/ or designs allowed the eggs to
survive?

Hypothesis

If the mass of an object is greater, and if the time it takes for the egg capsule to drop is shorter, then the egg will not crack
because the impact force won’t be too large, and the structure of the egg capsule will protect the egg while the weight
inside the capsule will make the capsule drop faster.

Materials
1. Stopwatch/Phone
2. Ruler
3. Large Egg
4. Triple Balance Beam
Capsule Materials
1. Priority Mail Box (8.5 inches x 11 inches x 6 inches)
2. Bubble wrap
3. Duct tape
4. Packaging Peanuts
5. Toilet paper roll
6. Newspaper
7. Planner

Procedure

Prototype

1. Tape the bottom of the box closed

2. Tape one 8.5 x 11 inch rectangle of bubble wrap to the bottom of the box
3. Tape another layer above the bottom most layer, with 3 inches in between. Tape by pulling on the sides to create
tension. This layer of bubble wrap should replicate the idea of a trampoline. Put box aside.
4. Remove cardboard lining in the toilet paper roll.
5. Wrap and tape the toilet paper roll with newspaper, leaving the center open. Be sure to make the hole big enough
to fit the egg in. If it is not big enough, stretch the hole using fingers.
6. Place egg in the toilet paper roll. If there should be space, fill that space with newspaper and make sure to tape the
openings.
7. Place the new roll containing the egg, on the second layer of bubble wrap within the box.
8. Close the top of the box and tape, ensuring that it is closed tightly.

Modified Capsule

1) Tape the bottom of the box closed.

2) Create a cushion. Create a “pillowcase” out of bubble wrap and fill with 5-6 handfuls of packaging tape to secure
all edges.
3) Table the newly made cushion to the bottom of the box.
4) Tape one 8.5 x 11 inch rectangle of bubble wrap to the bottom of the box
5) Place a weight (the planner in this case) on top of this layer.
6) Tape another layer above the bottom most layer, with 3 inches in between. Tape by pulling on the sides to create
tension. This layer of bubble wrap should replicate the idea of a trampoline. Put box aside.
7) Remove cardboard lining in the toilet paper roll.
8) Wrap and tape the toilet paper roll with newspaper, leaving the center open. Be sure to make the hole big enough
to fit the egg in. If it is not big enough, stretch the hole using fingers.
9) Place egg in the toilet paper roll. If there should be space, fill that space with newspaper and make sure to tape the
openings.
10) Get bubble wrap that is long enough to go back on itself, and is big enough to cover the bottom of the box.
11) Fill in the bubble wrap when it is on itself with packaging peanuts.
12) Tape the sides of the bubble wrap so that it is closed tightly.
13) Tape the bubble wrap containing packaging peanuts to the bottom of the box. Make sure to tape all sides.
14) Once ready to experiment, place the egg into the toilet paper and cover the top.
15) Place the toilet pet on the second layer of bubble wrap within the box.
16) Close the top of the box and tape, ensuring that it is closed tightly.

This is a picture of the egg that was put into the egg capsule.
This is a picture of how the egg will be placed, in the egg capsule,
which is in a toilet paper roll. The toilet paper roll is covered by newspaper and taped.

This is a picture of the egg capsule after all three drops. This is the
final design
This is a picture of what the inside of the egg capsule looks like, with
tape and bubble wrap.

Data

Mass of Mass of capsule Mass of egg (g) Mass of egg (kg) Mass of capsule
capsule (g) (kg) and egg (kg)

605 0.605 kg 058 kg 0.058 kg 0.668 kg

Height capsule dropped Time (s) Did the Egg Break? Observations
(m) Average time for all
trials
4m .8033 sec No ● Fell straight down
First set of stairs ● Good land

.74 sec No ● Loud impact

7m ● Flipped once after
Second level of stairs impact
● Still landed on the
intended side
10 m 1.30 sec No ● Loud impact
Third level of stairs ● Flipped a couple
times after impact
● Crack on the box
Data ​Analysis (Graphs and Calculations)

Velocity of Each Drop (Table 1A)

Mass of Height capsule Initial Final Work Final velocity
capsule and dropped from velocity Height (m/s)
egg (kg) (Initial height) (m/s) (m)
(m)
0.668 kg 4m 0 m/s 0m m • g • h = ½ • m • v2 8.85 m/s
0.668 • 9.8 • 4 = ½ • 0.668 • v2
26.1856 = 0.334 • v2
0.334
78.4 = v2
v = 8.85437745
0.668 kg 7m 0 m/s 0m m • g • h = ½ • m • v2 11.71m/s
0.668 • 9.8 • 7 = ½ • 0.668 • v2
45.8248 = 0.334 v2
0.334
137.2 = v2
v = 11.7132404
0.668 kg 10 m 0 m/s 0m m • g • h = ½ • m • v2 14 m/s
0.668 • 9.8 • 10 = ½ • 0.668 • v2
65.464 = 0.334 v2
0.334
196 = v2
v = 14
Momentum of Capsule at Different Heights (Graph 2)

Height Mass of Final Initial Work Initial Final

capsule the velocity velocity Momentum Momentum
dropped capsule (m/s) (m/s) (kg m/s) (kg m/s)
from (m) and egg
(kg)
4m 0.668 kg 8.85 m/s 0 m/s Initial 0 kg • m/s 5.91 kg • m/s
p = 0.668 • 0
p=0
Final
p = 0.668 • 8.85
p = 5.9118
7m 0.668 kg 11.71 m/s 0 m/s Initial 0 kg • m/s 7.82 kg • m/s
p = 0.668 • 0
p=0
Final
p = 0.668 • 11.71
p = 7.82228
10 m 0.668 kg 14 m/s 0 m/s Initial 0 kg • m/s 9.35 kg • m/s
p = 0.668 • 0
p=0
Final
p = 0.668 • 14
p = 9.352
Impulse and Force of Capsule at Different Heights Table 3

Height Gravitational Work for Impulse Impulse Work for Force Expected
capsule Force/Weight (kg m/s) Force (N)
dropped (N)
from (m) (F​g =
​ W = mg)

1N=1 kg m/ s2
4m 0.668 kg m/ s2 mΔv = m(p2 − p1 ) 3.95 impusle = F Δt 4.91 N
= .66 8kg(5.91 - 0 kg
3.95kg m/s=F(.8033sec)
m/s)
3.95
=3.95 m/s .8033 =F
4.9172 = F
7m 0.668 kg m/ s2 mΔv = m(p2 − p1 ) 5.22 impusle = F Δt 7.05 N
=.668kg(7.82-0 kg
m/s)
5.22kg m/s=F(.74 sec)
5.22
= .668kg(7.82 kg .74 =F
m/s)
7.05 = F
=5.22 m/s

10m 0.668 kg m/ s2 mΔv = m(p2 − p1 ) 6.26m/s impusle = F Δt 7.79 N

=.668kg(9.35-0 kg
m/s)
6.26kg m/s=F(.8033sec)
6.26
= .668kg(9.35 kg .8033 =F
m/s)
7.79 = F
=6.26m/s
Data Analysis (Write-Up)

The egg survived at the highest height, which was 10 m. The egg was not scratched or damaged at all. Errors that
may have occurred are the top of the box wasn’t taped securely. When the egg capsule was dropped at the 10 m
height, the top partially opened. An error that may have also occurred was that the capsule caught wind and was
pushed in a different direction. Instead of dropping straight down, the capsule would move to the right. Another error
could be that the time keepers stopped the watches too early, or too late. These errors could be fixed by securing the
box with more than just one piece of tape, add more weight to the bottom of the box so it will drop straight down, and
taking more than just the average times of three timekeepers.
Momentum is the amount of motion an item has. In order to solve for momentum, the mass of the capsule and the
velocity of which it traveled had to be collected. The mass and the velocity had to be multiplied to solve for momentum,
also seen in Table 2. First, the momentum of the container at 4 m off the ground was 5.91 kg • m/s. At 7 m off the ground,
the momentum of the container was at 7.82 kg • m/s. At the highest level, the momentum of the container as it hit the
ground was 9.35 kg m/s. The different amounts of momentum could be seen in Graph 2A.
Impulse is the change of momentum. To solve for impulse, the mass and the change of momentum would need to be
collected. The initial momentum would be subtracted from the final momentum to find change, then mass would be
multiplied to that. The work would be seen in Table 3, titled “Impulse and Force of Capsule at Different Heights”. When
the capsule was at 4 m above the ground, the measured impulse was 3.95 kg m/s. When it was 7 m above, the measured
impulse was 5.22 kg m/s. At the last level, the measured impulse was 6.26 kg m/s.

Conclusion

The purpose of the lab is to test how mass and time affects impact force. The purpose was demonstrated by
using an egg. What was done was a capsule was made to protect an egg when it gets dropped. The lab was completed by
placing the egg in the capsule that was built. It was then taken to a place to be dropped at heights of 4 m, 7 m, and 10 m.
At each height that was mentioned, the egg capsule containing the egg was dropped. After each drop, the capsule was
opened up to check if there were any damages to the egg. The hypothesis was: If the mass of an object is greater, and if
the time it takes for the egg capsule to drop is shorter, then the egg will not crack because the impact force won’t be too
large, and the structure of the egg capsule will protect the egg while the weight inside the capsule will make the capsule
drop faster.

The hypothesis was accepted. The egg did not crack after all the times that it was dropped. The mass of the
capsule and egg was 601 g, and the time it took for the egg to drop at each height was relatively short. Also, because of
the way that the capsule was built, the egg was able to withstand the impact force at each height. Impact time affects
whether the egg breaks or not because if the time is shorter, then that means that the egg is falling faster, and so the
impact force will be greater. However, if the time was longer, then the time it takes for the egg to fall is longer, which
will result in the impact force being less. If the impact force is less, then there is a greater chance that the egg will be
able to survive.

The container or capsule for the egg was effective. This is because it was able to protect the egg and prevent it
from cracking or getting damaged, even when it was dropped at a height of 10 m. Although the time was short, meaning
that the impact force was greater, the structure of the container was able to withstand and protect the egg. A physics
concept that was learned in the lab was Newton’s second law of motion. The impulse can be derived from the equation
of Force= mass x acceleration. Acceleration could then be broken down into Force = Δv
Δt . ​If the equation would be
rewritten again, force could be written as F Δt = mΔv .

Discussion

Adjustments that were made from the first design to the final design were that a weight was added to the bottom
of the box. That way, the box would land on the bottom instead of the side. Another adjustment was made was that bubble
wrap containing packaging peanuts was taped to the bottom of the box. This adjustment would cushion the fall, allowing
for an increased change for the egg to survive. These adjustments improved the design of the capsule. In the future, the
capsule could be modified with a smaller box. As long as the box could house the toilet paper roll, then it would good. A
small box could be used because there were a lot of space left. A smaller box would mean that there would be a little less
mass and move closer to the weight requirement. To decrease momentum, the strategy that could be used is to use really
light materials. For example, a design that was successful and looked like it had less momentum than the capsule used in
this experiment, was a capsule made out of drinking straws and balloons. This relates to materials science, because if one
would want to save fragile things, then that means the materials would need to absorb the impulse if it were to hit
anything.